Analysis

Analysis is broadcast on BBC Radio 4 on Thursdays at 2030 GMT and repeated on Sundays at 2130 GMT.

For more than 30 years, Analysis has been examining the ideas and forces which shape public policy in Britain and abroad.

The subjects the programme covers range from the principles guiding foreign policy to the influence of Darwinism on present-day ideas about human nature; from arguments about whether the better-off will be more willing to pay higher tax to the reasons behind the rise of the populist Right in Europe.

Our presenters are distinguished writers, journalists and academics; our contributors are policy-makers or leading authorities in their fields.

Episodes

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20040822
20041128

Where Have All The Liberals Gone? Felipe Fernandez-Armesto asks whether the liberal consensus has vanished forever. [Rpt of Thu 8.30pm] Weather and

2004120920041212

President Bush says he wants to work anew with formerly close old allies.

So is a new American love affair with Europe set to blossom?

Quentin Peel examines whether, in the light of the Euro and closer European defence co-operation, the United States will want to work with the Europeans or will pick its friends as it chooses.

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Going to the Blogs? The internet is becoming a key political battlefield, with thousands of people debating the issues on their own web pages. [Rpt of Thu 8.30pm] Then Weather.

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Empire Strikes Back: For more than half a century, empire has been a dirty word. Now imperial ideas seem to be in fashion. Zareer Masani investigates. [Rpt of Thu 8.30pm] Followed by Weather."

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The growth in China's economic potential has been spectacular and the West is rushing to adjust. But is it inevitable that China's growth will continue at such a rate? Diane Coyle asks whether it's just as likely that the Chinese mix of communism and capitalism will prove increasingly volatile.

The growth in China's economic potential has been spectacular, and the West is rushing to adjust.

But is it inevitable that China's growth will continue at such a rate? Diane Coyle asks whether it's just as likely that the Chinese mix of communism and capitalism will prove increasingly volatile.

20070101

The background to the stories in the news.

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David Kilcullen, an Australian anthropologist and key adviser to the Pentagon, talks to Frank Gardner about the future of the war on terror. He believes that the key to a successful campaign is knowledge rather than weaponry.

David Kilcullen, an Australian anthropologist and key adviser to the Pentagon, talks to Frank Gardner about the future of the war on terror.

He believes that the key to a successful campaign is knowledge rather than weaponry.

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Mukul Devichand meets China's eco-warrriors in Beijing and asks how the rest of the world should understand the significance of their activism.

Polluted China is increasingly seen as a threat to the planet, but many Chinese blame the West for its outsourcing of dirty industries.

They feel the developed countries should stop preaching to China about reducing carbon emissions and start helping to clear up the mess.

Mukul Devichand meets China's eco-warrriors in Beijing and asks how the rest of the world should understand the significance of their activism. Polluted China is increasingly seen as a threat to the planet, but many Chinese blame the West for its outsourcing of dirty industries. They feel the developed countries should stop preaching to China about reducing carbon emissions and start helping to clear up the mess.

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The prime minister has proposed a new 'muscular liberalism', aimed at better integrating Britain's Muslims.

It aims to counter the alienation that has led to a few young British Muslim men being prepared to mount terrorist attacks.

David Walker asks what the new policy will mean on the ground, and how easily it can be reconciled with government plans for more local diversity and faith schools.

The prime minister has proposed a new 'muscular liberalism', aimed at better integrating Britain's Muslims. It aims to counter the alienation that has led to a few young British Muslim men being prepared to mount terrorist attacks. David Walker asks what the new policy will mean on the ground, and how easily it can be reconciled with government plans for more local diversity and faith schools.

David Walker examines the prime minister's proposals for 'muscular liberalism'.

"programme Catalogue - Details: Dollars, Debt And Dependence"19900222

BBC Programme Number: 90VT1008

Producer: C. ANSTEY

Notes: CAIRS 368902

Next in series: 01 March 1990

Previous in series: 15 February 1990

See more ANALYSIS programmes (864)

Description

SBH:The effect of the U.S.A. status as the world's largest debtor nation on the postwar international economic order. References to budget deficit, relationship with Japanese and European economies, President George Bush's tax policies. Presenter: Roland Dallas.

Broadcast history

22 Feb 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

Contributors

Roland Dallas (int)

Lee Hamilton (Speaker)

Enrique Iglesias (Speaker)

Mike Moran (Speaker)

John Williamson (Speaker)

Jacob Frenkel (Speaker)

Alice Rivlin (Speaker)

Michael Boskin (Speaker)

Herbert Stein (Speaker)

Rozanne Ridgway (Speaker)

Horst Schulmann (Speaker)

William Niskanen (Speaker)

Bob Brackfeld (Speaker)

Val Mccomie (Speaker).

#metoo, Moi Non Plus2018052820180603 (R4)

Do French women really think differently about sexual harassment?

Do French women really think differently about sexual harassment - and if so, does feminism have national borders?

Catherine Deneuve was one of 100 prominent women who signed an open letter to Le Monde critiquing the #metoo movement.

"We believe that the freedom to say yes to a sexual proposition cannot exist without the freedom to pester," they wrote.

Have the French mastered a more sophisticated approach to relations between men and women, based around seduction - or is this a myth that sustains male power?

Parisian journalist Catherine Guilyardi investigates.

Producer: Estelle Doyle

Contributors:

Claude Habib - historian and author of "Galanterie francaise"

Elaine Sciolino - ex New York Times Paris bureau chief and author of "La Seduction" and "Rue des Martyrs"

Eric Fassin - professor of sociology, Paris-8 University

Sylvie Kauffman - editorial director and columnist at Le Monde

Sandra Muller - journalist and founder of #balancetonporc

Cécile Fara and Julie Marangé - feminist activists, organisers of the Street Art and Feminism tour in Paris

Fatima El Ouasdi - feminist activist and founder of Politiqu'elles

Peggy Sastre - philosopher of science and author of "Male Domination Doesn't Exist".

Do French women really think differently about sexual harassment - and if so, does feminism has national borders? Catherine Deneuve was one of 100 prominent women who signed an open letter to Le Monde critiquing the #metoo movement. "We believe that the freedom to say yes to a sexual proposition cannot exist without the freedom to pester," they wrote. Have the French mastered a more sophisticated approach to relations between men and women, based around seduction - or is this a myth that sustains male power? Parisian journalist Catherine Guilyardi investigates.

Producer: Estelle Doyle

Contributors:
Claude Habib - historian and author of "Galanterie francaise"
Elaine Sciolino - ex New York Times Paris bureau chief and author of "La Seduction" and "Rue des Martyrs"
Eric Fassin - professor of sociology, Paris-8 University
Sylvie Kauffman - editorial director and columnist at Le Monde
Sandra Muller - journalist and founder of #balancetonporc
Cécile Fara and Julie Marangé - feminist activists, organisers of the Street Art and Feminism tour in Paris
Fatima El Ouasdi - feminist activist and founder of Politiqu'elles
Peggy Sastre - philosopher of science and author of "Male Domination Doesn't Exist".

14/03/201120110320

The prime minister has proposed a new 'muscular liberalism', aimed at better integrating Britain's Muslims. It aims to counter the alienation that has led to a few young British Muslim men being prepared to mount terrorist attacks. David Walker asks what the new policy will mean on the ground, and how easily it can be reconciled with government plans for more local diversity and faith schools.

David Walker examines the prime minister's proposals for 'muscular liberalism'.

1707: Bravehearts And Bankers2007040520070408

The Act of Union between England and Scotland in 1707 provided opportunities for Scots to become key players in the nascent British Empire, which brought wealth to Scotland and power to many Scots.

Is there a link between the end of Empire and the resurgence of Scottish nationalism? Dr Richard Weight examines the relationship between patriotism and economics.

1707: Bravehearts and Bankers

The Act of Union between England and Scotland in 1707 provided opportunities for Scots to become key players in the nascent British Empire, which brought wealth to Scotland and power to many Scots. Is there a link between the end of Empire and the resurgence of Scottish nationalism? Dr Richard Weight examines the relationship between patriotism and economics.

A Dictatorship Of Relativism2010062820100704

The idea that no one has a monopoly on the truth seems to be fixed in the modern Western psyche.

But it's an idea that is under attack.

Pope Benedict claims that we are now living in "a dictatorship of relativism" - a place where nothing is certain and we are all slaves to our own desires.

Meanwhile, fundamentalist Islam is on the rise and the philosophy of objectivism has become something of a cult among City traders.

Edward Stourton examines claims that the tolerance which moral relativism is supposed to foster has in fact morphed into a new form of extremism.

Have we replaced one set of moral absolutes with another which are threatening religious freedom? Could moral relativism go out of style in secular Western societies? Or does the mere fact that its opponents have such different versions of the truth mean its long-term acceptance is guaranteed?

Producer: Helen Grady.

Edward Stourton asks if relativism has bred a new form of extremism.

But his critics say he is just confusing relativism with liberalism.

He speaks to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams, and to the former Tory minister Ann Widdecombe - hotly-tipped to become the UK's next ambassador to the Holy See.

We also hear from the Italian politician and philosopher, Marcello Pera, philosophers Simon Blackburn, Leslie Green and Stephen Wang and the Sunni Islamic scholar Ruzwan Mohammed.

Edward Stourton asks if we are living in a dictatorship of relativism.

A Dictatorship Of Relativism20100704

The idea that no one has a monopoly on the truth seems to be fixed in the modern Western psyche. But it's an idea that is under attack.

Pope Benedict claims that we are now living in "a dictatorship of relativism" - a place where nothing is certain and we are all slaves to our own desires. But his critics say he is just confusing relativism with liberalism.

Edward Stourton examines claims that the tolerance which moral relativism is supposed to foster has in fact morphed into a new form of extremism.

He speaks to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams, and to the former Tory minister Ann Widdecombe - hotly-tipped to become the UK's next ambassador to the Holy See.

We also hear from the Italian politician and philosopher, Marcello Pera, philosophers Simon Blackburn, Leslie Green and Stephen Wang and the Sunni Islamic scholar Ruzwan Mohammed.

Producer: Helen Grady.

Edward Stourton asks if we are living in a dictatorship of relativism.

A Human Politics2006031620060319

Kenan Malik asks whether humanism still has any meaning - and what politics might look like without a humanist impulse.

A Human Politics: Kenan Malik asks whether humanism still has any meaning - and what politics might look like without a humanist impulse. [Rptd Sun 9.30pm]

A Human Politics: Kenan Malik asks whether humanism still has any meaning - and what politics might look like without a humanist impulse. [Rpt of Thu 8.30pm]

A Is For Anonymous2014021720140223

The wish to be anonymous in our dealings with private companies or governments, in commenting on the news or in daily life seems to be increasing.

For some, anonymity is an ironic response to the cult of celebrity that usually preoccupies us. For others, being anonymous enables us to reject the endless celebration of the individual that characterises our times and instead to find comfort and ease in the unidentifiable mass.

Frances Stonor Saunders examines if the desire for being unknown - whether by the NHS or your search engine - is set to be the new trend of our times.

She explores with those who use the cloak of anonymity - including whistleblowers, authors and medical practitioners - the benefits which concealing your identity can confer. But she also considers the dangers of not being identifiable and how these pitfalls may affect the rest of society.

Producer Simon Coates.

A Nation Of Billy Elliots?2008041720080420

The government is promoting the arts, including a proposed five hours of culture per week in schools.

Yet recent Arts Council cuts have caused uproar, and the arts in the UK now receive more money from private donors than from the public purse.

Camilla Cavendish asks why our cultural industries are now so attractive to the government and whether the agenda is to encourage creativity or simply to entertain.

A Nation of Billy Elliots?

The government is promoting the arts, including a proposed five hours of culture per week in schools. Yet recent Arts Council cuts have caused uproar, and the arts in the UK now receive more money from private donors than from the public purse. Camilla Cavendish asks why our cultural industries are now so attractive to the government and whether the agenda is to encourage creativity or simply to entertain.

A New Black Politics?2011103120111106

The 2010 general election saw the largest influx of black and minority ethnic MPs to the Commons that Britain has ever seen.

There are currently 27 sitting on the Conservative and Labour benches - up from 14 in the last Parliament.

But are we starting to see a 'new black politics'? Some suggest that the radical left-wing politics of the 1980s is no longer relevant in twenty-first century Britain, where there is a growing black middle class, a multitude of different black communities, and where black people are represented at the highest levels.

David Goodhart meets the black politicians adopting a more socially conservative standpoint to their predecessors and also talks to their critics: those who say that some of the country's most vulnerable people have been forgotten by the establishment; that institutionalised racism still exists; and that many of today's politicians do not represent the people they are meant to serve.

Producer: Hannah Barnes.

How the ideologies of British black politics in Britain have changed since the 1980s.

Interviewees include:

David Lammy, Labour MP for Tottenham

Shaun Bailey, former Conservative parliamentary candidate

Linda Bellos OBE, leader of Lambeth Council 1986-1988

Bill Bush, chief of staff to GLC leader Ken Livingstone until 1986

Trevor Phillips OBE, Chair of the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC)

Kwasi Kwarteng, Conservative MP for Spelthorne

Stafford Scott, race equality consultant in Tottenham

David Goodhart is editor at large of Prospect magazine and was recently appointed as director of the think tank Demos.

The 2010 general election saw the largest influx of black and minority ethnic MPs to the Commons that Britain has ever seen. There are currently 27 sitting on the Conservative and Labour benches - up from 14 in the last Parliament.

A New Black Politics?20111106

The 2010 general election saw the largest influx of black and minority ethnic MPs to the Commons that Britain has ever seen. There are currently 27 sitting on the Conservative and Labour benches - up from 14 in the last Parliament.

But are we starting to see a 'new black politics'? Some suggest that the radical left-wing politics of the 1980s is no longer relevant in twenty-first century Britain, where there is a growing black middle class, a multitude of different black communities, and where black people are represented at the highest levels.

David Goodhart meets the black politicians adopting a more socially conservative standpoint to their predecessors and also talks to their critics: those who say that some of the country's most vulnerable people have been forgotten by the establishment; that institutionalised racism still exists; and that many of today's politicians do not represent the people they are meant to serve.

Interviewees include:

David Lammy, Labour MP for Tottenham

Shaun Bailey, former Conservative parliamentary candidate

Linda Bellos OBE, leader of Lambeth Council 1986-1988

Bill Bush, chief of staff to GLC leader Ken Livingstone until 1986

Trevor Phillips OBE, Chair of the Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC)

Kwasi Kwarteng, Conservative MP for Spelthorne

Stafford Scott, race equality consultant in Tottenham

David Goodhart is editor at large of Prospect magazine and was recently appointed as director of the think tank Demos.

Producer: Hannah Barnes.

How the ideologies of British black politics in Britain have changed since the 1980s.

A New Iraq?2009061520090621

As British forces complete their withdrawal from Iraq and the government declares the mission a success, Bronwen Maddox considers the prospects of lasting peace for the Iraqi people.

Have lessons been learnt that will change the way in which similar missions are tackled in the future?

A New Iraq?20090621
A Price Worth Paying?2010020120100207

Investment banks warn that if British taxpayers cease to guarantee to bail them out, they will leave the UK.

That, according to a senior Bank of England official, might be 'a price worth paying'.

Edward Stourton talks to the growing band of experts who believe that risk-taking investment banks should be forced to face the consequences of their losses and finds out why the government remains unconvinced.

The experts who say investment banks should face the consequences of their losses.

Should the taxpayer bail out so-called casino banking? Edward Stourton explores the arguments for and against the return of Glass-Steagall, a 1930s American law which split the banks into high street and investment banks.

President Obama's recent declaration of willingness to fight the banks has pushed the issue of whether taxpayers should bail out so-called casino banking to centre stage in America and across the world.

There are growing calls for a British version of an American post-Depression law called the Glass-Steagall Act.

In this new banking world there would be retail banks which would look after the needs of ordinary customers and there would be separate investment banks which could play the stock markets without putting depositors' savings at risk.

Edward speaks to Professor Niall Ferguson of Harvard University, a specialist in financial history and author of The Ascent of Money, about how banking activities in the UK used to be separate.

He talks to the former Chancellor Nigel Lawson about the events that led to the creation of 'universal' banks in the UK, banks that take ordinary people's money, lend and invest.

He admits that at the time he did not think twice about the consequences.

Lord Lawson is now one of the most prominent people calling for a British-style Glass-Steagall.

As is Liam Halligan, the chief economist at the investment fund Prosperity Capital Management, who outlines the case for a new separation of banking activities.

Another surprising person calling for Glass-Steagall to be resurrected is former Wall Street banker John S Reed.

Back in the 1980s and 90s he was one of the people calling for the original law to be repealed.

Now he's convinced that some kind of separation is crucial to protect taxpayers from future bank bail-outs.

But critics like Brandon Davies, a former head of retail risk at Barclays Retail, fear that splitting the banks would severely damage the economy.

Angela Knight, chief executive of the British Bankers' Association warns that Britain could not take this kind of action alone.

Professor John Kay, formerly of Oxford University, the London Business School and the Institute for Fiscal Studies - probably the most prominent academic economist making the Glass-Steagall case - tells the programme why he thinks there is not more political support for the idea of splitting the banks.

A Price Worth Paying?20100207
A Scottish Pound?2013012820130203

The cash question facing an independent Scotland. Chris Bowlby discovers the key role of currency in debate ahead of the Scottish referendum next year. With the SNP proposing to keep using sterling if Scotland becomes independent, what will this mean in the world of eurozone crises and financial panics? We discover the mysterious story of Scottish money - how its banknotes are guaranteed by so called giants and titans at the Bank of England. And we ask whether sterling can continue to work smoothly and keep popular confidence if the UK splits. What's the thinking behind the scenes as politicians and officials worry about a British version of the eurozone drama? With Scotland preparing to vote next year, and London wondering what could happen, Analysis reveals the key role of currency in the UK's political future.

Producer Mark Savage

Editor Innes Bowen.

A Subversive History Of School Reform2016071820160724 (R4)

Professor Alison Wolf on the surprising story of postwar school reform in England.

Change, change, change - conventional wisdom is that the classroom is the site of an endless set of reforms, a constant stream of White Papers and directives that promise 'revolution' and sudden changes in direction. Yet is the real story of school reform really one of continuity?

Professor Alison Wolf of King's College London explores the post-war history of school reform in England. Speaking to former secretaries of state, historians, and teachers, she explores the forces and events that have shaped schools. She argues that real changes have been surprisingly few and that despite a great deal of fiery rhetoric, they have generally continued across party lines. And she asks if that means that governments have perhaps been listening to what parents genuinely want?

Producer: Gemma Newby.

A Very British Battle
A Very British Battle20180212

The latest round in the fight over the future of the UK armed forces is raging in the corridors of Whitehall. As politicians and military top brass argue about money, wider questions about what we want the Army, Navy and RAF to do once again top the defence agenda.

Caroline Wyatt spent many years covering defence for the BBC and has heard warnings from retired generals about chronic under-funding many times. But with army numbers already down to a level not seen since before the Napoleonic Wars, big projects like the F-35 fighter jets in trouble, and a £2bn a year black hole in the defence budget, further salami slicing seems untenable. How then to prioritise which capabilities the UK must maintain and improve?

The UK faces an intensified threat from Russia, 'hybrid' warfare where cyber attacks and political destabilisation are used alongside military force, and advances in missile technology. Post Brexit, the UK's strategic position both globally and within the European defence space is unclear. How we want to deploy our armed forces - where, with whom, and at what cost - is once again up for debate.

Producer: Lucy Proctor.

Caroline Wyatt explores the big questions facing the UK's armed forces.

Africa's Chance2007121320071216

Many African nations may be experiencing the opportunity to lift themselves out of poverty.

Thanks to the boom in prices for raw materials, coupled with major Chinese investment, countries such as Kenya and Mozambique are now among the world's fastest-growing economies.

Richard Dowden asks whether this windfall can be channelled into a long-term path to development.

Africa's Chance

Many African nations may be experiencing the opportunity to lift themselves out of poverty. Thanks to the boom in prices for raw materials, coupled with major Chinese investment, countries such as Kenya and Mozambique are now among the world's fastest-growing economies. Richard Dowden asks whether this windfall can be channelled into a long-term path to development.

Agenda For The Next Pope20031228

As Pope John Paul becomes increasingly frail, Vatican-watchers are speculating about the identity of the next Pontiff and the challenges he will face.

In the West, the Roman Catholic Church has been weakened by falling numbers of priests, scandals and galloping secularisation.

Andrew Brown asks whether the next Pope can reassert the Church's political and moral authority, and whether Roman Catholicism can survive as a truly global faith.

Aid Or Immigration?2011100320111009

The government is committed to protecting the aid budget. Frances Cairncross asks whether a more relaxed policy on economic migration might help the developing world more.

Could a more relaxed policy on immigration help the developing world more than aid?

The government is committed to protecting the aid budget.

Frances Cairncross asks whether a more relaxed policy on economic migration might help the developing world more.

Despite a general policy of austerity and cut backs, the budget for development aid has been ring fenced by the coalition government.

Frances Cairncross asks whether a more relaxed immigration policy might be a better way for the UK to help the developing world.

The official aid budget is dwarfed by a private form of help for the developing world: remittances sent home by immigrants working in richer countries.

So should governments keen to help the developing world encourage migration and remittances as a replacement for state-funded aid? "They have the key advantage that the people who send them know the people who are supposed to be receiving them...

There's less opportunity for corruption and for waste...

and they might have lower overhead costs," argues Owen Barder of the Center for Global Development.

Frances Cairncross, rector of Exeter College, Oxford and former managing editor of The Economist, explores the limits of this free market alternative to state-funded development aid.

Contributors include:

Steve Baker

Conservative MP for Wycombe

Dilip Ratha

Migration and remittances expert from the World Bank and the University of Sussex

Owen Barder

Senior fellow of Washington DC think-tank, the Center for Global Development

Hetty Kovach

Senior policy adviser to Oxfam

Devesh Kapur

Director of the Centre for the Advanced Study of India at the University of Pennsylvania

Onyekachi Wambu

From the African Foundation for Development, or AFFORD

Alex Oprunenco

Head of international programmes with Moldovan think-tank, Expert Grup

Professor Paul Collier

Author of The Bottom Billion and director at the Oxford University Centre for the study of African Economies

Producers: Helen Grady and Daniel Tetlow.

Could a more relaxed policy on immigration help the developing world more than state aid?

Aid Or Immigration?20111009

Despite a general policy of austerity and cut backs, the budget for development aid has been ring fenced by the coalition government. Frances Cairncross asks whether a more relaxed immigration policy might be a better way for the UK to help the developing world.

The official aid budget is dwarfed by a private form of help for the developing world: remittances sent home by immigrants working in richer countries.

So should governments keen to help the developing world encourage migration and remittances as a replacement for state-funded aid? "They have the key advantage that the people who send them know the people who are supposed to be receiving them... There's less opportunity for corruption and for waste... and they might have lower overhead costs," argues Owen Barder of the Center for Global Development.

Frances Cairncross, rector of Exeter College, Oxford and former managing editor of The Economist, explores the limits of this free market alternative to state-funded development aid.

Contributors include:

Steve Baker

Conservative MP for Wycombe

Dilip Ratha

Migration and remittances expert from the World Bank and the University of Sussex

Owen Barder

Senior fellow of Washington DC think-tank, the Center for Global Development

Hetty Kovach

Senior policy adviser to Oxfam

Devesh Kapur

Director of the Centre for the Advanced Study of India at the University of Pennsylvania

Onyekachi Wambu

From the African Foundation for Development, or AFFORD

Alex Oprunenco

Head of international programmes with Moldovan think-tank, Expert Grup

Professor Paul Collier

Author of The Bottom Billion and director at the Oxford University Centre for the study of African Economies

Producers: Helen Grady and Daniel Tetlow.

Could a more relaxed policy on immigration help the developing world more than state aid?

Aid: Something To Boast About?20170529

Why is the UK such a generous global aid donor, and should it be? Jo Coburn investigates.

Why is the UK such a generous global aid donor and should it be? The coalition government legislated to ensure Britain spent 0.7% of its national income on international development and it is now one of the very few countries to meet this United Nations target for such spending. With financial pressures on public services at home remaining acute, Jo Coburn asks why most politicians still support the idea, despite public criticism and press campaigns about wasted money. In her quest, she investigates the history of the UK's support for overseas aid and examines what makes so many politicians willing to risk voters' displeasure on the issue.
Producer: Simon Coates.

Al Qaeda's Enemy Within * *2008080720080810

Could Osama bin Laden's erstwhile comrades be responsible for bringing about the collapse of Al Qaeda? As criticism of the terrorist leader from within the ranks of the Islamist movement itself grows, BBC Security Correspondent Frank Gardner talks to former allies of Osama bin Laden who are now engaged in countering the terrorist leader's agenda.

Al Qaeda's Enemy Within

All Quiet On The Western Front19890525

Analysis is broadcast on BBC Radio 4 on Thursdays at 2030 GMT and repeated on Sundays at 2130 GMT.

For more than 30 years, Analysis has been examining the ideas and forces which shape public policy in Britain and abroad.

The subjects the programme covers range from the principles guiding foreign policy to the influence of Darwinism on present-day ideas about human nature; from arguments about whether the better-off will be more willing to pay higher tax to the reasons behind the rise of the populist Right in Europe.

Our presenters are distinguished writers, journalists and academics; our contributors are policy-makers or leading authorities in their fields.

Alternative Economic Cultures2012101520121021

Prof Manuel Castells on the rise of new economic cultures since the financial crisis.

Paul Mason interviews renowned sociologist Prof Manuel Castells about the rise of alternative economic cultures since the financial crisis. Recorded in front of an audience at the London School of Economics on Monday 8th October.

The financial crisis which has unfolded since 2008 marks more than an economic downturn, according to Prof Castells. The problems which caused the crisis are so deep rooted that they have provoked a profound reassessment of our economic beliefs and institutions. They have also given rise to social movements such as Occupy and alternative economic cultures opposed to financial capitalism. These ideas are explored in "Aftermath: The Cultures of the Economic Crisis", a book edited by Prof Castells.

Manuel Castells is Professor of Sociology, and Director of the Internet Interdisciplinary Institute at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC), in Barcelona. He is also University Professor and the Wallis Annenberg Chair Professor of Communication Technology and Society at the Annenberg School of Communication, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Paul Mason is the Economics Editor of BBC 2's Newsnight programme. His books include Meltdown: The End of the Age of Greed; and Why It's Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions.

The hashtag for this event is #LSECastells.

America: The Right Way2012022720120304

Justin Webb explores what the primaries reveal about the state of the right in the US. Is the Republican party really split? Has a radical wing taken over? What does the American right offer in the post financial crisis world -that might enthuse Americans and perhaps the rest of us too. And is the party ready to lead again.

Justin Webb explores what the primaries tell us about the state of the right in the US.

Justin Webb explores what the primaries reveal about the state of the right in the US. Is the Republican party really split? We explore how the party has shifted to the right, and the reasons for it. The role of the Tea party within the conservative movement, and the effect it's having on the primary race. language. We look at what ideas the American right offers in the post financial crisis world -that might enthuse Americans and perhaps the rest of us too. And ask is the party ready to lead again.

Contributors:

Henry Olsen, Vice President, American Enterprise Institute

Professor Francis Fukuyama, Stanford University

Michael Lind, New America Foundation and Author of "Land of Promise:an Economic History of the United States"

Michael Kibbe, President Freedom Works

Thomas Frank, Author, "Pity the Billionaire"

Jay Cost, Columnist, Weekly Standard.

America: The Right Way20120304

Justin Webb explores what the primaries reveal about the state of the right in the US. Is the Republican party really split? We explore how the party has shifted to the right, and the reasons for it. The role of the Tea party within the conservative movement, and the effect it's having on the primary race. language. We look at what ideas the American right offers in the post financial crisis world -that might enthuse Americans and perhaps the rest of us too. And ask is the party ready to lead again.

Contributors:

Henry Olsen, Vice President, American Enterprise Institute

Professor Francis Fukuyama, Stanford University

Michael Lind, New America Foundation and Author of "Land of Promise:an Economic History of the United States"

Michael Kibbe, President Freedom Works

Thomas Frank, Author, "Pity the Billionaire"

Jay Cost, Columnist, Weekly Standard.

Justin Webb explores what the primaries tell us about the state of the right in the US.

Anchor Aweigh?2007031520070318

The US remains the world's pre-eminent power, but its ability to shape the international order has been much diminished by Iraq and divisions with allies.

Meanwhile, the fast-growing countries of Asia and the South shun responsibility.

Philip Stephens asks what elements of the Pax Americana should survive and what interdependence might emerge in a new political order.

Anchor Aweigh?

The US remains the world's pre-eminent power, but its ability to shape the international order has been much diminished by Iraq and divisions with allies. Meanwhile, the fast-growing countries of Asia and the South shun responsibility. Philip Stephens asks what elements of the Pax Americana should survive and what interdependence might emerge in a new political order.

Anti Social Housing2009022620090301

Richard Reeves, director of the independent think tank Demos, argues that social housing has failed everyone - those who cannot get housing, those in social housing and the taxpayers who pay for it.

The government is committed to a new wave of affordable housing, but have we learnt the lessons of the past?

Richard Reeves, director of the think tank Demos, argues that social housing has failed.

Anti Social Housing20090301
Are Environmentalists Bad For The Planet?2010012520100131

Is it time the green movement ditched some of its ideological baggage?

The BBC's 'Ethical Man' Justin Rowlatt asks if the environmental movement is bad for the planet.

He explores the philosophical roots of a way of thinking that developed decades before global warming was an issue.

He also examines some of the ideological baggage that environmentalists have brought to the climate change debate, from anti-consumerism and anti-capitalism to a suspicion about technology and a preference for natural solutions.

Could these extraneous aspects of green politics be undermining the environmental cause, and are some environmentalists being distracted from the urgent task of stopping global warming by a more radical agenda for social change?

Justin speaks to green capitalists including the Conservative MP John Gummer, who thinks that technology and reinvented markets hold the answer to tackling global warming.

He talks to Greenpeace chairman John Sauven about green attitudes to so-called techno fixes, including nuclear power, and discusses green conversion tactics such as so-called identity campaigning with Tom Crompton from the conservation charity WWF and Solitaire Townsend, co-founder of the green public relations company Futerra.

The programme also hears from the leading green thinkers Jonathon Porritt and Professor Mike Hulme, founding director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, and from the theologian and United Nations advisor on climate change and world religions Martin Palmer.

Martin sees parallels between some parts of the green movement and millenarian cults who have claimed that 'the end of the world is nigh'.

Justin also interviews Andrew Simms from the New Economics Foundation, who believes we can only tackle climate change if we are weaned off our addiction to consumption and economic growth.

The BBC's 'Ethical Man' Justin Rowlatt asks if the environmental movement is bad for the planet. He explores the philosophical roots of a way of thinking that developed decades before global warming was an issue. He also examines some of the ideological baggage that environmentalists have brought to the climate change debate, from anti-consumerism and anti-capitalism to a suspicion about technology and a preference for natural solutions. Could these extraneous aspects of green politics be undermining the environmental cause, and are some environmentalists being distracted from the urgent task of stopping global warming by a more radical agenda for social change?

Justin speaks to green capitalists including the Conservative MP John Gummer, who thinks that technology and reinvented markets hold the answer to tackling global warming. He talks to Greenpeace chairman John Sauven about green attitudes to so-called techno fixes, including nuclear power, and discusses green conversion tactics such as so-called identity campaigning with Tom Crompton from the conservation charity WWF and Solitaire Townsend, co-founder of the green public relations company Futerra.

The programme also hears from the leading green thinkers Jonathon Porritt and Professor Mike Hulme, founding director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, and from the theologian and United Nations advisor on climate change and world religions Martin Palmer. Martin sees parallels between some parts of the green movement and millenarian cults who have claimed that 'the end of the world is nigh'. Justin also interviews Andrew Simms from the New Economics Foundation, who believes we can only tackle climate change if we are weaned off our addiction to consumption and economic growth.

Are Environmentalists Bad For The Planet?20100131
Artificial Intelligence2015022320150301 (R4)

Should we beware the machines? Professor Stephen Hawking has warned the rise of Artificial Intelligence could mean the end of the human race. He's joined other renowned scientists urging computer programmers to focus not just on making machines smarter, but also ensuring they promote the good and not the bad. How seriously should we take the warnings that super-intelligent machines could turn on us? And what does AI teach us about what it means to be human? Helena Merriman examines the risks, the opportunities and how we might avoid being turned into paperclips.

Producer: Sally Abrahams.

Atom Man2017013020170205 (R4)

The journey of an American 'cold warrior' from nuclear deterrence to nuclear disarmament. Former US Secretary of Defence William J Perry has spent his entire seven-decade career on the nuclear brink. A brilliant mathematician, he became involved in the development of weapons-related technology in the aftermath of World War II. As an analyst working at the heart of the Cuban Missile Crisis, he thought each day could be "my last day on earth." He was undersecretary for defence under President Carter in the 1970s, and secretary for defence under President Clinton in the 1990s. He arranged the dismantling of thousands of nuclear weapons in former Soviet republics after the collapse of the USSR, used strategic diplomacy with nuclear nations to prevent escalation, and argued - unsuccessfully - against the NATO expansion that Russia continues to find so threatening.

Now Secretary Perry is worried. Very worried. President Trump and President Putin are both ramping up their bellicose rhetoric. Mr Perry sees an increasing risk of nuclear conflagration in South Asia and the Korean peninsula, and in the face of an on-going terrorism threat, he is concerned unsecured nuclear materials could fall into the wrong hands.

"Today, the danger of some sort of nuclear catastrophe is greater than it was during the Cold War and most people are blissfully unaware of this danger," he argues.

What can be done? In a challenging interview with Edward Stourton, Secretary Perry reflects on the nuclear nightmare, and lays out his formula for nuclear security in our changing world.

Producer: Linda Pressly

(Image: Dr William Perry gives a lecture at Stanford University about the history of nuclear weapons. Credit: Light at 11b).

Atomic Ayatollahs2006042020060423

Iran's Islamist regime is widely perceived as aiming to become a nuclear power which would dominate the Middle East.

Are Western governments right to feel threatened, and if so what can they do about it?

Zareer Masani considers how far the US and its allies, having learned from the mistakes of the Iraq intervention, have succeeded in building a strong international consensus against Iran's nuclear ambitions, bringing on side, not merely the Europeans, but Russia, China and India.

The programme asks whether the multilateral approach via the IAEA and the UN will last, whether the West can come up with strong enough economic sanctions, and if so, whether the latter would prove more damaging to Iran or to Western economies vulnerable to oil prices.

Analysis also challenges the assumption that most Iranians want to go nuclear, regardless of the political and economic price.

Zareer Mansani asks whether the nuclear bluster of Iranian hard-liners is part of an attempt to shore up their dwindling political base in an increasingly modern society, which is growing tired of clerical obscurantism and international isolation.

Atomic Ayatollahs

Iran's Islamist regime is widely perceived as aiming to become a nuclear power which would dominate the Middle East. Are Western governments right to feel threatened, and if so what can they do about it?

Analysis also challenges the assumption that most Iranians want to go nuclear, regardless of the political and economic price. Zareer Mansani asks whether the nuclear bluster of Iranian hard-liners is part of an attempt to shore up their dwindling political base in an increasingly modern society, which is growing tired of clerical obscurantism and international isolation.

Authenticity20171113

Professor Rosie Campbell asks how we can make judgements about politicians' authenticity.

These days when we talk about politicians we are more likely to discuss whether they are authentic than whether they are great orators or statesmen or women. Few of us take the time to listen to a speech or read a manifesto and when we judge politicians we more often focus on whether they seem sincere, warm or passionately committed to a cause rather than weighing up their policy programmes. We're turned off by spin and cynical about many politicians' motivations and we seek reassurance that they can really be trusted.

Professor Rosie Campbell asks how we can make judgements about a politician's authenticity. Are politicians more trustworthy if they stick to their principles without compromise? Or is authenticity about revealing our true character, warts and all? And what is better for democracy? Authentic leaders who are straight talking and stick rigidly to their ideals or leaders who are willing to negotiate behind the scenes?

Producer: Ben Carter.

Ayatollogy2009101920091025

It is Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's belief in a radical strand of Shia Islam that, according to some critics, makes him a danger to the world.

He is said to be intent on a confrontation with the West, believing that any resulting chaos will only hasten the return of Islam's prophesied saviour, the Mahdi.

Edward Stourton explores the extent to which millenarian populism motivates Iran's leader, at tensions between Ahmadinejad and Grand Ayatollah Khamenei, and at the prospects for the more traditional ayatollahs' vision of a society that is less totalitarian, more secular but nonetheless Islamic.

Ed Stourton explores Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's apparent desire for confrontation with the West

Edward Stourton asks if a battle over theology could help bring about the end of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

The demonstrations have been suppressed and the president is still in power, so has the storm that blew up in Iran after this summer's elections been stilled? Far from it, and now the opposition is coming from where you'd least expect.

Some of the country's top theologians and clergymen think that President Ahmadinejad is doing grave damage to the standing of Islam and they want him out.

The programme contains an exclusive email interview with one of Shia Islam's most senior and respected clerics, Grand Ayatollah Hoseyn Ali Montazeri, who calls on Iran's clerics to work with political activists to bring about reform and 'be in step with the people'.

Other interviewees include Professor Ali Ansari from the Institute for Iranian Studies, journalists Amir Taheri, Baqer Moin and Nazenin Moshiri, theologian Mehdi Khalaji and human rights campaigner Roya Kashefi.

Ed Stourton asks if a battle over theology could bring an end to Iran's Islamic Republic.

Ayatollogy20091025
Babies And Biscuits2010030820100314

Do party leaders need to hug babies and advertise their favourite biscuits in pursuit of the female vote? Are women more likely to vote for female MPs and do they care more than men about politicians' personalities? Alison Wolf examines gender gaps in the polling booth and asks why men and women vote differently.

Alison Wolf examines gender gaps in the polling booth.

The 2010 election campaign has started and politicians seem to be pitching harder than ever for the female vote.

Party leaders are falling over each other to webchat with women on Mumsnet: David Cameron has already made three appearances and Gordon Brown recently went on, too.

Brown's Mumsnet webchat resulted in headlines like: 'Biscuitgate: After 24 Hours of Dithering Gordon Brown finally confesses his favourite dunk'.

But does it really influence women's votes whether top politicians know about the most environmentally-friendly nappies or whether they can name their favourite biscuits? Women make up more than half of the electorate in the UK.

But just like men, they're not a homogenous group.

Women are just as affected by their class, locality, individual beliefs, age, ethnicity, jobs, social and marital status etc..

as men are when it comes to their voting behaviour.

Yet there is a difference in how women and men vote.

This difference seems to be more pronounced in the US and other European countries like Sweden.

But the UK is not immune to it, either.

So there is a gender gap which manifests itself when women or men enter the polling booth.

Professor Alison Wolf, of King's College, London, explores the reasons for this gender gap.

She asks whether there are particular women's issues that politicians need to hit in order to attract the female vote.

Are women MPs more likely to attract women voters? And is true that women respond to the touchy-feely side of politicians more than men or is that just a cliche?

Contributors:

Justine Roberts, Co-Founder and Managing Director of Mumsnet

Dr Ruth Fox, Director of the Parliament and Government Programme at the Hansard Society

Annika Strom Melin, Columnist on Dagens Nyheter, one of the largest circulation papers in Sweden and former Director of the Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies

Philippa Roberts, founder of the consultancy Pretty Little Head which helps organisations (including the Conservative Party) to connect better with women

Dr Rosie Campbell, Senior Lecturer in Politics, Birkbeck College, University of London

Dr Roger Mortimore, Head of Political Research, Ipsos- Mori

Paul Whiteley, Professor of Government at the University of Essex and Co- Director of the British Election Study

Dr Scott Blinder, Political Scientist, University of Oxford.

Babies And Biscuits20100314
Baby Boomers On Trial2010062120100627

Should the seemingly privileged generation born after the Second World War bear the brunt of cuts in government spending? Conservative Minister David Willetts, one of the Conservative Party's leading thinkers, believes that baby boomers, aged between 45-65, have led a privileged life at the expense of their children's future.

He wants them to give it back.

Michael Blastland questions whether we are in danger of focusing on the wrong target.

Written and presented by Michael Blastland

In his new book "The Pinch", the Conservative thinker and Minister of State for Universities, David Willetts, argues that the Baby Boomers are the most spoilt generation in British history.

According to him, they have squandered the inheritance their prudent parents left them and seem intent on leaving little behind for their own children.

The charge is that those now aged between 45 and 65 have fashioned the world around them to suit their own economic interests: they will enjoy comfortable pensions in retirement, having built up wealth from housing booms that they are cashing in rather than handing on, even as their children struggle, and will command disproportionate health resources in old age, taking out some 118%, apparently, of what they had put in during their lifetimes.

Their children, by contrast, struggle to climb even onto the first rung of the housing ladder; they leave university with an average debt of £22,000 around their necks, they're finding it tough to get a job and can't even think about building up a pension.

David Willetts thinks this is unfair and wants the Boomers to pay their children back.

But should they?

Michael Blastland asks whether we are in danger of focusing on the wrong target.

Producer: Ingrid Hassler

Editor: Innes Bowen.

Should the seemingly privileged Baby Boomers bear the brunt of Government spending cuts?

Bad Elections2008072420080727

Recent months have seen several allegedly flawed elections in various countries.

Are they evidence of a dangerous trend for autocratic regimes to seek legitimacy through the ballot box, or are even bad elections better than none at all? Zareer Masani considers the relationship between voting and other democratic rights and asks if we are too obsessed with elections as the key to democracy.

Bad Elections

Recent months have seen several allegedly flawed elections in various countries. Are they evidence of a dangerous trend for autocratic regimes to seek legitimacy through the ballot box, or are even bad elections better than none at all? Zareer Masani considers the relationship between voting and other democratic rights and asks if we are too obsessed with elections as the key to democracy.

Beyond Binary2016052320160529 (R4)

In communities around the globe, genderqueer, gender-variant and gender-fluid people are rejecting the categories of male and female, and attempting to re-define gender identity. Linda Pressly asks if being non-binary breaks the last identity taboo, and explores the challenges it creates for the law, society and conventional concepts about the very nature of gender.

Producer: Lucy Proctor

(Photo: Pips Bunce, the global head of Fixed Income and Derivatives IT engineering at Credit Suisse, who identifies as gender-fluid, or gender-variant).

Bill Of Frights?2005030320050306

Opponents of the European Union's constitution argue that its terms imperil Britain's hallowed and unique political traditions.

Felipe Fernández-Armesto asks if this is just a difference of perception or if there is a fundamental incompatibility between European and British conceptions of politics.

Bill of Frights?

Opponents of the European Union's constitution argue that its terms imperil Britain's hallowed and unique political traditions. Felipe Fernández-Armesto asks if this is just a difference of perception or if there is a fundamental incompatibility between European and British conceptions of politics.

Blow-back From Edinburgh? *2008120420081207

David Runciman asks if political forces are pushing Edinburgh and London onto increasingly divergent paths, with radical implications for how the next Westminster general election will be fought and British government formed.

Blue Labour2011032120110327

Labour's traditional working class supporters are abandoning the party in their droves.

But can Labour win them back without alienating the middle-class voters it needs to win the next election? David Goodhart explores the tensions between two traditions in the Labour movement - a liberal wing focused on equality and diversity and a conservative strand that is more concerned with issues of solidarity and community.

And he examines the new Blue Labour school of thought, which believes that the best way to unite the two traditions is to rethink the Big State approach that became a defining element of the post-war Labour Party's identity.

The programme includes interviews with...

Daniel Finkelstein - executive editor for The Times and former Conservative party advisor

Maurice Glasman - Labour peer and senior lecturer in political theory at London Metropolitan University

Roy Hattersley - Labour peer

Sara Hobolt - Lecturer in Comparative European Politics at Oxford University

Paul Jones - Labour councillor for Heanor West and leader of the Labour group at Amber Valley Borough Council James Purnell - former Labour minister

Marc Stears - lecturer in political theory at Oxford University and head of an Institute for Public Policy Research project on Labour's response to The Big Society

Producer: Helen Grady.

David Goodhart examines a radical plan to win back Labour's working-class supporters.

Labour's traditional working class supporters are abandoning the party in their droves. But can Labour win them back without alienating the middle-class voters it needs to win the next election? David Goodhart explores the tensions between two traditions in the Labour movement - a liberal wing focused on equality and diversity and a conservative strand that is more concerned with issues of solidarity and community. And he examines the new Blue Labour school of thought, which believes that the best way to unite the two traditions is to rethink the Big State approach that became a defining element of the post-war Labour Party's identity.

Blue Labour20110327

Labour's traditional working class supporters are abandoning the party in their droves. But can Labour win them back without alienating the middle-class voters it needs to win the next election? David Goodhart explores the tensions between two traditions in the Labour movement - a liberal wing focused on equality and diversity and a conservative strand that is more concerned with issues of solidarity and community. And he examines the new Blue Labour school of thought, which believes that the best way to unite the two traditions is to rethink the Big State approach that became a defining element of the post-war Labour Party's identity.

The programme includes interviews with...

Daniel Finkelstein - executive editor for The Times and former Conservative party advisor

Maurice Glasman - Labour peer and senior lecturer in political theory at London Metropolitan University

Roy Hattersley - Labour peer

Sara Hobolt - Lecturer in Comparative European Politics at Oxford University

Paul Jones - Labour councillor for Heanor West and leader of the Labour group at Amber Valley Borough Council James Purnell - former Labour minister

Marc Stears - lecturer in political theory at Oxford University and head of an Institute for Public Policy Research project on Labour's response to The Big Society

Producer: Helen Grady.

David Goodhart examines a radical plan to win back Labour's working-class supporters.

Breaking Promises2016100320161009 (R4)

Paul Johnson, director of the Institute of Fiscal Studies, asks if the time has come for the government to break pledges made to pensioners. He charts how the average income of senior citizens has risen and is now higher than that of the rest of the population. "We are in a position we never intended," he says. "One generation has lucked out and generations coming after are not only doing much worse, but paying for the older generation." He asks whether the government can and should sustain the "triple lock" which makes the state pension rise much faster than other benefits. And he argues that the inequality between generations is now entrenching inequality within generations.

Producer: Helen Grady

Interviewees:

Torsten Bell, the Resolution Foundation

Angus Hanton, the Intergenerational Foundation

Baroness Ros Altmann, former pensions minister

John Kay, economist

Joanne Segars, Pensions and Lifetime Savings Association

Baroness Onora O'Neill, philosopher

Frances O'Grady, Trades Union Congress

Ben Page, Ipsos MORI.

Paul Johnson asks if the government should break pledges made to pensioners.

Brexit And Northern Ireland2016101720161023 (R4)

Is the island of Ireland where Brexit will matter most? Edward Stourton visits Londonderry, right on the Irish border, to explore what's at stake as the UK leaves the EU. Some locals fear the border across Ireland - as the EU's new external border - will harden, causing great practical and economic difficulty and even threatening the Northern Ireland peace process. Others say change the will matter far less, and that peace is now guaranteed. While people in Derry ask anxious questions, we'll hear too how policy makers in London and Dublin face a particular challenge in making Brexit work.

Producer: Chris Bowlby.

Edward Stourton asks if the island of Ireland is where Brexit will matter most.

Brexit: The Irish Question2016020820160214 (R4)

If the UK leaves the EU, what happens on the island of Ireland? Its people would be living on either side of an EU border. In this edition of Analysis, Edward Stourton explores an aspect of the Brexit debate that few elsewhere in the UK may have thought about, but which raises urgent questions. Would there be a new opportunities, with a new version of the old Anglo-Irish special relationship? Or could a divisive border and economic harm revive dangerous tensions?

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Editor: Hugh Levinson.

Brexit: What Europe Wants2016111420161120 (R4)

How political forces in other countries will shape any future UK-EU deal.

As a younger man, Anand Menon spent a care-free summer Inter-railing around Europe. Some decades later, and now a professor of European politics, he's taking to the rails again - this time with a more specific purpose. While British ministers squabble over what they want for a post-Brexit UK, less attention is paid to the other 27 countries in the negotiations. Each can veto any long-term deal between Britain and the European Union. And each, critically, has its own politics to worry about. Professor Menon visits four European countries where politicians will face their electorates next year. What forces will decide their political survival? And how will those forces shape the EU's future relationship with the UK?

Producer: Simon Maybin.

British Politics: A Russian View2018070920180715 (R4)

Is political technology causing society to fragment?

Peter Pomerantsev asks why new techniques in political campaigning have succeeded and what the consequences are for society. He has a different view to most from his past career working inside the TV industry in Moscow.

The future arrived first in Russia. The defeat of communism gave rise to political technologists who flourished in the vacuum left by the Cold War, developing a supple approach to ideology that made them the new masters of politics. Something of this post-ideological spirit is visible in Britain. Centrism no longer seems viable. Globalisation is increasingly resented. Ours is an uncertain political landscape in which commentators and polls habitually fail to predict what is to come. There was a time when if you lived in a certain place, in a certain type of home, then you were likely to vote a certain way. But that is no longer the case. Instead, political strategists imagine you through your data. The campaigns that succeed are the ones that hook in as many groups as possible, using advances in political technology to send different messages to different groups.

Pomerantsev, one of the most compelling voices on modern Russia, is a senior visiting fellow at the London School of Economics and is the author of "Nothing is True and Everything is Possible: Adventures in Modern Russia".

Producer: Ant Adeane.

Peter Pomerantsev asks why new techniques in political campaigning have succeeded and what the consequences are for society. He has a different view to most from his past career working inside the TV industry in Moscow. The future arrived first in Russia. The defeat of communism gave rise to political technologists who flourished in the vacuum left by the Cold War, developing a supple approach to ideology that made them the new masters of politics. Something of this post-ideological spirit is visible in Britain. Centrism no longer seems viable. Globalisation is increasingly resented. Ours is an uncertain political landscape in which commentators and polls habitually fail to predict what is to come. There was a time when if you lived in a certain place, in a certain type of home, then you were likely to vote a certain way. But that is no longer the case. Instead, political strategists imagine you through your data. The campaigns that succeed are the ones that hook in as many groups as possible, using advances in political technology to send different messages to different groups.

Pomerantsev, one of the most compelling voices on modern Russia, is a senior visiting fellow at the London School of Economics and is the author of "Nothing is True and Everything is Possible: Adventures in Modern Russia".

Producer: Ant Adeane.

Britishness2010061420100620

As an historian raised in Northern Ireland, John Bew has both a personal and professional fascination with the origins of Britishness.

The most widely accepted historical account of how British identity was forged describes a top down exercise in nation building.

In this programme, Bew explores a competing theory which suggests that patriotism was the language of excluded minorities - those on the geographical, cultural and economic extremes of the state who wanted the rights and liberties of those at the centre.

Today, citizens are more likely to believe that rights are endowed by international treaties or globalised religion.

So can Britishness ever again be a force for social cohesion?

Dr John Bew is lecturer in War Studies and deputy director of the International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence at King's College London.

John Bew questions the received wisdom about the origins of Britishness.

Gordon Brown's government attempted to create a shared British identity based on values.

The project was dismissed as too top down by the Conservatives.

But now they too are advocating state-directed measures to inspire patriotism: Education Secretary Michael Gove has called on schools to teach traditional British history as a means of reinforcing a sense of British identity, with British Empire expert Niall Ferguson to guide them.

Historian John Bew asks whether such a strategy can really be a force for social cohesion.

Producer: Helen Grady

Editor: Innes Bowen.

Dr John Bew asks what the state can do to promote national identity.

Britishness20100620
Cameron's Swede Dreams2012061820120624

Why are Tories and the left obsessed with the 'Swedish model'? Jo Fidgen investigates.

What's so great about Sweden? The British left has long been obsessed with Sweden. Now the Conservatives are too. Little wonder: the country always tops the global charts for happiness and social cohesion; its economy is dynamic and its deficit is low.

In this week's Analysis, Jo Fidgen investigates the "Swedish model" and the British obsession with it. She finds the country is more conservative than people think, with its centre-right government's generous welfare state depending on very traditional notions of trust and social cohesion. At the root of Swedish conservativism is what the experts call a "Swedish theory of love" - in which the state is seen as the defender of the individual. Could this idea ever work for Britain? Sweden has provided a blue-print for David Cameron's Conservatives and their "Big Society" reforms, but many in Sweden argue that they are being misunderstood by Britain's Tories. Jo also looks at how, as Sweden struggles to become more multicultural, the "Swedish model" itself may in fact be unravelling.

Producer: Mukul Devichand

Can Technology Be Stopped?2018062520180701 (R4)

Is it time to disrupt the disrupters and rein in big tech?

Can the Big Four - Amazon, Google, Facebook and Apple - be reined in and forced to play by the rules society sets, rather than imposing their own standards on society? It seems like news breaks every few weeks that reveal how the technology on which we increasingly depend - smartphones, search engines, social media - is not as passive as many of us thought. Big data, fake news, extremism, Russian trolls: with little or no regulatory supervision, the big tech companies are changing the world and disrupting our lives. Yet governments seem to have little power to respond. The tech giants look too big, too international and too hard to pin down.

So is it time to disrupt the disrupters? Journalist and writer Jamie Bartlett asks how we can regulate big tech. He meets the regulators who are daring to reclaim power, and assesses the challenges involved in imposing rules on an industry which is deeply complicated, ever changing and supranational. Do governments have the resources to reassert sovereignty over something which has become so embedded in our culture? And how would society change if they did?

Producer: Gemma Newby.

Can We Learn To Live With Nuclear Power?2015092820151004 (R4)

The Fukushima disaster made many people oppose nuclear power. Michael Blastland asks what it would take to change their minds. In 2011, following a devastating tsunami, Japan's Fukushima nuclear power station went into meltdown, leaking radiation. It was the most serious nuclear accident since Chernobyl. It appeared to send the nuclear power industry into retreat - and not just in Japan. Other nations had second thoughts too. Germany decided to phase out its nuclear reactors altogether. But now Japan has resumed nuclear power generation. At the heart of the 'nuclear wobble' of 2011 is the question of risk. Attitudes to, and understanding of, risk vary surprisingly between nations and cultures. But after one of the most shocking incidents in nuclear power's history, will we be able to cope with our fears? In other words, can we learn to live with nuclear power?

Producers: Ruth Alexander and Smita Patel.

Can We Teach Robots Ethics?20171016

What happens when a machine faces a moral dilemma? David Edmonds investigates.

From driverless cars to "carebots", machines are entering the realm of right and wrong. Should an autonomous vehicle prioritise the lives of its passengers over pedestrians? Should a robot caring for an elderly woman respect her right to life ahead of her right to make her own decisions? And who gets to decide? The challenges facing artificial intelligence are not just technical, but moral - and raise hard questions about what it means to be human.

Presenter: David Edmonds
Producer: Simon Maybin.

Capitalists Against The Super Rich2012012320120129

Are the champions of capitalist system now turning against the super-rich? And if they are, what will they now do about it? In this week's Analysis, we meet leading figures of the centre right who suddenly seem to have something in common with the political left: a moral aversion to the an era of high finance that saw huge payouts to a few, and bailouts funded by the rest. Prime Minster David Cameron opened 2011 with a speech criticising a system where "a few at the top get rewards that seem to have nothing to do with the risks they take or the effort they put in." He promises change, but how can that be achieved without undermining the logic of capitalism? Edward Stourton meets influential defenders of market forces who say they can keep the best of free trade but exclude the undeserving rich.

Producer: Mukul Devichand.

Edward Stourton meets the defenders of capitalism turning against the undeserving rich.

Capitalists Against The Super Rich20120129

Edward Stourton meets the defenders of capitalism turning against the undeserving rich.

Caring In The New Old Age2015031620150322 (R4)

Is it time to rethink how we care for older people, to enable them to have fulfilling lives?

In recent years the media has highlighted terrible cases of paid carers abusing and neglecting vulnerable, older people. Is it now time for a more fundamental re-examination of how society should care for older people? Much is made of the poor status, low wages and lack of training of workers in the care system. Why are older people entrusted to them in a way which we would never allow for children? Should we tackle the view that old age is simply a period of decline that has to be managed rather than an opportunity for a fulfilling final chapter of life? Sonia Sodha examines new thinking from Japan, the US and closer to home about how care might be done differently. And she considers whether we need to change our approach to how we look after the elders in our society.

Producer: Ian Muir-Cochrane.

Changing Charity2007070520070708

Political leaders are promising a much greater role for charities in delivering public services.

But what kind of difference can they make, and will voluntary organisations change fundamentally as they move closer to the state? Alison Wolf investigates.

Changing Charity

Political leaders are promising a much greater role for charities in delivering public services. But what kind of difference can they make, and will voluntary organisations change fundamentally as they move closer to the state? Alison Wolf investigates.

Character Factories2008071020080713

Lord Baden-Powell called the scout movement he founded a 'character factory', designed to impart his own public school and military values to the masses.

Richard Reeves, commentator and part-time scout master, asks whether it is time for the chattering classes to unashamedly promote their own virtues.

Character Factories

Lord Baden-Powell called the scout movement he founded a 'character factory', designed to impart his own public school and military values to the masses. Richard Reeves, commentator and part-time scout master, asks whether it is time for the chattering classes to unashamedly promote their own virtues.

China's Battle Of Ideas2012070920120715

As China changes leadership, Mukul Devichand probes Beijing's hidden battle of ideas. Unlike the messy democracy of elections in the US or Europe, the Communist Party's "changing of the guard" this autumn is set to be a sombre, orderly and very Chinese affair. But the dramatic sacking of a top Party boss over the alleged murder of an Englishman earlier this year was about more than just a personal power struggle. These events provide a window into a deeper, more ideological battle for the future of the world's new superpower.

This week, Mukul Devichand travels to the People's Republic of China for a unique look at the social and ideological faultlines in the country. Radio 4's Analysis programme has a 40-year history of looking at the deeper ideas and trends shaping politics -- and this week's programme takes that approach on the road to a rising superpower whose policy debates are largely misunderstood in the West, despite the profound implications of China's future direction for our own.

Recent years have seen large-scale social experiments in China and the emergence of a "New Left" school of thought to rival the pro-market "New Right" in Chinese intellectual life. Mukul Devichand looks at what these scholars and officials are reading, and the ideas that shape their vision of the world. He looks at how these schools of ideas have created their own showcase provinces and cities -- Chongqing vs Guangdong -- and looks at recent events for clues about where China will go next.

Contributors:

Mark Leonard

Director, European Council on Foreign Relations

Author, What Does China Think?

John Garnaut

China correspondent, Sydney Morning Herald and Melbourne Age

Zhang Jian

Professor of Political Science, Peking University

Daniel Bell

Professor of Political Theory, Tsinghua University and Jiaotong University

Pan Wei

Director, Center for Chinese and Global Affairs. Peking University

Producer: Lucy Proctor.

Clever.com2009031220090315

Kenan explores the reality behind the stereotype of the 'Google generation', the young people who have become so hooked on the web and computer games that they are unable to think, study and concentrate.

This characterisation is motivated by genuine concerns that heavy use of the internet and computer games are actually rewiring the brains of young people.

They are learning and thinking differently to their forebears in a massive technological and social experiment.

Kenan investigates these concerns and asks Stephen Fry, among others, whether the rise of the digital generation should be a cause for celebration or concern.

The reality behind the stereotype of teenagers apparent over-reliance on the internet.

Clever.com20090315

The reality behind the stereotype of teenagers apparent over-reliance on the internet.

Climate Change: The Quick Fix?2008073120080803

Frances Cairncross investigates geo-engineering, the idea that technology can be developed to cool the world if global warming accelerates.

The theory is highly controversial and raises many questions which governments would prefer not to think about.

Contributors include US legal expert David Victor of Stanford University, Prof Brian Launder of the University of Manchester and Julian Morris of the International Policy Network.

Climate Change: The Quick Fix?

Frances Cairncross investigates geo-engineering, the idea that technology can be developed to cool the world if global warming accelerates. The theory is highly controversial and raises many questions which governments would prefer not to think about. Contributors include US legal expert David Victor of Stanford University, Prof Brian Launder of the University of Manchester and Julian Morris of the International Policy Network.

Clipping Our Wings?2007030120070304

Ever greater mobility for people and goods has been vital for global development.

But will we keep moving as before? Zareer Masani asks whether environmental angst can persuade us to stay closer to home.

Clipping our Wings?

Ever greater mobility for people and goods has been vital for global development. But will we keep moving as before? Zareer Masani asks whether environmental angst can persuade us to stay closer to home.

Conservative Muslims, Liberal Britain2014111020141116 (R4)

The recent so called Trojan Horse dispute in some Birmingham schools shone a light on how separately from the liberal British mainstream a significant conservative bloc of British Muslims wants to live. Although some Muslim parents objected, most seemed happy to go along with rigorous gender segregation, the rejection of sex education and ban on music and arts lessons.

Why is it that so many British Muslims - especially from Pakistani and Bangladeshi backgrounds - seem to be converging much more slowly, if at all, on liberal British norms? Is this a problem in a liberal society and what are the future trends likely to be?

David Goodhart, of the think tank Demos, visits Leicester in search of some answers. He listens to many different Muslim voices from a mufti who advises Muslims on how to navigate everyday life in a non-Muslim society to a liberal reformer who is dismayed at seeing more women wearing the niqab.

East is East (extract with Jane Horrocks and Ayub Khan) is playing at the Trafalgar Studios, London until 3rd January, and then on tour.

Contributors:

Mustafa Malik, Director of the Pakistan Youth and Community Centre, Leicester

Saj Khan, Leicestershire businessman

Mufti Muhammed Ibn Adam, Islamic scholar, Leicester

Riaz Ravat, Deputy Director, St Philip's Centre, Leicester

Dilwar and Rabiha Hussain, New Horizons organisation, Leicester

Gina Khan, human rights campaigner

Myriam Francois-Cerrah, journalist and PhD researcher

Jytte Klausen, affiliate professor at the Center for European Studies at Harvard University

Producer Katy Hickman.

Constitutions At Work20170703

How are constitutions created, and do they work during times of political turmoil?

Constitutions put controls on the people who run countries - but how are they created and how well do they work?

In ordinary times constitutional debate often seems an abstract business without very much relevance to the way we live our lives. But political turmoil can operate like an X-ray, lighting up the bones around which the body politic is formed.

Drawing on recent political events, Edward Stourton explores the effectiveness of the constitutions of the United Kingdom, the USA and France and asks are they doing what they were meant to do?

CONTRIBUTORS

Lord Peter Hennessy, Professor of Contemporary British History, Queen Mary University of London

Alison Young, Professor of Public Law, University of Oxford

Professor Tom Ginsburg, University of Chicago Law School

Sophie Boyron, Senior Lecturer, University of Birmingham Law School

David S Bell, Professor of French Government and Politics, University of Leeds

Presenter: Edward Stourton
Producer: Richard Fenton-Smith.

Corporate Amnesia2016032120160327 (R4)

Phil Tinline finds out what happens when institutions lose their memory and how they can best capture and share the lessons of the past.

Courting Trouble2014061620140622

When does flirting go too far? In a changing world, can we agree on what is acceptable behaviour? Sexual harassment is much in the news, new laws and codes are in place. Legal definitions are one thing, but real life situations can be a lot messier and more uncertain. Mixing expert analysis of the issues with discussion of everyday scenarios, Jo Fidgen asks: what are the new rules of relationships?

Producer: Chris Bowlby.

A clumsy pass or harassment? Jo Fidgen asks: what are the new rules of relationships.

Creative Destruction2013021120130217

In the last few weeks a number of high street names have closed for good. In Analysis Phil Tinline asks whether, amid the gloom, there is a reason to celebrate.

The economist Joseph Schumpeter first coined the phrase "creative destruction" in the 1940s. Innovation he believed causes the death of established businesses and leads to new opportunities.

So, are company failures necessary for future growth? Or is "creative destruction" a comforting delusion, not a saving grace?

Producer : Rosamund Jones.

Criminal Rehabilitation: A Sub-prime Investment?20101114

Ken Clarke has promised a "rehabilitation revolution" in which private investors will fund projects aimed at cutting the re-offending rate. If the projects succeed, the government will pay those investors a return. But if the projects fail, the investors will lose their shirts.

You can see why the idea is attractive to ministers. In a period of spending restraint - and with a huge and hugely expensive prison population - a 'payment by results' system promises to fund rehabilitation projects from future savings.

But will it work? After all, rehabilitation is hardly a new idea. And so far, it seems, most attempts have made little difference. So the question is whether a new way of paying for criminal rehabilitation might deliver better results. There's unrestrained excitement among some of those working with offenders. And deep scepticism among some criminologists.

Emma Jane Kirby investigates.

Interviewees include: the Justice Secretary, the Rt Hon Kenneth Clarke MP; criminologists Professor Sir Anthony Bottoms and Professor Carol Hedderman; Geoff Mulgan from the Young Foundation; the welfare expert Professor Dan Finn; Toby Eccles from Social Finance; and Rob Owen, chief executive of the St Giles Trust.

Producer: Richard Knight.

Emma Jane Kirby investigates Ken Clarke's promised "rehabilitation revolution".

Crying Treason2010021520100221

There have been calls for the treason laws to be used against an Islamic group protesting about British troops in Afghanistan.

Such laws are widely regarded as out of date, so can any citizen now challenge the state with impunity? Chris Bowlby asks if treason still matters in modern Britain.

Chris Bowlby asks if treason still matters in modern Britain.

Crying Treason20100221
Cultural Diplomacy2011102420111030

The British Council offices in Kabul are bombed; the BBC is accused by Iran of spying. How have our cultural institutions become mired in foreign policy?

Frances Stonor Saunders looks at the tasks undertaken by the British Council in Iran and elsewhere. It presents itself as an independent eco system of creative exchange. The Taliban views it differently - as a tool for British Government influence and a legitimate target violent attack. In Iran, the British Council was the subject of suspicion and harassment from the Islamic regime. Was it paranoia on the part of the Iranian regime to depict the British Council as a front for the government when nearly a third of its operating costs are paid for directly by the Foreign Office?

The BBC World Service's Persian TV is an exemplar of cultural diplomacy, say some. Its broadcasts are powerfully attractive to viewing audiences and it does an excellent job of transmitting Britain's democratic values. The Iranian authorities consider it an instrument of British cultural imperialism, scramble its signals and even threaten the families of the network's UK based staff. Six independent filmmakers who had their work broadcast on BBC Persian were accused of spying though the BBC disclaims any formal association with them. To what extent do the structure, funding and behaviour of BBC World Service fuel the flames of suspicion?

Both the British Council and BBC World Service strenuously deny that they are, in any way, doing the work of the British government. Each says that they are independent to core, at arm's length from government and its international policies. Yet the questions remain.

Contributors include Grayson Perry, Timothy Garton Ash and Sherard Cowper Coles.

How effective is cultural diplomacy as a weapon of soft power?

The British Council offices in Kabul are bombed; the BBC is accused by Iran of spying.

How have our cultural institutions become mired in foreign policy?

Frances Stonor Saunders looks at the tasks undertaken by the British Council in Iran and elsewhere.

It presents itself as an independent eco system of creative exchange.

The Taliban views it differently - as a tool for British Government influence and a legitimate target violent attack.

In Iran, the British Council was the subject of suspicion and harassment from the Islamic regime.

Was it paranoia on the part of the Iranian regime to depict the British Council as a front for the government when nearly a third of its operating costs are paid for directly by the Foreign Office?

The BBC World Service's Persian TV is an exemplar of cultural diplomacy, say some.

Its broadcasts are powerfully attractive to viewing audiences and it does an excellent job of transmitting Britain's democratic values.

The Iranian authorities consider it an instrument of British cultural imperialism, scramble its signals and even threaten the families of the network's UK based staff.

Six independent filmmakers who had their work broadcast on BBC Persian were accused of spying though the BBC disclaims any formal association with them.

To what extent do the structure, funding and behaviour of BBC World Service fuel the flames of suspicion?

Both the British Council and BBC World Service strenuously deny that they are, in any way, doing the work of the British government.

Each says that they are independent to core, at arm's length from government and its international policies.

Yet the questions remain.

Frances Stonor Saunders looks at the role of cultural diplomacy in spreading liberal British values around the world.

The British Council and the BBC World Service, both part-funded by the Foreign Office, are the two most important institutions of British cultural diplomacy.

The British Council organises exhibitions and events at its offices around the world with artists such as Grayson Perry.

He feels that the fact his work deals with controversial themes is part of his attraction for the cultural diplomats keen to convey the values of liberalism by saying, "Look what we put up with in our country: a cross-dressing potter who's talking about the evils of advertising."

The BBC World Service is editorially independent but is funded by the Foreign Office.

Frances Stonor Saunders explores the tension between the fact that cultural diplomacy has an official purpose yet the endeavours it seeks to promote need to maintain freedom and independence as a mark of a liberal society.

Contributors include Grayson Perry, Timothy Garton Ash and Sir Sherard Cowper Coles.

Cultural Diplomacy20111030

Frances Stonor Saunders looks at the role of cultural diplomacy in spreading liberal British values around the world.

The British Council and the BBC World Service, both part-funded by the Foreign Office, are the two most important institutions of British cultural diplomacy.

The British Council organises exhibitions and events at its offices around the world with artists such as Grayson Perry. He feels that the fact his work deals with controversial themes is part of his attraction for the cultural diplomats keen to convey the values of liberalism by saying, "Look what we put up with in our country: a cross-dressing potter who's talking about the evils of advertising."

The BBC World Service is editorially independent but is funded by the Foreign Office.

Frances Stonor Saunders explores the tension between the fact that cultural diplomacy has an official purpose yet the endeavours it seeks to promote need to maintain freedom and independence as a mark of a liberal society.

Contributors include Grayson Perry, Timothy Garton Ash and Sir Sherard Cowper Coles.

How effective is cultural diplomacy as a weapon of soft power?

Currencies And Countries2015110220151108 (R4)

Looking at the UK, reunified Germany and the European Union, the former Conservative Cabinet Minister John Redwood MP asks how successful a currency union can be without political union behind it.

After the travails of the eurozone in the wake of Irish, Portuguese, Spanish and - above all - Greek woes, John Redwood argues that the pressure is growing on the countries which use the euro to move closer politically. But not everyone in those countries agrees, as he discovers.

Meanwhile, in the UK, leading Scottish Nationalists continue to make the argument for Scotland to become independent while retaining the pound. But how sustainable is this position? And what are the lessons of the decision by the German government to bring together the old East and West using a currency union that valued both countries' currencies at the same rate despite a huge gap in the productivity between the two?

Producer: Simon Coates.

John Redwood asks how viable currency unions can be without political unions behind them.

Dead Cert2008110620081109

Michael Blastland examines the damage done by the demand for certainty in politics and asks why our leaders seem unable to say 'I don't know'.

He hears calls from former education secretary Estelle Morris that it is time for politicians to admit that the people in charge do not have all the answers.

Dead Cert

Michael Blastland examines the damage done by the demand for certainty in politics and asks why our leaders seem unable to say 'I don't know'. He hears calls from former education secretary Estelle Morris that it is time for politicians to admit that the people in charge do not have all the answers.

Death Is A Bore2018061820180624 (R4)

Can science offer us a realistic prospect of immortality and would it be desirable?

Most of us are resigned to the fact that we won't escape death in the end. But there are people who have dedicated their entire lives to conquering death. This relatively new movement of 'transhumanists' believes that science is close to finding a cure for aging and that immortality may be just around the corner. Chloe Hadjimatheou asks whether it's really possible to live forever and whether it's actually desirable.

Death To The Deficit!2009110920091115

Frances Cairncross explores the UK's options in the face of a growing deficit, and asks if the coming cuts in public service spending might afford us an opportunity rather than represent an unmitigated disaster.

Frances Cairncross explores the UK's options in the face of a growing deficit.

Death To The Deficit!20091115
Defence: No Stomach For The Fight?20101107

To take successful military action, you do not only need soldiers, aircraft or warships. The support of the society and political leadership is crucial in sustaining armed action. Yet public involvement in current debates about the future of the military has been very limited, as old ideas of 'leaving it to the professionals' prevail.

So what happens when society becomes divorced from the business of defending itself? In liberal Britain, some sections of society seem more and more alienated from military action. Using force clashes with modern concerns about human rights and risk-avoidance. New forms of media have cut through the more sanitised portrayal of war in the mainstream media, adding to public concern. And politicians, scarred by the unpopularity of recent military actions, noting the grief which every single casualty prompts, are likely to be ever more wary of future warfare.

Within the military too there is change, and friction. New technology is taking armed action further away from old ideas of heroism and codes of conduct. These days lawyers sit in army headquarters challenging military decisions. Many in the military appear frustrated by what they see a lack of popular and political understanding of their role.

In this programme Dr Kenneth Payne, military specialist at King's College London, explores how deep these tensions run, and what they mean for Britain's military future. He asks too whether Britain's experience is different from that of other countries, such as the US. Contributors include distinguished military historian and commentator Hew Strachan, and former soldier and senior politician Lord Ashdown.

Producer: Chris Bowlby.

With future defence under scrutiny Kenneth Payne asks: are we losing the will to wage war?

Deirdre Mccloskey2014052620140601

Evan Davis interviews economic historian Deirdre McCloskey in front of an audience at the London School of Economics, where she argues that poverty matters more than inequality. She describes how at the beginning of the 19th century most people who had ever lived had survived on $3 a day. Today, on average, people in Western Europe and North America live on over $100 a day. Although Professor McCloskey is an economic historian, she says we can't explain this 'Great Enrichment' using economics alone. She also argues that capitalism is an inherently ethical system, and that it would be a mistake to prioritise equality over innovation. Prof McCloskey talks about the role of ideas and attitudes in creating modern prosperity and discusses what her study of history tells us about where our priorities should lie today.

Producer: Luke Mulhall.

Detoxifying France's National Front2017032020170326 (R4)

Has Front National leader Marine Le Pen really detoxified the party founded by her father 40 years ago? Is it a right-wing protest movement or a party seriously preparing for power? Anand Menon, professor of European politics at Kings College London, analyses the process the French call Dédiabolisation. Le Pen has banished the name of the party and even her own surname from election posters and leaflets. Her party is making inroads into socialist and communist fiefdoms in northern and eastern France. Combining nationalism with a message designed to reach out to the left, she speaks up loudly for the have-nots, people who live in the land she calls "the forgotten France." She targets trade unionists, teachers and gay voters. But widening the party's appeal leads to a tricky balancing act. Can Marine Le Pen manage the process of political exorcism without alienating die-hard supporters?

Producer: Lucy Ash.

Development On The Front Line2003112720031130

Is the 'War on Terror' boosting development policy or undermining it? Kirsty Hughes investigates.

Disconnected Britain2018061120180617 (R4)

Will new infrastructure spending help all of Britain prosper, or widen its divides?

New infrastructure such as major transport projects promises huge benefits. London and the South East are currently looking forward to Crossrail, the start of HS2 and much more besides. But how does all this look from further north? Chris Bowlby heads for his home territory in the north east of England to discover a region full of new ideas about future connections, but worried that current national plans risk leaving it lagging behind. And what, he asks, might this mean for the whole country's future?

Producer: Chris Bowlby
Editor: Hugh Levinson.

Divorcing Europe2009111620091122

What would happen in reality if Britain opted to leave the European Union? This is a scenario little talked about in mainstream politics but highly relevant to popular debate.

And, as Chris Bowlby discovers, it poses challenging questions for both pro and anti-Europeans.

What would happen in reality if Britain opted to leave the European Union?

What would happen if Britain chose to leave the European Union? The new Lisbon Treaty contains a clause whch sets out the exit process for the first time.

But, as Chris Bowlby reports, the final deal between Britain and its former EU partners would depend a lot on the mood of their 'divorce' - amicable or acrimonious.

What would happen if Britain chose to leave the European Union? Chris Bowlby reports.

Divorcing Europe20091122
Do Assassinations Work?20181029

Poison, exploding cigars and shooting down planes: tales of espionage and statesmanship.

Programme examining the ideas and forces which shape public policy in Britain and abroad

Do Assassinations Work?2018102920181104 (R4)

Poison, exploding cigars and shooting down planes: tales of espionage and statesmanship.

Programme examining the ideas and forces which shape public policy in Britain and abroad

Do Leaders Make A Difference?2011110720111113

We talk much of personal leadership being the key to change in, say, politics or business. But how much can such figures really influence events? Do we overattribute power to individuals such as a prime minister or a media mogul? Have we lost sight of the overall importance of collective action and attitudes, or the trends and events that no individual can resist? Michael Blastland investigates.

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Editor: Innes Bowen.

Michael Blastland explores how far individuals really change what happens in the world.

We talk much of personal leadership being the key to change in, say, politics or business.

But how much can such figures really influence events? Do we overattribute power to individuals such as a prime minister or a media mogul? Have we lost sight of the overall importance of collective action and attitudes, or the trends and events that no individual can resist? Michael Blastland investigates.

Contributors:

Nick Chater

Professor of Behavioural Science at Warwick Business School

Professor Pat Thane

Historian at King's College London

Chris Dillow

Writer on economics and psychology

Angela Knight

Chief Executive of the British Bankers' Association

Tristram Hunt

Historian and Labour MP

Jerker Denrell

Professor of strategy and decision making at Oxford University's Saïd Business School

Lord Baker

Former Conservative Home Secretary

Andrew Roberts

Historical and biographical writer.

Do Leaders Make A Difference?20111113

We talk much of personal leadership being the key to change in, say, politics or business. But how much can such figures really influence events? Do we overattribute power to individuals such as a prime minister or a media mogul? Have we lost sight of the overall importance of collective action and attitudes, or the trends and events that no individual can resist? Michael Blastland investigates.

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Editor: Innes Bowen

Contributors:

Nick Chater

Professor of Behavioural Science at Warwick Business School

Professor Pat Thane

Historian at King's College London

Chris Dillow

Writer on economics and psychology

Angela Knight

Chief Executive of the British Bankers' Association

Tristram Hunt

Historian and Labour MP

Jerker Denrell

Professor of strategy and decision making at Oxford University's Saïd Business School

Lord Baker

Former Conservative Home Secretary

Andrew Roberts

Historical and biographical writer.

Michael Blastland explores how far individuals really change what happens in the world.

Do Public Inquiries Work? *2008103020081102

Ann Alexander, a lawyer who represented some of the families of relatives killed by Dr Harold Shipman, examines the public inquiries system.

She talks to the insiders who have run and worked in major public inquiries and asks if the system now needs reform so that recommendations for the future are fully implemented.

Do Public Inquiries Work?

Ann Alexander, a lawyer who represented some of the families of relatives killed by Dr Harold Shipman, examines the public inquiries system. She talks to the insiders who have run and worked in major public inquiries and asks if the system now needs reform so that recommendations for the future are fully implemented.

Do Schools Make A Difference?2012013020120205

The government's brought in new style league tables to help parents choose schools. But do we really know what makes a good school? And how far can schools really transform lives? Researchers have long believed in a so-called 'school effect' that counters, at least in part, factors such as social and family background. But how easy is it to measure this kind of effect, and can parents really be given a clear guide as to which school is best for their child? Or has too much emphasis on factors such as social background made schools complacent about what they can achieve?

Fran Abrams talks to head teachers, educational experts, the schools minister and the new head of Ofsted as she investigates what difference schools can really make.

Are good schools anything more than schools with a good intake? Fran Abrams investigates.

Do Schools Make A Difference?20120205

Are good schools anything more than schools with a good intake? Fran Abrams investigates.

Doesn't Everyone?20090622

Michael Blastland asks if 'group-think' is distancing policy from the public and asks if our political elite have forgotten how most voters live.

People measure their behaviour and beliefs by those around them, so MPs might have thought that the expenses system was reasonable.

Might it also mean they have lost touch with what Britain is really like?

Doesn't Everyone?20090705
Doesn't Everyone? *20090705

Michael Blastland asks if 'group-think' is distancing policy from the public and asks if our political elite have forgotten how most voters live.

People measure their behaviour and beliefs by those around them, so MPs might have thought that the expenses system was reasonable.

Might it also mean they have lost touch with what Britain is really like?

Michael Blastland asks if 'group-think' is distancing policy from the public.

Doing Our Duty2008030620080309

Both major parties have promised to create legal responsibilities to balance our rights, but what should our responsibilities be? Is it the state's business to tell us about our duties and enforce them by law? David Walker investigates.

Doing Our Duty

Dollars, Debt And Dependence19900222

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 01 March 1990

Previous in series: 15 February 1990

Description

SBH:The effect of the U.S.A.

status as the world's largest debtor nation on the postwar international economic order.

References to budget deficit, relationship with Japanese and European economies, President George Bush's tax policies.

Presenter: Roland Dallas.

Broadcast history

22 Feb 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

Contributors

Roland Dallas (int)

Lee Hamilton (Speaker)

Enrique Iglesias (Speaker)

Mike Moran (Speaker)

John Williamson (Speaker)

Jacob Frenkel (Speaker)

Alice Rivlin (Speaker)

Michael Boskin (Speaker)

Herbert Stein (Speaker)

Rozanne Ridgway (Speaker)

Horst Schulmann (Speaker)

William Niskanen (Speaker)

Bob Brackfeld (Speaker)

Val Mccomie (Speaker)

Notes: CAIRS 368902.

Doomed By Democracy?2010052420100530

Governments might legitimately exercise emergency powers in wartime so, argues Prof James Lovelock, they should have similar powers to deal with the threat of global warming - even if that means abandoning democracy.

The BBC's Ethical Man" Justin Rowlatt looks at whether Prof Lovelock is right to be so pessimistic about democratic societies' ability to act in the interests of future generations."

Doomed By Democracy?20100530
Downward Social Mobility2015021620150222 (R4)

Social mobility is a good thing - right? Politicians worry that not enough people from less-privileged backgrounds get the opportunity to move up in life. But are we prepared to accept that others lose out - and move in the opposite direction? Jo Fidgen explores the implications of downward social mobility.

Producer: Charlotte McDonald.

Economistocracy2010060720100613

Reducing the budget deficit is seen as the key challenge facing the new government.

But alongside the politicians there will be a new body charged with advising on the process.

An independent Office for Budget Responsibility is being created, to make its own forecasts of growth and borrowing ready for the emergency budget expected in June.

This new institution may sound obscure, but it could have big implications.

It aims to bring key information on which government economic policy is based much more into the open, and free it from political spin.

The man who will head it, Sir Alan Budd, has said he wants to use his influence to keep the Chancellor's feet to the fire" in ensuring that the deficit is tackled.

The aim is also to make budgets take more account of long term priorities, and future generations, rather than focus only on short term political demands.

So will the deficit crisis mean politicians lose some of their historic power over spending and taxing? Is there public demand for watchdogs like this to "keep the politicians honest" - or is it a threat to democracy? And how does the British plan compare with other countries' attempts to police government spending?

The programme is presented by Frances Cairncross, and interviewees include Rachel Lomax, former top civil servant and Deputy Governor of the Bank of England.

Frances Cairncross asks if economic management is too important to be left to politicians."

Economistocracy20100613
Economy On The Edge2009060820090614

In 2008 one of the world's most respected economic observers, Martin Wolf, the chief economic commentator of the Financial Times, forecast that the global downturn could be even worse than most experts realised.

A year on, he returns to examine the current state of the global financial markets and talks to a range of financial experts to analyse what the future may hold.

Economy On The Edge20090614
Educating Cinderella2009100520091011

With youth unemployment in Britain at its highest level for decades, new evidence shows that only a tiny proportion of school leavers who go on to basic vocational courses find jobs at the end of them.

Fran Abrams asks whether further education in this country has got the balance right between a choice-led system and a more paternalistic one.

Should we be encouraging young people to follow their dreams or giving them vocational training more closely tied to the job market?

Fran Abrams explores the balance between choice and paternalism in further education.

Educating Cinderella20091011
Edward Snowden: Leaker, Saviour, Traitor, Spy?2013100720131013

Last June, Edward Snowden, a man still in his twenties with, as he put it, "a home in paradise", went on the run. He took with him vast amounts of secret information belonging to the US government's security services.

Snowden holds libertarian - or anti-statist - views. He believes the American government's pervasive surveillance activities which he revealed break the law but are also morally wrong.

In Britain, "The Guardian" newspaper published the classified information Snowden had obtained. This seemed odd. Editorially, it was not sympathetic to Snowden's anti-state nostrums. But, on privacy grounds, it agreed with him that it was inherently wrong for democratic governments to spy on their citizens online. Furthermore, it argued that governments should not decide for themselves when and how they would do their surveillance.

It is this political alliance between the libertarian right and the liberal left - which are normally opposed to one another - which David Aaronovitch investigates in this programme.

He explores, in a detailed interview with the editor of "The Guardian", Alan Rusbridger, why the newspaper published the secret information. Are states threatening citizens' privacy in the cyber age? Or is it in fact governments which are more vulnerable than ever before to the unauthorised disclosure of their secrets?

What secrets is the state itself entitled to keep from its citizens and from potential enemies? And who decides that question?the security services, Parliament or the government? Or the press and the whistle-blowers? Alan Rusbridger claims his newspaper can properly adjudicate what should and should not be published about state secrets. But how does he justify that apparently self-serving argument?

Are state secrets doomed by an emerging alliance of the anti-state right and liberal left?

Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood: Why Did They Fail?2013093020131006

Barely a year after Egypt's post-revolution elections were held, millions of protestors took to the streets to demand the resignation of President Mohammed Morsi. After a short stand-off with army leaders, he was removed from power in what many describe as a coup d'etat.

The subsequent clashes between Mr Morsi's Muslim Brotherhood supporters and security forces have proved violent and bloody and the country is once again being governed by the military - but what were the events which closed this short chapter in the fledgling Egyptian democracy?

Christopher de Bellaigue speaks to insiders from across Egypt's political spectrum to reveal the mistakes and power-plays which led to the downfall of the country's first democratically elected president.

Contributors:

Dr Abdul Mawgoud Dardery, former Freedom and Justice Party MP for Luxor.

Dr Hisham Hellyer, associate fellow at the Royal United Services Institute (London) and the Brookings Institution (Washington).

Dr Omar Ashour, senior lecturer in Middle East Politics and Security Studies, University of Exeter.

Angy Ghannam, Head of BBC Monitoring, Cairo.

Dr Wael Haddara, former communications adviser to President Mohammed Morsi.

Dr Abdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh, founder of the Strong Egypt party.

Producer: Richard Fenton-Smith

Editor: Innes Bowen

Egypt's New Islamists2011061320110619

Edward Stourton asks if the Egyptian revolution spells the end of old-style Islamism.

As groups like the Muslim Brotherhood embrace democracy, how will they - and Egypt - change?

The overthrow of Hosni Mubarak has been described as the Middle East's first "post-Islamic" revolution: there were no religious slogans or chanting in Tahrir Square and the protestors we saw on television were largely young, seemingly secular liberals.

But Islam is likely to play a major role in the development of post-revolution Egypt, with the Muslim Brotherhood the biggest and best organised political force in the country.

Edward Stourton asks what kind of society Egypt's Islamists want to create and explores how they are changing as they form political parties and prepare to contest their first fully democratic elections.

Edward Stourton asks if the Egyptian revolution spells the end of old-style Islamism. As groups like the Muslim Brotherhood embrace democracy, how will they - and Egypt - change?

The overthrow of Hosni Mubarak has been described as the Middle East's first "post-Islamic" revolution: there were no religious slogans or chanting in Tahrir Square and the protestors we saw on television were largely young, seemingly secular liberals. But Islam is likely to play a major role in the development of post-revolution Egypt, with the Muslim Brotherhood the biggest and best organised political force in the country.

Egypt's New Islamists20110619

Edward Stourton asks if the Egyptian revolution spells the end of old-style Islamism. As groups like the Muslim Brotherhood embrace democracy, how will they - and Egypt - change?

The overthrow of Hosni Mubarak has been described as the Middle East's first "post-Islamic" revolution: there were no religious slogans or chanting in Tahrir Square and the protestors we saw on television were largely young, seemingly secular liberals. But Islam is likely to play a major role in the development of post-revolution Egypt, with the Muslim Brotherhood the biggest and best organised political force in the country.

Edward Stourton asks what kind of society Egypt's Islamists want to create and explores how they are changing as they form political parties and prepare to contest their first fully democratic elections.

Edward Stourton asks if the Egyptian revolution spells the end of old-style Islamism.

Eldar Shafir: Scarcity2014031720140323

An interview with psychologist Eldar Shafir about the concept of scarcity.

(Image credit: Jerry Nelson)

Jo Fidgen interviews Eldar Shafir, professor of psychology and public affairs at Princeton University, and co-author of Scarcity: Why Having Too Little Means So Much in front of an audience at the Blavatnik School of Government at Oxford University. Jo will explore the book's key idea: that not having enough money or time, shapes all of our reactions, and ultimately our lives and society.

Producer: Ruth Alexander.

Empire Strikes Back2005040720050410

For more than half a century, empire has been a dirty word, associated with exploitation, racism and war.

But now amid a welter of failed nation-states, imperial ideas seem to be back in fashion unofficially at least - in the USA, RUSSIA and CHINA.

Zareer Masani asks whether its possible to free empire from its unequal past and reinvent it as a benevolent, pluralistic and cosmopolitan form of government.

Empire Strikes Back

For more than half a century, empire has been a dirty word, associated with exploitation, racism and war. But now amid a welter of failed nation-states, imperial ideas seem to be back in fashion unofficially at least - in the USA, Russia and China.

Then News.

Empire Strikes Back: For more than half a century, empire has been a dirty word. Now imperial ideas seem to be in fashion. Zareer Masani investigates. [Rpt of Thu 8.30pm]

Euro Defence Cuts1990020819900209

First broadcast on 1990-02-08

Producer: C.

ANSTEY

Next in series: 15 February 1990

Previous in series: MORALS MADE TO MEASURE

Broadcast history

08 Feb 1990 20:00-20:45 (RADIO 4)

09 Feb 1990 11:02-11:47 (RADIO 4).

Eurogeddon Ii2012062520120701

Where is the eurozone heading? Disintegration or super-state? Chris Bowlby investigates.

As the crisis in the Eurozone continues, Chris Bowlby examines what might eventually emerge and what that could mean for us.

When Analysis looked at the possibility of a Greek exit from the Euro back in February, the topic was regarded as "thinking the unthinkable". Not so now.

In this programme Chris Bowlby looks forward and asks if the Eurozone is headed for disintegration or, conversely, even closer political and economic union. What do either of those scenarios mean in practice and can the Eurozone survive? What are the implications for borders, cash movements and who controls the levers of power?

Interviewees include: Lord Peter Mandelson, David Marsh, Ulrike Guerot, Dani Rodrik, Paul Donovan, Brian Lucey and Aristotle Kallis.

Producer: John Murphy.

Europe Unbound20171030

How will the European Union change after Britain leaves?

Edward Stourton asks how the European Union might change after Britain leaves. "The wind is back in Europe's sails", according to European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker. In September, in his annual address to the European Parliament, he set out a bold dream for the future. Soon afterwards it was echoed by another, this time from French President Emmanuel Macron who declared that "the only path that assures our future is the rebuilding of a Europe that is sovereign, united and democratic". Amongst the proposals that the two leaders put forward were a European budget run by a European finance minister, an enlargement of the Schengen passport-free travel zone, and much closer collaboration on tax, defence, and a host of other issues.

But at present, the European project faces huge challenges. Britain is about to leave the EU, whilst Catalonia's bid for independence is causing turmoil in Spain. In the face of such developments, how realistic are the grand visions that Europe's leaders have for the future of the continent?

Producer: Neil Koenig.

Europe's Slow Lane2003111320031116

The Eurozone is now the slowest growing of the major advanced economies and its largest member states are in trouble: Italy and Germany are in recession, and the French economy is almost at stagnation point.

Some Germans are even asking themselves if they need their own Margaret Thatcher.

Frances Cairncross investigates the causes of Europe's poor economic health and asks whether the Euro is part of the problem or part of the solution.

Europe's Tarnished Golden Door2006033020060402

Migration is often claimed to be essential to the EU's prosperity as populations age and global competition intensifies.

But can economic migrants be absorbed across Europe without causing a backlash in either their richer new homes or their poorer old ones? Quentin Peel asks how economic migration can be managed so that some countries don't get all the benefits and others all the pain.

Europe's Tarnished Golden Door

Migration is often claimed to be essential to the EU's prosperity as populations age and global competition intensifies. But can economic migrants be absorbed across Europe without causing a backlash in either their richer new homes or their poorer old ones? Quentin Peel asks how economic migration can be managed so that some countries don't get all the benefits and others all the pain.

Euroscepticism Uncovered2011101720111023

As opinion polls reveal that half the British population would vote in favour of withdrawal from the European Union, it seems the political class is catching up with public opinion when it comes to the EU.

While perhaps just dozens of MPs are publicly calling for a referendum on the UK's EU membership, behind closed doors there are many more closet secessionists: at least 40 per cent of Conservative MPs according to one party insider.

"In public I call for renegotiation of the Lisbon treaty.

In private I argue for complete withdrawal from the European Union.

And there are plenty of others like me," says one anonymous sceptic.

Edward Stourton asks whether the crisis in the eurozone has emboldened more politicians to speak frankly on their attitudes towards EU membership and talks to supporters of withdrawal from both the left and right wings of British politics.

Producer: Hannah Barnes.

Edward Stourton asks if the political class is catching up with public opinion on the EU.

"In public I call for renegotiation of the Lisbon treaty. In private I argue for complete withdrawal from the European Union. And there are plenty of others like me," says one anonymous sceptic.

Euroscepticism Uncovered20111023

As opinion polls reveal that half the British population would vote in favour of withdrawal from the European Union, it seems the political class is catching up with public opinion when it comes to the EU.

While perhaps just dozens of MPs are publicly calling for a referendum on the UK's EU membership, behind closed doors there are many more closet secessionists: at least 40 per cent of Conservative MPs according to one party insider.

"In public I call for renegotiation of the Lisbon treaty. In private I argue for complete withdrawal from the European Union. And there are plenty of others like me," says one anonymous sceptic.

Edward Stourton asks whether the crisis in the eurozone has emboldened more politicians to speak frankly on their attitudes towards EU membership and talks to supporters of withdrawal from both the left and right wings of British politics.

Producer: Hannah Barnes.

Edward Stourton asks if the political class is catching up with public opinion on the EU.

Eurotest2002121220021215

How close are Britain and the Eurozone to meeting the conditions set out in Gordon Brown's five economic tests to be passed before the UK joins the euro?

Eyes Wide Shut?2004111820041121

Europe - once the world's most important continent - seems to be becoming peripheral to world events.

Asia is overtaking it economically; while divisions over Iraq call into question whether the European Union can ever be a major player in global affairs.

Martin Jacques asks whether Europe's in danger of becoming introverted and provincial, and what that could mean for the continent's future.

Eyes Wide Shut?

Europe - once the world's most important continent - seems to be becoming peripheral to world events. Asia is overtaking it economically; while divisions over Iraq call into question whether the European Union can ever be a major player in global affairs.

Failing Better2010022220100228

Mistakes often provide the best lessons in life, so why are they so undervalued? Michael Blastland explores our attitude to failure and the impact it has on politics.

We may accept, in our personal lives, that 'to err is human'.

But, when it comes to politicians, we enjoy pouring scorn on those who make mistakes: we relish the cock-up, the blunder and the humiliating U-turn.

But what effect does this bloodthirsty approach have on policy-making?

Michael talks to former cabinet minister Estelle Morris about her experience of dealing with mistakes in government.

We also hear from former civil servant Paul Johnson and from David Halpern - a former prime-ministerial advisor who helped create The Institute for Government.

Michael goes in search of inspiration from two professions which, far from seeking to bury mistakes, see them as opportunities to learn.

He speaks to surgeon and writer Atul Gawande and he visits RAF Cranwell, where mistakes made by airman are seen as 'clues'.

He also talks to philosopher Susan Wolf about blame and 'moral luck' and he interviews the editor of The Spectator magazine, Fraser Nelson.

Michael Blastland explores how different professions deal with failures and mistakes.

Failing Better20100228

Michael Blastland explores how different professions deal with failures and mistakes.

Fair Play? * *2008081420080817

Historian Richard Weight asks why many nations with far fewer resources than Britain frequently perform much better at sports.

Does the country that invented so many sports take them too seriously or not seriously enough, and does it really matter?

Fair Play?

Historian Richard Weight asks why many nations with far fewer resources than Britain frequently perform much better at sports. Does the country that invented so many sports take them too seriously or not seriously enough, and does it really matter?

Faith In The State2007030820070311

The row over gay adoption has raised questions about the relationship between faith and the state.

Under Labour, faith-based voluntary organisations have been given increased public funding and praise from politicians, and now the government has given protection against discrimination to both religious believers and gay people.

David Walker asks whether the state, by enshrining the rights of mutually antagonistic groups, has created more problems than it can solve.

Faith in the State

The row over gay adoption has raised questions about the relationship between faith and the state. Under Labour, faith-based voluntary organisations have been given increased public funding and praise from politicians, and now the government has given protection against discrimination to both religious believers and gay people.

Family Footsteps2007080220070805

Children following parents into careers might be thought a thing of the past.

But dynasties seem to be thriving everywhere from politics to business to crime.

Frances Cairncross examines why family networks still matter.

Family Footsteps

Children following parents into careers might be thought a thing of the past. But dynasties seem to be thriving everywhere from politics to business to crime. Frances Cairncross examines why family networks still matter.

Feeling Whose Collars?2006030220060305

David Walker asks what the limits of police action in tackling criminality are, and whether greater efficiency comes cost free.

Feeling Whose Collars? David Walker asks what the limits of police action in tackling criminality are, and whether greater efficiency comes cost free. [Rptd Sun 9.30pm]

Feeling Whose Collars? David Walker asks what the limits of police action in tackling criminality are, and whether greater efficiency comes cost free. [Rpt of Thu 8.30pm]

Foreigner Policy2010020820100214

In the past decade, Britain has experienced mass immigration on an unprecedented scale.

A former government aide recently suggested this was a deliberate policy, motivated in part by a desire to increase racial diversity.

David Goodhart investigates the ideological forces behind one of the most significant social changes to have affected the UK.

David Goodhart investigates the ideological forces behind mass immigration.

Andrew Neather, a former Number 10 speechwriter, recently wrote a much-discussed article in the Evening Standard in praise of multicultural London, but suggesting that those who have influenced immigration policy under Labour were politically-programmed to be relaxed about such numbers.

His article was immediately seized upon by anti-immigration campaigners as evidence of a conspiracy to make Britain a more racially diverse society.

In this programme, David Goodhart investigates the truth about reasons for recent increases in migration to Britain.

Political insiders, including former home secretary David Blunkett, talk candidly about the real influences behind the scenes.

None of them give credence to the accusation that there was a plan to create a more multicultural Britain.

An unexpected increase in asylum applications and the demand for cheap labour from employers were the main motivators, according to those who influenced policy.

But, admits former Home Office special adviser Ed Owen, a nervousness about discussing immigration policy meant that New Labour was, in its first years in office, poorly prepared to deal with the issue.

We may not have witnessed a grand act of social engineering, concludes David Goodhart, but New Labour's combination of economic liberalism and cultural liberalism led it to regard mass immigration as a trend which would bring great social benefits and few disadvantages.

Interviewees include:

Rt Hon David Blunkett MP, former home secretary

Tim Finch, head of migration, equalities and citizenship, and director of strategic communications at the Institute for Public Policy Research

Andrew Neather, Comment editor at The Evening Standard and former Number 10 speechwriter.

Sir Andrew Green, Migrationwatch

Sarah Spencer, deputy director, Centre on Migration Policy and Society

John Tincey, Immigration Services Union

Ed Owen, former Home Office special adviser

Claude Moraes MEP.

Foreigner Policy20100214
France: Sinking Slowly?2013111120131117

The French are far more attached to the idea of a centralised, big state than their Anglo-Saxon counterparts. The philosophy behind it, Colbertism, holds that the economy of France should serve the state and that the state should direct the economy.

But as France's big state looks less affordable, some French intellectuals are arguing that it is time that French identity became less tied to the dirigiste idea. Former BBC Paris Correspondent Emma Jane Kirby travels to France to meet those questioning their country's traditional resistance to economic reform.

Producer: Fiona Leach.

Can France afford its attachment to the big state? Emma Jane Kirby presents.

Free Movement: Britain's Burning Eu Debate2015072020150726 (R4)

Sonia Sodha discovers why freedom of movement is such a key issue in Britain's EU debate.

Freedom of movement will be a key battleground in Britain's crucial EU debate. It gives EU citizens the right to live and work anywhere in the union and is praised by supporters as boosting prosperity. But critics say it has created unsustainable waves of mass migration and must be restricted. So where does this policy actually come from, and what does it mean in practice? Sonia Sodha discovers why it has become such a crucial issue, and what's at stake as Britain decides its European future.

Producer: Chris Bowlby

Editor: Hugh Levinson

(Photo credit: Getty Images)

Generation Hexed2005121520051218

The generation that is now under 35 is the first that will pay for a welfare state from which it will derive comparatively little benefit.

People born after 1970 will have to be more self-reliant than their parents.

Will they also be more selfish?

Journalist Camilla Cavendish asks whether the concept of mutual obligation, which has underpinned the welfare state, can possibly survive in a culture where workers are burdened with debt, rising taxation and the need to save for their own welfare.

Generation Hexed

The generation that is now under 35 is the first that will pay for a welfare state from which it will derive comparatively little benefit. People born after 1970 will have to be more self-reliant than their parents. Will they also be more selfish?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700410]

The War for

Jenkins' Ear

On the eve of the Budget, an examination of Britain's longer-term economic prospects. Those taking part include: JOHN BIFFEN , MP

F. H. R. CATHERWOOD , Director-General Of NEDC

PROFESSOR RICHARD E. CAVES Of Harvard University

GILBERT de BOTTON, Managing Director of Rothschild's. Zurich VICTOR FEATHER, General Secretary of tuc

THE RT HON RICHARD MARSH , MP

PETER OPPENHEIMER , Student Of Christ Church, Oxford

PIERRE-PAUL SCHWEITZER, Managing Director of IMF

Presented by IAN MCINTYRE

Produced by George FISCHER

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Unknown: John Biffen

Unknown: F. H. R. Catherwood

Unknown: Professor Richard E.

Unknown: Richard Marsh

Unknown: Peter Oppenheimer

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700501]

A programme cf discussion andanatysisofthemainsocial, economic, and potiticatprob)ems of the day.

Each week experts wiU discuss a topic of major importance behind the days news both at home and abroad,

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700619]

The Government We Deserve

As the dust settles,

Analysis tests some theories on why the Election went the way it did

Taking part:

PAUL foot, political journalist

T. E. UTLEY , leader writer to the Daily Telegraph

BRIAN WALDEN, Member (Labour) for Birmingham All Saints in the last Parliament

ESMOND WRIGHT, Member (Conservative) for Glasgow Pollok in the last Parliament Chairman IAN MCINTYRE

Produced by GEORGE FISCHER

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Leader: T. E. Utley

Unknown: Ian McIntyre

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700710]

Do comprehensive schools work?

An investigation by ROBERT SKIDELSKY

Are they effective in creating equality of opportunity? Do they provide a good education for the more able pupil? Can a school be truly comprehensive if there is selection inside it? ROBERT SKIDELSKY has visited comprehensive schools and has talked to educationists, sociologists, and local education authority members, including PROFESSOR BRIAN SIMON , and CAROLINE BENN Of ILEA, joint authors of Half Way There. Produced by Richard KEEN

Contributors

Unknown: Robert Skidelsky

Unknown: Robert Skidelsky

Unknown: Professor Brian Simon

Unknown: Caroline Benn

Produced By: Richard Keen

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700717]

Golda Meir

Israel's Prime Minister in conversation with IAN MCINTYRE

Produced by GEORGE FISCHER

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Unknown: Ian McIntyre

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700731]

Egypt and the Middle East Written and narrated by JOSEPH HONE

Joseph Hone has recently returned from Egypt. He reports on the political and social mood in Egypt today, the chances of a negotiated settlement with Israel, the Soviet presence and missile build-up. He also enquires what future there is for the Palestinian refugees and their Liberation organisations. Produced by ALAN BURGESS

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Unknown: Joseph Hone

Produced By: Alan Burgess

Genome: [r4 Bd=19700925]

Times Present

The Times is not what it was. There are people inside and outside Printing House Square who regard that as no bad thing. There are others who think that one more national institution is well down the slippery slope.

With change in the air once more, Analysis takes a critical look at Britain's greatest newspaper.

Introduced by IAN MCINTYRE Produced by GEORGE Fischer

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Introduced By: Ian McIntyre

Produced By: George Fischer

Genome: [r4 Bd=19701120]

Defending Europe

Herr Helmut Schmidt, West German Defence Minister, talks in his Bonn office to LAURENCE MARTIN , Professor of War Studies, King's College, London. Herr Schmidt, Social Democrat Party leader, is not only one of West Germany's most prominent politicians but also author of a book on strategy. He assesses possible future threats from Eastern Europe. gives his views on NATO'S future, and discusses the logic behind Bonn's defence strategy.

Produced by DAVID WILLEY

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Unknown: Laurence Martin

Genome: [r4 Bd=19701211]

Lord Carnngton

Secretary of State for Defence, in conversation with LAURENCE W. MARTIN ,

Professor of War Studies, King's College, London about British defence policy and issues arising from it.

Produced by GEORGE FISCHER

S.58 Weather

Contributors

Unknown: Laurence W. Martin

Genome: [r4 Bd=19701218]

Does Parliament Work? Its critics feel that Parliament has been reduced from a powerful workshop, constantly challenging and checking a powerful Executive, to a mere talk-shop.

The new Administration has complemented changes in government machinery - designed to improve its own efficiency -by a redesigned system of Select Committees which, it is claimed, will increase MPs' ability to scrutinise the Executive's intentions and actions.

Is this enough? Or should Parliament redefine its role? Presented by NORMAN HUNT

Produced by BERNARD TATE

9.58 Weather

Contributors

Presented By: Norman Hunt

Genome: [r4 Bd=19880128]

The Need to Know

The current tussle in the courts between the Government and the press.

(Details tomorrow at 11. 00am L W)

Genome: [r4 Bd=19880129]

The Need to Know

The current tussle in the courts between the Government and the press may have implications far beyond the relationship between politicians and the media.

There are arguments about the public's right to know what government is doing in its name, and about the essential ingredients of an open society. Where should the line be drawn between freedom of expression and the security of the state? Who should draw it: the Government, Parliament or the courts?

Presented by Peter Hennessy Producer MARK LAITY

Genome: [r4 Bd=19880129]

Presented By: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900125]

Unknown: David Walker

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900201]

Unknown: Michael Heseltine

Unknown: Peter Hennessy.

Producer: Simon Coates

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900208]

Unknown: Laurence Martin

Producer: Julian Brown

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900215]

Presenter: David Walker.

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900222]

Producer: Simon Coates

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900301]

Unknown: Stephen Games

Producer: Julian Brown

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900308]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19900315]

Unknown: John Eidinow

Producer: Simon Coates

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900322]

Producer: Julian Brown

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900329]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy.

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900405]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Simon Coates

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900503]

Jeu sans Frontières For all the member states, EEC integration is the biggest game in town, and France is one of the biggest players. But with uncertain prospects in Germany, and the Eastern

Europeans hovering round the table, how will France place her bets? Presenter Richard Mayne.

Producer Fraser Steel Editor Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900503]

Presenter: Richard Mayne.

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900504]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19900510]

The Rewriting on the Wall

Have the intellectuals been busy rewriting history to suit contemporary political needs? Peter Hennessy chairs a discussion with Peter Clarke ,

Professor Ernest Gellner and Lord Rees-Mogg. Producer Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900510]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Unknown: Peter Clarke

Unknown: Professor Ernest Gellner

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900511]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19900517]

The label says 'Made in the UK', but should add 'thanks to foreign ownership'. David Walker asks who benefits when the investment balance sheet has been turned inside-out.

Producer Julian Brown Editor Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900517]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Julian Brown

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900518]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19900524]

An Exhibition of Ourselves

David Walker chairs a discussion on the purpose of museums and galleries.

Producer Fraser Steel Editor Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900524]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19900525]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19900531]

Whitehall Unbound?

More and more parts of the Civil Service are becoming commercial agencies, with greater independence from Government.

Peter Hennessy asks if this process heralds freedom for the bureaucrats or merely disguises

'business as usual'. Producer Simon Coates Editor Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900531]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Simon Coates

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900607]

Presenter: David Walker

Producer: Julian Brown

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900614]

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Editor: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900621]

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900628]

Unknown: Dr Mick Kelly

Producer: Julian Brown

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900705]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19900712]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901011]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901014]

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901018]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901021]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901025]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901028]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901101]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901104]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901108]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901111]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901115]

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901122]

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901125]

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901129]

Presented By: Peter Hennessy.

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901206]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19901213]

Unknown: Mrs Thatcher

Presented By: Peter Hennessy.

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901216]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19901220]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910131]

Up the Ladder

An upwardly mobile new Prime Minister and renewed educational anxieties are raising an old British question about social origins and destinations. In the first of a new series, David Walker asks: who goes to the top of the classes, and do they stay there? Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910131]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910203]

Up the Ladder

An upwardly mobile new Prime Minister and renewed educational anxieties are raising an old British question about social origins and destinations.

David Walker asks: who go to the top of the classes, and do they stay there?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910203]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910207]

The series that takes an in-depth look at current affairs. Presented by Peter Hennessy.

Producer Caroline Anstey

Contributors

Presented By: Peter Hennessy.

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910207]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910210]

with Peter Hennessy

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910210]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910214]

Trading Partners

The old world order of trade is crumbling.

Even if an international agreement can be rescued, the emergence of new regional trading blocs is increasing protectionist pressures. Roland Dallas asks: can future trade wars be averted?

Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910214]

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910217]

Trading Partners

The old world order of trade is crumbling.

Even if an international agreement can be rescued, the emergence of new regional trading blocs is increasing protectionist pressures. Roland Dallas asks: can future trade wars be averted?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910221]

Centre Point

One way out of its Poll Tax dilemma is for the Government to centralise things yet further. David Walker asks: What would schools, the police and other services look like if the man from Whitehall took complete charge? Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910221]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910224]

Centre Point

David Walker asks what would schools, the police and other services look like if the Government were to centralise things yet further?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910224]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910228]

with Peter Hennessy Producer Zareer Masani

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910228]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910303]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910303]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910307]

The series that takes an in-depth look at current affairs.

Presented by David Walker.

Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Presented By: David Walker.

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910307]

Presented By: David Walker.

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910310]

with David Walker

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910310]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910314]

As Europeans submit blueprints for their common future, will their Constitution turn out to be like the British one - a set of unwritten conventions, nudges, winks and historical precedents - rather than a formal document?

Presented by David Walker.

Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Presented By: David Walker.

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910314]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910317]

Shaping Up

As Europeans submit blueprints for their common future, how will their Constitution turn out? Presented by David Walker.

Contributors

Presented By: David Walker.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910317]

Presented By: David Walker.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910321]

From Clogs to Clogs? The politics of relative economic decline have featured in virtually every British election since

1906 and will undoubtedly do so again. In the first of a three-part series, Peter Hennessy examines the deeper, historical causes of Britain's economic under-performance. Producer Caroline Anstey

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910321]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910324]

From Clogs to Clogs?

In the first of a three-part series, Peter Hennessy examines the deeper, historical causes of Britain's economic under-performance.

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910324]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910328]

From Clogs to Clogs In the second of his

three-part series on Britain's relative economic decline, Peter Hennessy examines the price paid for victory in 1945 and asks why the UK missed out on Western

Europe's post-war economic miracle.

Producer Caroline Anstey

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910328]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910331]

From Clogs to Clogs? In the second of his

three-part series on Britain's relative economic decline, Peter Hennessy examines the price we paid for victory in 1945 and asks why the UK missed out on Western Europe's postwar economic miracle.

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910331]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910404]

From Clogs to Clogs? In the last of three programmes on Britain's relative economic decline, Peter Hennessy asks: after a century of political debate about industrial regeneration, are we a nation that really wants to be modernised? Or is it simply lack of business as usual?

Producer Caroline Anstey

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910404]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910407]

From Clogs to Clogs? In the last of his three programmes on Britain's relative economic decline, Peter Hennessy asks: after a century of political debate about industrial regeneration, is Britain a nation that really wants to be modernised? Or is it simply lack of business as usual?

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910407]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910502]

MEUt Markets a la

NEW Mode

The return of the series.

Tory leaders are now trumpeting the 'social market' and sedulously courting their German counterparts.

David Walker asks: is a new Conservatism being unveiled or old-style Toryism done up in different garb?

Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910502]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910505]

NEW Markets

A la Mode In the first of a new series, David Walker asks: is a new Conservatism being unveiled or old-style Toryism done up in different garb?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910505]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910509]

Over the Rainbow

Latin America's economic prosperity looks more assured now than it has for years, but the region's poor are getting poorer. Roland Dallas asks: will better economic management under democracy ever deliver improved living conditions? Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910509]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910512]

Over the Rainbow

Latin America's economic prosperity looks more assured now than it has for years, but the region's poor are getting poorer. Roland Dallas asks: will better economic management under democracy ever deliver improved living conditions?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910516]

Merchants of the Apocalypse

The Gulf War highlighted the dangers of international arms sales to dubious regimes. Peter Hennessy examines the case for new controls on the trade in lethal weaponry by western arms producers.

Producer Zareer Masani

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910516]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910519]

Merchants of the Apocalypse

The Gulf War highlighted the dangers of international arms sales to dubious regimes. Peter Hennessy examines the case for new controls on the trade in lethal weaponry by western arms producers.

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910519]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910523]

The series that takes an in-depth look at current affairs.

With David Walker.

Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker.

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910523]

Unknown: David Walker.

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910526]

The series that takes an in-depth look at current affairs. Presented by David Walker.

Contributors

Presented By: David Walker.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910526]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910530]

Fuelling Problems? Britain's energy industries are now largely in private hands, shadowed by small domestic regulators.

But, with international price pressures, Brussels activism and environmental concerns all growing,

Dieter Helm asks: are we equipped to meet the needs of the 1990s?

Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910530]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910602]

Fuelling Problems?

Britain's energy industries are now largely in private hands, shadowed by small domestic regulators. But, Dieter Helm asks: are we equipped to meet the needs of the 1990s?

Contributors

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910602]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910606]

To Have and to

Have Not

Where has the ending of east-west conflict left the former Third World?

Peter Hennessy discusses the changing shape of north-south relations, and the role of foreign aid in developing countries. Producer Zareer Masam

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Zareer Masam

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910606]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Zareer Masam

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910609]

To Have and to Have Not

Where has the ending of East-West conflict left the former Third World?

Peter Hennessy discusses the changing shape of North-South relations, including the role of foreign aid in developing countries.

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910609]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910613]

Not in My Backyard

With housing needs set to grow in the 90s, David Walker asks why the government has not applied market principles to land use and development. Will it soon have to insist on building in somebody's backyard? Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910613]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910616]

Not in My Backyard Where is the housing needed for the 1990s to be built? David Walker asks why the government has not applied market principles to land use and development. Will it soon have to insist on building in somebody's backyard?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910616]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910620]

The Back of the Envelope

Both Conservative and Labour politicians voice public confidence about winning overall majorities at the approaching

General Election. But

Peter Hennessy asks what will happen if the voters dash their hopes? Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910620]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910623]

The Back of the Envelope

Both Conservative and Labour politicians voice public confidence about winning overall majorities at the approaching

General Election. But

Peter Hennessy asks what will happen if the voters dash their hopes?

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910623]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910627]

Balkan Backwaters

Can the turbulent region, which once sparked a world war, overcome its history of neglect, poverty and strife? Chris Cviic considers how south-eastern Europe is filling the vacuum left by the collapse of communism. Producer Zareer Masani

Contributors

Unknown: Chris Cviic

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910627]

Unknown: Chris Cviic

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910630]

Balkan Backwaters

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910704]

Good Money After Bad?

The Germans are the most enthusiastic advocates of supplying the Soviet Union with new capital. But the German economy has plunged into the red. As the top industrialised nations prepare to meet at the G7 summit, David Walker asks: how special will the German-Soviet 'special relationship' turn out to be? Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910704]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910707]

Good Money after Bad? As the top industrialised nations prepare to meet at the G7 summit, David Walker asks: how special will the German-Soviet

'special relationship' turn out to be?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910707]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910711]

Little Grey Cells

The 1980s transatlantic boom in ideologically committed private research institutes coincided with the demise of official think tanks.

But, Peter Hennessy asks, how influential were the putative policy-makers and what legacy have they left?

Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910711]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910714]

The last in the present series.

Little Grey Cells

The 1980s transatlantic boom in ideologically committed private research institutes coincided with the demise of official think tanks.

But, Peter Hennessy asks, how influential were the putative policy-makers and what legacy have they left?

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910714]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910919]

Slow-Slow-Quick-Quick- Slow

At the end of the year,

Europe is meant to move forward as member states agree new treaties. But are we all in step? In the first two programmes of a new series, David Walker asks how much convergence has there really been in Europe?

Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910919]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910922]

NEW Slow-Slow-Quick-

Quick-Slow At the end of the year,

Europe is meant to move forward as member states agree new treaties on political, economic and monetary union. In the first of two programmes, David Walker asks how much convergence has there really been?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910922]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910926]

Slow-Slow-Quick-Quick-Slow

In the second part of his examination of European convergence,

David Walker looks at the extent to which there is already a two-speed Europe: one moving quickly to integration, the other sticking to the slow lane. And he asks: if there is to be real convergence, how much are the rich members prepared to pay in increased funds for social and regional supports for the poorer brethren?

Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910926]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19910929]

Slow-Slow-Quick-Quick-Slow

In the second part of his examination of European convergence,

David Walker asks: if there is to be real integration, how much are the rich members prepared to pay in increased funds for social and regional support for the poorer brethren?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19910929]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911003]

The Bear Unchained

Will post-Communist Russia successfully assimilate western liberal values, or could it revert to the autocracy and chauvinism of the past? Kevin Ruane considers the historical roots and volatile future of Russian nationalism.

ProducerZareerMasani

Contributors

Unknown: Kevin Ruane

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911003]

Unknown: Kevin Ruane

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911006]

The Bear Unchained

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911010]

The Mind behind the Cross

Over 50 national opinion polls will be published during the next general election campaign, supplementing the political parties' numerous private surveys. But

Peter Hennessy asks: how far do the pollsters know voters' views, and what effect does intensive polling have on our politics? Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911010]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911013]

The Mind behind the Cross

Over 50 national opinion polls will be published during the next general election campaign, supplementing the political parties' numerous private surveys. But

Peter Hennessy asks: how far do the pollsters know voters' views, and what effect does intensive polling have on our politics?

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911013]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911017]

Not in Front of the Children

With the Children Act coming into force this week, David Walker asks: do public and politicians increasingly prefer to leave sensitive social policy to the professionals? ProducerFrank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911017]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911020]

Not in Front of the Children

As the Children Act comes in to force, David Walker sks: do the public and politicians increasingly prefer to leave sensitive social policy to the professionals?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911020]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911024]

The series that takes an in-depth look at current affairs.

Producer ZareerMasani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911027]

An in-depth look at currentaffairs.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911031]

Learning Curves

Britain has one of the most elitist systems of higher education in the world.

No society has made the transition to mass provision without strain.

Peter Hennessy asks what awaits the UK as it tries to double student numbers by the year 2000. Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911031]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911103]

Learning Curves

Peter Hennessy asks what awaits the UK as it tries to double student numbers by the year 2000.

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911103]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911107]

Pros and Cons

Increasingly, doctors and teachers are coming under the control of lay executives, and the autonomy of accountants and lawyers is being questioned. David Walker asks: what is happening to professionalism as the professional managers take charge? Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911107]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911110]

Pros and Cons

David Walker asks: what is happening to professionalism as the professional managers take charge?

Contributors

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911110]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911114]

Perestroika in the Desert

The collapse of the Soviet bloc has left its former

Arab allies searching for a new strategy for survival in an American-led world.

John Keay considers how far this is driving states like Egypt and Syria to restructure their political and economic institutions.

Producer Zareer Masani

Contributors

Unknown: John Keay

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911114]

Unknown: John Keay

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911117]

Perestroika in the Desert

The collapse of the Soviet bloc has left its former

Arab allies searching for a new strategy for survival in an American-led world.

John Keay considers how far this is driving states like Egypt and Syria to restructure their political and economic institutions.

Contributors

Unknown: John Keay

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911117]

Unknown: John Keay

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911121]

Teething the Watchdogs Whoever forms the next government, the task of reasoned criticism will fall on the House of Commons Select Committees.

Twelve years after their last reform,

Peter Hennessy asks: is it time to sharpen their bite? Producer Frank Smith

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Frank Smith

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911121]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911124]

Teething the Watchdogs Twelve years after the last reform of the House of Commons Select

Committees,

Peter Hennessy asks: is it time to sharpen their bite?

Contributors

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911124]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19911128]

A Pleasing Prospect?

Together with his political opponents, John Major advocates creating a single environmental protection agency for Britain. But Dieter Helm asks: is a national, bureaucratic approach the best option for tackling the problems of - and the opportunities for - pollution control? Producer Simon Coates

Contributors

Unknown: John Major

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911128]

Unknown: John Major

Unknown: Dieter Helm

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19911201]

A Pleasing Prospect?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920206]

L Dukes of York...?

The series returns with the first of two programmes on economic ups and downs. David Walker asks: when should the next recession be expected, and who or what should be blamed?

Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920206]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920209]

n Dukes of York..?

In the first of two programmes on economic ups and downs,

David Walker asks: when should the next recession be expected and who or what should be blamed?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920209]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920213]

Dukes of Hazard?

The second of two programmes on economic ups and downs.

David Walker asks: does the long wait for even a modest upswing inspire confidence in future global growth and the wealth it will create?

Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920213]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920216]

Dukes of Hazard?

Britain's recession, the country is told, is part of international economic slowdown. In the second of two programmes,

David Walker asks: does Britain's long wait for even a modest upswing mean that it can be sure of future global growth and the wealth it will create?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920216]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920220]

An Unnatural Practice?

Is coalition government as alien to Britain's political culture as many people assume, or could this country be on the threshold of a new politics of consensus at the top?

Peter Hennessy considers the shape of things to come.

Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920220]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920223]

An Unnatural Practice?

Is coalition government as alien to Britain's political culture as many people assume, or could this country be on the threshold of a new politics of consensus at the top? With Peter Hennessy.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920223]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920227]

Sticks and Stones

Peter Hennessy chairs a discussion on the politics of language. Taking part:

Professor Bernard Williams , Renford Bambrough and Edward Pearce.

Producer Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920227]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Unknown: Professor Bernard Williams

Unknown: Edward Pearce.

Producer: Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920301]

Sticks and Stones

Peter Hennessy chairs a discussion on the politics of language.

(Broadcastiast Thursday)

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920301]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920305]

Full of Eastern

Promise?

As western managers look enviously at the booming companies run by their Japanese counterparts,

Peter Haynes asks: should we try to copy oriental methods, or is the answer to our firms' shortcomings closer to home?

ProducerSimon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920305]

Unknown: Peter Haynes

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920308]

Full Of

Eastern Promise

Peter Haynes investigates whether Western companies should copy Oriental methods.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920308]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920312]

Unsceptred Isles Are the UK regions farthest from Europe's golden core destined to decline? David Walker asks if we need new policies for the periphery. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920312]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920315]

Unsceptred Isles Are the UK regions farthest from Europe's golden core destined to decline? David Walker asks if new policies are needed for the periphery.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920315]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920319]

No Science Please, We're Politicians

Peter Hennessy asks: how good are government ministers at reaching or scrutinising costly scientific decisions?

How can their advice systems be improved? Producer Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920319]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920322]

No Science Please, We're Politicians

Peter Hennessy asks: how good are ministers at reaching or scrutinising costly scientific decisions, especially on issues such as global warming?

How can their advice systems be improved?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920322]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920326]

Back Over There?

Is America First more than a rhetorical gesture of US politicians?

Professor Laurence Martin chairs a discussion on the practicalities of possible US disengagement from the military and economic spheres.

Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920326]

Unknown: Professor Laurence Martin

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920329]

Back Over There?

Professor Laurence Martin chairs a discussion on the practicalities of possible US disengagement from the military and economic spheres.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920329]

Unknown: Professor Laurence Martin

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920402]

Borderline Issues? David Walker asks how long old ideas about inviolable boundaries can survive the growing global interdependence of the 90s. Producer Caroline Anstey

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920402]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920405]

Borderline Issues?

David Walker asks how long the old ideas about inviolable boundaries can survive the growing global interdependence of the 90s.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920405]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920409]

Public Interest, Private Lives

Peter Hennessy examines the conflicting needs for openness and privacy in political life.

Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920409]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920412]

Public Interest, Private Lives

How much transparency can be expected in public life, especially during a general election, and do politicians conform to public expectations?

Peter Hennessy examines the conflicting needs for openness and privacy in political life.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920412]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920416]

In The Mood

David Walker considers how government policy may be affected by shifts in public attitudes to such issues as the environment and women's rights. Producer Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920416]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920419]

In the Mood

Last in series.

People are rethinking the environment, health, safety and women's rights. David Walker examines the implications of these long-term shifts.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920419]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920514]

What's Left?

After socialism, social democracy; after social democracy, what? David Walker asks how and on what principles the Left might seek to re-invent itself.

Producer Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920514]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920517]

What's Left?

In the first of a new series,

David Walker asks how the Left might seek to re-invent itself.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920517]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920521]

Bluehall, SWl?

British voters, politicians and officials have been accustomed to parties alternating in power. But, Peter Hennessy asks, what will a fourth successive

Conservative term mean for the ways in which we are governed?

Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920521]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920524]

Bluehall, SW1?

Peter Hennessy asks: what will a fourth successive

Conservative term mean for the ways in which we are governed?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920524]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920528]

Europe is undergoing one of its periodical crises of confidence. David Walker chairs a discussion on the kind of lead Britain should offer when it takes over the presidency of the Community in July. Producer Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920528]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920531]

Europe In A Major Key? David Walker chairs a discussion on the kind of lead Britain should offer when it takes over the presidency of the European Community in July.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920531]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920604]

Tiger, Tiger.... Burning Bright Are the booming economies of East Asia converging into a new economic power bloc that could overtake the advanced industrial nations of the West? In the first of two programmes, John Keay examines the competing and complementary interests underlying the Far Eastern economic miracle.

Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920604]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920607]

Tiger, Tiger.... Burning Bright

John Keay presents the first of two programmes. Are the booming economies of East Asia converging into a new economic power block?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920607]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920611]

Tiger, Tiger - In the Shadows of the Night

In the second of two programmes John Keay considers whether economic success is enough to guarantee political stability and military security in East Asia, or could we see a new struggle for mastery? Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920611]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920618]

Down to Business

What exactly does British business want from the government? As the leadership changes at the CBI and the DTI, David Walker asks whether we are entering a new phase of cosy corporatism. Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920618]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920621]

Down To Business

What exactly does British business want from the government - more or less? As the leadership changes at the CBI and the DTI, David Walker asks whether we are entering a new phase of cosy corporatism.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920621]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920625]

The Last Right

John Major is pledged to reduce Whitehall secrecy. But, Peter Hennessy asks, can Britain achieve genuine open government without a Freedom of Information Act?

Producer Chris Wescott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920625]

Unknown: John Major

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Producer: Chris Wescott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920628]

John Major is pledged to reduce Whitehall secrecy. But, Peter Hennessy asks, can Britain achieve genuine open government without a Freedom of Information Act?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920628]

Unknown: John Major

Unknown: Peter Hennessy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920702]

Chaired by Peter Hennessy. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920702]

Unknown: Peter Hennessy.

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920705]

Chaired by Peter Hennessy.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920705]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920709]

The Matrimonial State The institution of marriage is out of fashion. David Walker asks whether what's happening to the traditional, formal bonding of men and women is any business of the policy-makers Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920709]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920712]

The Matrimonial State

David Walker asks whether what's happening to the traditional bonding of men and women is any business of the policy-makers.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920712]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920716]

The Municipal Consumer?

Local self government has traditionally been seen as one of the bulwarks of British democracy. In recent years however, local democracy has increasingly been replaced by consumer choice. So, asks Vernon Bogdanor , does this amount to the weakening of the vote and strengthening of the purse?

Producer Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920716]

Unknown: Vernon Bogdanor

Producer: Chris Westcott

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920719]

The Municipal Consumer?

In recent years local democracy has been replaced by consumer choice. So, asks Vernon Bogdanor , is this a weakening of the vote and strengthening of the purse?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920719]

Unknown: Vernon Bogdanor

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920723]

Out of the Midday Sun? Despite the end of the empire and the passing of the Cold War, Britain's desire for a special world role lives on. Peter Hennessy considers whether ambitions are realistic or affordable for a medium-sized nation. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920723]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19920726]

Out of the Midday Sun? Britain's desire for a special world role lives on. Peter Hennessy considers whether such ambitions are realistic.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19920726]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921008]

Passing the Buck

Did Treasury economists get it wrong? To what extent should officials share responsibility with politicians for Britain's economic woes? In the first of a new series, David Walker audits the performance and mindset of the guardians of Treasury orthodoxy.

Producer Zareer Masani. Stereo

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921008]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: Zareer Masani.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921011]

Passing The

NEW Buck

David Walker audits the performance and mindset of the guardians of Treasury orthodoxy. Stereo

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921011]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921015]

Not Playing in Peoria Godfrey Hodgson examines why America's politicians seem to be part of her problems and how they might become part of the solution. Stereo

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921018]

Not Playing in Peoria Godfrey Hodgson examines why America's politicians seem to be part of her problems.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921022]

Whither Welfare?

One of the most potent messages of the last election was "No more tax", so whither the Welfare State?

Andrew Adonis asks whether universal benefits might be replaced by new ways of targeting to help those most in need.

Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921022]

Unknown: Andrew Adonis

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921025]

Whither Welfare?

Andrew Adonis asks whether universal benefits might be replaced by new ways of targeting to help those most in need.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921025]

Unknown: Andrew Adonis

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921029]

Brittle Bonds of Friendship

Britain's economic, military and political future in Europe hinges on the German connection.

David Walker asks how the British people are to relate to a country about which many of them continue to have mixed feelings.

Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921029]

Unknown: Brittle Bonds

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921101]

Brittle Bonds of Friendship

Britain's economic, military and political future in Europe hinges on the German connection. David Walker asks how the British people are to relate to a country about which many of them continue to have mixed feelings.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921101]

Unknown: Brittle Bonds

Unknown: David Walker

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921105]

An in-depth look at public policy and political ideas at home and abroad.

Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921105]

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921108]

The programme that takes an in-depth look at public policy and political ideas at home and abroad.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921112]

Mittel-Europa Unlimited For Czechoslovakia,

Hungary and Poland, the transition to free markets is proving uneven and risky. Chris Cviic asks if the liberalising economies of central Europe would do better to find their own road to capitalism, instead of copying western models. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921112]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921115]

Mittel Europa Unlimited Chris Cviic asks if the liberalising economies of Central Europe would do better to find their own road to capitalism, instead of copying western models.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921115]

Unknown: Chris Cviic

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921119]

Through the Roof?

Growth is back in favour with the Government. But David Walker asks if increased national prosperity depends on the housing market, and a new bout of rising prices. Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921119]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921122]

Through the Roof? David Walker asks if increased national prosperity depends on the housing market, and a new bout of rising prices.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921122]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921126]

A Place Apart

Northern Ireland remains one of the most violently divided parts of Europe, despite the politicians' efforts. So can there ever be a constitutional settlement in which both communities have their aspirations satisfied?

Brendan O'Leary assesses the options for progress in Britain's own ethnic conflict.

Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921126]

Unknown: Brendan O'Leary

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921129]

A Place Apart

Northern Ireland remains one of the most divided parts of Europe. Brendan O'Leary asks if there will ever be a settlement in which both communities have their aspirations satisfied.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921203]

A Class of Their Own?

Britain seems to be acquiring an American-style under-class, without job prospects, decent education and housing, or stable family relationships. Melanie Phillips considers the perils for policy-makers of ignoring this uncomfortable social reality.

Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921203]

Unknown: Melanie Phillips

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921206]

A Class of their Own? Britain seems to be acquiring an American-style "underclass". Melanie Phillips considers the perils for policy makers of ignoring this uncomfortable social reality.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921206]

Unknown: Melanie Phillips

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921210]

Hard Words in the Classroom

What educational thinking has inspired the Government's marathon effort to remake the schools? David Walker asks whether the Tories have finally killed the post-war progressive impulse in the classrooms. Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921210]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921213]

David Walker asks if the Tories have finally killed the post-war progressive impulse in the classrooms.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921213]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921217]

The last programme in the series which examines issues of public policy. Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19921217]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19921220]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930128]

1m

Cultivating the Nation

There's a National Heritage, a National Curriculum and a National Arts and Media Strategy. But does it add up to a vision of national identity? In the first of a new series, David Walker asks what government can and ought to do about the national culture.

Producer David Hendy.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930128]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: David Hendy.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930131]

Cultivating the Nation There's a National

Heritage, a National

Curriculum and a National Arts and Media Strategy. But does it all add up to a vision of national identity? David Walker asks what government ought to do about the national culture.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930131]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930204]

The New Masters?

The European Court of Justice overrides British MPs, forces ministers to change policy and even rules against

Jacques Delors. Paul Craig asks why the judges in Luxembourg are becoming so powerful and if they or Britain will decide how the country's future in Europe unfolds.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930204]

Unknown: Jacques Delors.

Unknown: Paul Craig

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930207]

The New Masters?

The European Court of Justice overrides British MPs, forces Ministers to change policy and even rules against

Jacques Delors. Paul Craig asks why the judges in Luxembourg are becoming so powerful and just who will decide how Britain's future in Europe unfolds.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930207]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930211]

Freedom for

Frankenstein?

With a growing proportion of scientific research being carried out by private companies, is there a danger that commercial considerations are eroding the openness and accountability of British science? Hugh Prysor -Jones asks if the Government's current review of science policy - its first in two decades - is already too late to stem the tide.

Producer Zareer Masani.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930211]

Unknown: Hugh Prysor

Producer: Zareer Masani.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930214]

Freedom for

Frankenstein?

With a growing proportion of scientific research being carried out by private companies, are commercial considerations eroding the accountability of British science? Hugh Prysor-Jones asks if the government's current review of science policy is too late to stem the tide.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930214]

Unknown: Hugh Prysor-Jones

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930218]

Bully for the Boys in Blue

The government is about to create a new structure for the police.

David Walker asks if the new order will cut crime, and considers its possible political consequences. Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930218]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930221]

Bully for the Boys in Blue

David Walker asks if the government's new structure for the police will cut crime, and what the political consequences might be.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930221]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930225]

Greening World Trade Whether the goal is

"dolphin-friendly" tuna, or saving the rainforest, Western greens are increasingly advocating trade sanctions to eliminate environmentally unfriendly activities across the globe.

Frances Caimcross asks if the world trading system can be given a greener hue without opening the way to protectionism. Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930225]

Unknown: Frances CaimcRoss

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930228]

Greening World Trade Frances Caimcross asks if the world trading system can be given a greener hue.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930228]

Unknown: Frances CaimcRoss

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930304]

Breaking Up is Hard to Do?

Some of the world's major corporations are finding their size a barrier to growth. Peter Haynes asks what makes some large companies more nimble than others and what future giant firms have. Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930304]

Unknown: Peter Haynes

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930307]

Breaking Up Is Hard to Do?

Peter Haynes asks what makes some large companies more adaptable than others.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930307]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930311]

Rites of Passage The 1990s are fast becoming the decade of refugees and asylum-seekers. David Walker considers how claims for shelter in Britain should be assessed and the relevance of borders in a single European market. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930311]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930318]

The Revisionist

Tendency

Since its electoral defeat, Labour has gained a new leader and started reassessing policies. Hugo Young asks how far the revisionists should go, what their values are, and whether they can rescue Labour from permanent opposition. Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930318]

Unknown: Hugo Young

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930321]

The Revisionist

Tendency

Hugo Young asks whether the new revisionists can hope to rescue the Labour party from permanent opposition.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930325]

Out of the Red

Russia is trying to pull itself out of its communist past. But with living standards falling almost as fast as the rouble, should Russia think again about western shock therapy to reform its economy? John Lloyd investigates whether market reforms should be intensified, modified or thrown out altogether. Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930325]

Unknown: John Lloyd

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930328]

Out of the Red

John Lloyd investigates whether radical market reforms in Russia should be intensified, modified or thrown out altogether.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930401]

Losing Our Marbles? The problems of youth have been a recent preoccupation. But David Walker asks: how long before we need to worry about the coming age of the old, when the baby-boom generation retires on private pensions, while its parents grow ever older? Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930401]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930404]

Losing Our Marbles? David Walker asks: how long before we need to worry about the coming age of the old when the baby-boom generation retires on private pensions, while its parents grow ever older?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930404]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930408]

Flexible Friends?

The world's most powerful lending institutions, the International Monetary

Fund and the World Bank, have been using their leverage to press major economic reforms on debtor countries. In the last programme of the series, Tony Killick asks whether such policies have been effective in the Third

World and how they should be improved. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930408]

Unknown: Tony Killick

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930411]

Flexible Friends?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930513]

The Commanding Heights?

As British government fragments in a welter of new quangos and agencies, David Walker asks: what powers and accountability do secretaries of state and other ministers retain? Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930513]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930516]

The Commanding Heights?

David Walker asks: what powers and accountability do secretaries of state and other ministers retain?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930516]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930520]

When the Party's Over Political parties are usually seen as essential to the healthy functioning of parliamentary democracy. But many are heavily in debt, and fewer and fewer people are joining them. So is the "mass" party dead? Are members losing control to the professionals?

Sarah Benton asks: what happens to democracy then? Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930520]

Unknown: Sarah Benton

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930523]

When the Party's Over Is the mass political party dead? If so, asks

Sarah Benton , what happens to democracy?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930523]

Unknown: Sarah Benton

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930527]

Monarchs to Measure According to the opinion polls, the British public wants the monarchy to continue, but in a more democratic form.

Anthony King considers how far Britain's oldest institution needs to re-invent itself to survive the next century.

Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930527]

Unknown: Anthony King

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930530]

Monarchs to Measure Anthony King considers how far the monarchy needs to re-invent itself. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930530]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930603]

Social Europe? How relevant is Maastricht to the arrival in Britain of the EC's "social dimension"? David Walker asks how far the European style is already influencing jobs and pensions. Might

Europe itself now be going cold on employee rights? Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930603]

Unknown: David Walker

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930610]

The Sleeping Giants?

City institutions invest much of the nation's savings, yet their challenges to poor company results and soaring executive salaries often seem muted.

Evan Davis asks: is ittime forthe money men to stir themselves and hold the boardroom bosses to greater account and, if so, how?

Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930610]

Unknown: Evan Davis

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930613]

The Sleeping Giants?

Evan Davis asks if it is time for the city institutions to stir themselves.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930613]

Unknown: Evan Davis

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930617]

Slouching towards Bethlehem

Are Britain's young people being brought up in an alarming moral vacuum? If so, what can be done to revitalise the agents of moral guidance without resorting to the rigid strictures of the past? Melanie Phillips examines how a common set of values might be provided for the next generation.

Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930617]

Unknown: Melanie Phillips

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930620]

Slouching Towards Bethlehem

Melanie Phillips examines how a common set of values might be provided for the next generation.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930624]

More Equal than Others?

At a time when egalitarianism as a political force appears dead, equality continues to figure prominently on Britain's social agenda. David Walker examines the motives behind equal opportunity policies today. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930624]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930627]

More Equal than Others?

At a time when egalitarianism as a political force appears dead, equality continues to figure prominently on Britain's social agenda. David Walker examines the motives behind equal opportunities and what the policies mean in practice.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930627]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930701]

Now What, Chancellor?

The economy hovers between recession and recovery, there are issues of budgetary balance to be settled, and the questions of E R M membership and a European single currency are waiting in the wings. Peter Jay chairs a discussion analysing the problems involved in steering the economy through the 90s. Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930701]

Unknown: Peter Jay

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930704]

Now What, Chancellor?

Peter Jay chairs a discussion analysing the problems involved in steering the economy through the 90s.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930704]

Unknown: Peter Jay

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930708]

Workshop of the World?

What will Britain's economic role be in the increasingly competitive world of the 21st Century? Can manufacturing ever again provide enough jobs to go round? If not, what takes its place? Frances Cairncross asks what strategy Britain, as a small English-speaking island off the coast of Europe, should adopt. Producer David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930708]

Unknown: Frances Cairncross

Producer: David Hendy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930718]

All Sound and Fury?

Ian Davidson asks if there is sufficient agreement or the political will to make a common European foreign and security policy a reality.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930718]

Unknown: Ian Davidson

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930722]

Off With Their Heads!

Britain has a tradition of treating its intellectuals with scepticism and irreverence. David Walker asks if the price we pay for our suspicion of big ideas is political and cultural mediocrity.

Last programme in the current series.

Producer ZareerMasani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930722]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19930725]

Off with Their Heads!

David Walker asks if Britain pays the price for its suspicion of big ideas. The last in the present series.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19930725]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931007]

Beyond Our Means? With growii ig pre-budget speculation about higher taxes, spending curbs and pay freezes, Britain's budget deficit has replaced the recession as economic enemy number one. Stuart Simon asks if the government's overdraft is really out of control or whether it's a false alarm. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931007]

Unknown: Stuart Simon

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931010]

Beyond Our Means? Stuart Simon asks if the Government's overdraft is out of control.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931010]

Unknown: Stuart Simon

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931014]

More, Wiser and Wealthier?

The Government plans an increase in the numbers of people in higher education. Andrew Adonis asks whether expansion is a good thing, and what will it mean for students, universities and the economy? Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931014]

Unknown: Andrew Adonis

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931017]

More, Wiser and Wealthier?

Andrew Adonis asks whether further expansion in higher education is necessarily a good thing.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931017]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931021]

A Mother's Work

Lack of decent childcare traps many mothers at home, or in low-paid part-time jobs. But Frances Cairncross asks whether government should help women go out to work when their children are small? And what help works best -forwomen, for their children, and for the economy?

ProducerNicolaMeyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931021]

Unknown: Frances Cairncross

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931031]

UnrnMon. Trade unions have been driven from political influence by 14 years of Conservative rule and deprived of economic power by high unemployment.

Hugo Young asks the TUC's new General

Secretary John Monks what he's learned from the 1980s and whether unions will matter in the 1990s. Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931031]

Unknown: Hugo Young

Unknown: John Monks

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931104]

Stuart Simon asks how much can really be expected if the current GATT talks are successful and whether changes in the world economy require a new trade regime. Producer ZareerMasani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931104]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931107]

Trading Blows. How much we can really expect to gain from the current round of Gatt talks? Stuart Simon reports.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931107]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931111]

Tractors on the Lawn. British agriculture faces intensifying economic, social and political pressures from Whitehall, Brussels and further afield. Hugh Prysor -Jones asks what changes will be wrought on farming and with what consequences for the rural economy and way of life.

Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931111]

Unknown: Hugh Prysor

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931114]

Tractors on the Lam. British agriculture faces intensifying pressures from Whitehall, Brussels and further afield. Hugh Prysor-Jones looks at the consequences of change for the rural economy and way of life.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931114]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931118]

To Do No Harm?

A House of Lords committee is expected to report within weeks on whether the law prohibiting euthanasia should be changed. Melanie Phillips examines how Britain resolves this and other ethical issues such as abortion and embryo research.

Producer Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931118]

Unknown: Melanie Phillips

Producer: Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931121]

With a House of Lords committee about to report on whether the law prohibiting euthanasia should be changed, Melanie Phillips examines how Britain resolves this and other ethical issues.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931121]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931125]

Paved with Good Intentions

What lies behind President Clinton's spectacular foreign policy reverses? Stuart Simon asks whether the world is too unpredictable to be managed, even by an unrivalled superpower, or whether America has simply failed to find the right goals? Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931125]

Unknown: Stuart Simon

Producer: David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931128]

Paved with Good Intentions. What lies behind President Clinton's spectacular foreign policy reverses? Why has he failed to define a doctrine that sounds as cred,ble as those of his predecessors? Stuart Simon asks if the world is too unpredictable and complicated to be managed even by an unrivalled superpower, or whether America has simply failed to find the right goals?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931128]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931202]

Russian Roulette. As Russians prepare for their first post-Communist general election, Analysis discusses how western policy-makers should be addressing the outcome...

Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931202]

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931205]

Russian Roulette. A look at how western policy-makers should be addressing the outcome of the first post-Communist Russian election.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931209]

Hugh Prysor-Jones asks if Paris and Frankfurt have fresh plans for financial cooperation which will threaten our wealth? Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931209]

Unknown: Hugh Prysor-Jones

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931212]

Back to Haunt Us? Seen from London, monetary union is dead and buried. But Hugh Prysor-Jones asks whether Paris and Frankfurt have fresh plans for financial co-operation.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931212]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19931216]

Should British Conservatism reinforce individual self-reliance and the amoral power of the market, or is the country now more receptive to older traditions? Stuart Simon reports in the last of the series.

Producer Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931216]

Unknown: Stuart Simon

Producer: Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931219]

As it reviews its values and beliefs, is British Conservatism at the crossroads?

Stuart Simon reports.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19931219]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940127]

Whose Promised Land?

- What lies beyond the halting first step of the Gaza-Jericho accord between Israel and the PLO? Can it produce a formula for independence which will address both Palestinian aspirations and Israeli fears?

Stuart Simon asks what are the lessons to be learned about the principles of self-determination.

Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940127]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940130]

Whose Promised Land?

What lies beyond the halting "first step" of the Gaza-Jericho accord between Israel and the PLO? Stuart Simon asks what are the lessons to be learned about the principles of self-determination.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940130]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940203]

The Government's health service reforms were intended to improve efficiency by creating a competitive internal market. Melanie Phillips examines how far that goal has been achieved, and asks whether the reforms have preserved the principle of free and equal treatment on which the NHS was founded.

ProducerNicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940203]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940206]

Marketing Health. Melanie Phillips examines the Government's health service reforms.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940206]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940210]

At a Price.

Prices are rising more slowly than at any time since the 1960s, and some economists see an era of zero inflation ahead. But would the public really like a world where prices stand still? Frances Caimcross asks how conquering inflation could change our lives.

Producer David Levy

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940210]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940213]

At a Price

Frances Cairncross asks how conquering inflation could change our lives.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940213]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940217]

Counting Our Chickens?

The nuclear menace is apparently waning as Russian and American arsenals are cut and Ukraine agrees to eliminate its missiles. But Stuart Simon asks if old regional tensions and easier access to nuclear capabilities mean the dangers of proliferation are now greater than ever. Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940217]

Unknown: Stuart Simon

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940220]

Counting Our Chickens?

As the nuclear menace appears to be waning, Stuart Simon asks if the dangers of proliferation are now greater than ever.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940220]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940224]

Despite 15 years of a Conservative Government preaching stricter family values, sexual liberalism in Britain has continued to grow. Hugh Prysor-Jones examines this paradox in British society and its implications for the future role of the state in regulating sexual behaviour. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940224]

Unknown: Hugh Prysor-Jones

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940227]

Consenting Adults

Despite 15 years of a Conservative government preaching stricter family values, sexual liberalism in Britain has continued to grow. Hugh Prysor-Jones examines this paradox in British society.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940227]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940303]

Tax and Spend

Next month's tax increases have prompted accusations that the electorate were misled in 1992. But does this debate ignore basic questions about taxation and public spending. Can expectations of public services be satisfied without higher taxes? Andrew Dilnot reports.

Producer Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940303]

Unknown: Andrew Dilnot

Producer: Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940313]

Battle of the Giants

In the last of the series, Stuart Simon asks what the new preoccupation with "national competitiveness" will mean for jobs, wages and industrial performance.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940313]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940421]

Keeping Our Guard Up Have Britain and its European partners come up with coherent defence strategies? Stuart Simon assesses the viability of the Atlantic Alliance. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940421]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940424]

Keeping Our Guard Up

Stuart Simon assesses the strength and viability of the European pillar of the Atlantic Alliance.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940424]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940428]

Whose Authority?

Next week's local elections take place at a time of disillusionment with the political process, and when local government itself has lost much of its power. Melanie Phillips examines just how much impact the elections will have on local governance and asks whether we need to find new ways of reinvigorating local democracy. Producer Michael Blastland

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940428]

Unknown: Melanie Phillips

Producer: Michael Blastland

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940501]

Whose Authority?

Melanie Phillips examines the impact of this week's local elections.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940501]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940505]

The Fate of Nations

National and ethnic conflicts now appear to threaten the stability of the post-Cold War order. Brendan O'Leary asks why states and international organisations have failed to contain ethnic violence and how they might do better.

Producer Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940505]

Unknown: Brendan O'Leary

Producer: Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940508]

Brendan O'Leary investigates why states and international organisations have failed to contain ethnic violence.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940508]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940512]

Friends, Partners and Federalists?

Britain's aim of seeing more countries join the European Union will finally be realised next year. But with wrangling over economic and monetary union, majority voting and security issues persisting, Ian Davidson asks what difference enlargement will make, and if British hopes of curbing "federalism" will be fulfilled.

Producer Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940512]

Unknown: Ian Davidson

Producer: Simon Coates

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940515]

Friends, Partners and Federalists?

Ian Davidson reports on the likely effects of enlargement of the European Union.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940515]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940519]

The Triumph of Reason?

Hugh Prysor-Jones asks why the creed of "managerialism" has been so successful and how much trust we should place in it. Producer Michael Blastland

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940519]

Unknown: Hugh Prysor-Jones

Producer: Michael Blastland

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940522]

The Triumph of Reason?

Hugh Prysor-Jones asks why the creed of managerialism has been so successful.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940522]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940526]

Banking on Independence

Stuart Simon asks if an independent Bank of England would provide a cure for the boom-bust cycles which have bedevilled the ecomony since the war.

Producer Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940526]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940602]

A Woman's Place

Has the traditional feminist preoccupation with equality been overtaken by women's experience of education and the job market? Francine Stock considers the case for a new approach to gender difference. Producer Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940602]

Unknown: Francine Stock

Producer: Zareer Masani

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940612]

Hugo Young chairs a discussion examining the root causes of European voters' current lack of enthusiasm for their parliamentary democracies.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940612]

Unknown: Hugo Young

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940616]

Investment Opportunities

The UK invests less than it used to, and less than many of its competitors.

Andrew Dilnot examines the implications for economic recovery, and asks whether the tax system and financial institutions should be changed to encourage investment.

Producer Nicola Meyrick (RepeatedSundayat4.15pm)

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940616]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940619]

Andrew Dilnot looks at UK investment.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940619]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940623]

Fear of Frying

From global warming to toxic waste, public scares that we may be endangering the planet's future are increasingly dictating costly political and commercial decisions. Stuart Simon asks whether these fears are rational and why environmental concerns take precedence over more obvious and immediate hazards.

Producer Michael Blastland

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940623]

Unknown: Stuart Simon

Producer: Michael Blastland

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940626]

Stuart Simon asks whether fears for the planet's future are rational.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940626]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940703]

Why is so much faith placed in managerial solutions to economic and social ills?

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940707]

Jobs for the Boys?

Full employment is back on the political agenda, but most forecasters predict high rates of joblessness for the next decade. In the last of the series, Melanie Phillips asks whether we've learned to tolerate a society where many people have never worked, and if there are compelling arguments for a new approach to the problem of unemployed young men.

Producer Nicola Meyrick

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940707]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19940710]

Full employment is back on the political agenda, but most forecasters predict high rates of joblessness for the next decade. In the last of the series, Melanie Phillips asks whether we have learned to tolerate a society where many people have never worked.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19940710]
Genome: [r4 Bd=19941006]

Germany First?

Whoever wins this month's German elections will lead Europe's most populous, richest, and, increasingly, its most self-confident state. David Sells asks what defines Germany's identity. Producer Ingrid Hassler. Rptd Sunday 4.15pm

Genome: [r4 Bd=19941006]

Unknown: David Sells

Producer: Ingrid Hassler.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19941009]

Repeated from Thursday

Repeated from Thursday

Genome: [r4 Bd=19941013]

Where Have All the Leaders Gone?

Denys Blakeway examines the crisis in political authority and asks whether effective leadership is still possible in an era of media sound-bites and constant opinion polls.

P