The Citizens

Zina Rohan (series 1) and Paul Heiney (series 2+) profiles extraordinary Europeans - individuals whose actions or creativity have made a difference to the people of their country and sometimes beyond.


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For decades, Letizia Battaglia has used her camera as a weapon against the Sicilian MAFIA.

Her stark images have shocked the world and prompted the first serious investigation into relations between the MAFIA and top Italian politicians.

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For decades, Letizia Battaglia has used her camera as a weapon against the Sicilian MAFIA.

Her stark images have shocked the world and prompted the first serious investigation into relations between the MAFIA and top Italian politicians.

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Bernard Pivot is revered for having championed literature on French television for almost 30 years.

His comments have a dramatic effect upon book sales and his annual `dictee nationale' has made even spelling tests glamorous.

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His clients include Prada and Chinese state television.

His materials range from marble to corrugated plastic.

He finds inspiration in the urban chaos of Lagos and in the poured concrete of the Pearl River Delta.

Some call him a visionary, shaping the cities of the 21st century.

Rem Koolhaas is a thin wiry man, who wears low key black polo necks and jeans.

But at lectures he is mobbed like a rock star and students are queuing up to work in his office.

In the final programme of a series on remarkable Europeans, The Citizens, Zina Rohan goes to Rotterdam to meet the world's most provocative ARCHITECT.

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Oldrich Cerny, who edited children's books before the collapse of Communism, was asked to head the country's first intelligence network a few years ago, and is credited with bringing the Czech Republic into NATO.

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Tine Bryld has become the voice of Danish youth and the country's favourite radio agony aunt.

But when she began her show 25 years ago, politicians accused her of promoting communism and parents blamed her when teenagers left home.

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Jose Mantero, a priest from a small town in Andalusia, was sacked earlier this year when he gave an interview to a gay magazine.

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Lawyer Eren Keskin is head of the Human Rights Association in Istanbul and her clients include persecuted Kurds, Islamists and hunger strikers.

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Astronomer Jenik Hollan has persuaded the Czech parliament to pass the first ever national law limiting light pollution.

Jenik Hollans mission in life is to make the world a darker place.

A leading astronomer in the Czech Republic, he has persuaded the parliament to pass the first ever national law to limit light pollution.

Hollan knew that ministers who couldn't have cared less about a few moaning astronomers might be more swayed by the idea of reducing the nations power bills.

And by the fact that they would be able to boast on the international stage that they'd put the Czech Republic at the forefront of environmental reform.

But Hollan himself is passionate about seeing stars and even believes that a clearer view of the Milky Way might help to wipe out drug abuse among young people.

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writes crime novels that are more than just a rollicking yarn.

This is pulp fiction RUSSIAn-style inside the violent world of capitalism in the wild east.

They've been called the philosophy of the times and they sell in their hundreds of thousands.

The former Prime Minister, Yegor Gaidar, who was behind many of the big market reforms in the early 90s, says she's essentiAl Reading for anybody wanting to do business in modern-day RUSSIA.

You can't have a good plot without sex and guns, says Latynina, because in RUSSIA you don't have real life without sex and guns.

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Noel Godin is Brussels' notorious 'entarteur' - pie thrower or patisserie-terrorist.

In France and in his native Belgium, he has been a household name for decades and even has his own fortnightly TV show.

Godin's autobiography is entitled Cream and Punishment and his most recent book sold out in just six days, but it wasn't until he scored a precision hit on Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates that Godin gained notoriety in the Anglophone world.

Does Godin have a serious agenda and what are the real politics of pie throwing? Paul Heiney investigates.

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Paul Henley meets Sweden's best known prostitute.

She's Angolan-born Rosinha Sambo, a feisty campaigner for prostitutes' rights.

In Sweden it's only illegal to buy sex, not to solicit or sell it.

But Rosinha wanted all sides of the transaction to be legal, and so she registered herself as a taxpayer.

Once the state demanded monthly payments, she sued it for being a pimp.

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Ferran Adria is Spain's, and some would say, the world's most inventive chef.

His restaurant is closed for six months of the year, so that he can concoct new recipes, textures and techniques in a food lab.

He's famous for his ""foams"", and for serving solid versions of foods that are normally liquid, but melt again in your mouth.

Diners from Madrid to Manhattan have raved about his spaghetti made from beef consommé, his paella made from rice krispies, or his parmesan flavoured ice-cream.

His restaurant near Barcelona has three Michelin stars, and he's revolutionising cooking well beyond Spain.

Most call him a genius, but could he be a charlatan?

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Ukrainian neurosurgeon Igor Kurilets has infuriated his country's medical establishment by refusing to accept bribes and denouncing colleagues who do so.

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Today, Paul Henley meets Idris Senneh, Italy's most famous new Citizen - he moved there from Senegal over 30 years ago.

He's made an impact as the 'acceptable' face of immigration, in a country where the most common image of African immigrants is that of the beach or street hawker, or, if they're female, prostitutes.

Idris first became famous as a TV football commentator, and now runs a daily television news programme aimed at immigrant communities, which is broadcast in 7 languages from Arabic to Albanian.

In Idris's home town of Brescia, seventy per cent of all factory jobs are now held by immigrants.

These are not jobs most Italians want and the country desperately needs new people because it now has Europe's lowest birth rate.

But Italy has had a hard time coping psychologically with successive waves of immigrants.

Idris's charisma and openness towards people helps to break down years of prejudice and mistrust.

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Paul Henley meets the first woman in 3000 years to lead Europe's oldest capital.

Dora Bakoyannis is the popular and glamorous new mayor of Athens, and she's determined to get one of the most chaotic cities on earth into shape for next year's OLYMPICS.

The widow of a man gunned down by the secretive November 17th terrorist group, her life intersects with some of the darker chapters of Greece's past, but now Bakoyannis is forging a new identity for herself and for her country.