Coronavirus - The Evidence [The Evidence] [World Service]

Episodes

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Are National Lockdowns Evidence Of Policy Failure?2020103120201101 (WS)As a surge of cases risks overwhelming health services in parts of Europe, Claudia Hammond and experts from around the world examine the evidence behind using lockdowns to supress the virus.

Lockdowns describe a huge range of actions that many governments took in the first wave of the pandemic when so little was known about where the virus was circulating. But full lockdowns are seen as very blunt tools, a last resort because they can have enormous social and economic consequences.

Instead a more targeted, localised, smarter response to slow down transmission is recommended, where data about virus circulation informs focussed interventions.

Also in the programme, The Great Barrington Declaration earlier this month called for an end to current lockdown policies and appealed for the vulnerable to receive “focussed protection” while everybody else “should immediately be allowed to resume life as normal”. The goal, the group of scientists said, should be to minimise deaths and social harm, until herd immunity, or population immunity, is reached.

The World Health Organisation has described such a strategy as dangerous and counterproductive. Claudia’s guests discuss the scientific and ethical issues raised and consider the scale of global exposure to this novel virus. So far only around 10% of the world’s population have been infected so what would a policy of herd immunity in the absence of a vaccine mean for the remaining 90%?

Listeners put their questions about coronavirus and the pandemic directly to Claudia and her panel of specialists, which this month includes Dr Maria Van Kerkhove, Technical Lead for the World Health Organisation’s Covid-19 Response; Professor Salim Abdool Karim, a clinical infectious diseases epidemiologist and Chair of South Africa’s Ministerial Advisory Committee for Covid-19; Martin McKee, Professor of European Public Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and one of the signatories to the John Snow Memorandum; epidemiologist Tove Fall, Professor at Uppsala University in Sweden running the Covid-19 symptom app and virologist Professor Steven Van Gucht, from Sciensano, the Belgian national institute for public and animal health.

The Evidence is produced in association with Wellcome Collection.
Production team: Fiona Hill and Maria Simons
Studio engineer: Jackie Margerum
Editor: Deborah Cohen

Photo: Customers standing on markers, Credit: Sam Panthaky/AFP/Getty Images

Locked in the lockdown cycle \u2013 evidence for a more targeted response

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Coronavirus: The Evidence2020092620200927 (WS)In The Evidence Claudia Hammond is joined by an expert scientific panel to answer questions from the audience on a variety of aspects of the coronavirus and Covid 19, from the impact of lockdowns and self isolation on the spread of the disease, to the question of who should be tested and the search for treatments.
Professor Vivek Jha, Executive Director, of the George Institute for Global Health, India, talks about the situation in his country where a lockdown was announced four hours before it began.

Dr Lyndsey Broadbent, a virologist at Queens University Belfast in Northern Ireland, explains what is now known about the biology of the virus and why it causes serious disease in some people and no symptoms in others.
Christos Lynteris, a medical anthropologist from St Andrews University, discusses the issue of stigma that’s being experienced by some people who have had Covid-19.

Claudia also hears from a psychiatrist at the University of Verona in northern Italy, which has taken the brunt of cases in the country about some of the most serious consequences for doctors and nurses, and the general population.

Claudia Hammond is joined by experts to answer questions about the coronavirus Covid-19.

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Coronavirus: The Evidence20201226

Less than a year in, and the first vaccines are already being rolled out, with many more in the pipeline. It is an unprecedented scientific response to the global pandemic and researchers around the world have provided the first hope against one of the most formidable challenges facing humanity in a century.

Claudia Hammond and her expert panel of guests consider the scale of this herculean effort and answer listeners' questions about vaccine safety, trust, immunity and long term protection.

The World Health Organisation has repeatedly said that no-one is safe until we are all safe, so the threat of vaccine nationalism and the purchase of millions of the first vaccine doses by rich countries is something that is concerning everybody worried about equitable vaccine distribution.

How will the COVAX facility, which is designed to boost vaccine purchasing power for the world's poorest countries, fare in the face of nationalistic purchasing - and will surplus doses be shared so that all seven point five billion of us can get protection?

And, finally, the scale of the threat from vaccine hesitancy. Any vaccine is only as good as the numbers of people who will take it to achieve herd immunity. The numbers of those suspicious about a potential Covid-19 vaccine have grown over the course of the pandemic, causing real concern for governments around the world. How can people be reassured that vaccines are safe?

This month, Claudia's guests include Professor Peter Hotez, Dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor college of Medicine in Houston and co-director of the Texas Children's Hospital Centre for Vaccine Development in the USA, Professor Helen Rees, founder and executive director of the Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of Witwatersrand in South Africa, Kalipso Chalkidou, Professor of Practice in Global Health at Imperial College, London and Director of Global Health Policy at the Centre for Global Development and Dr Ève Dubé, a medical anthropologist from the Institute of Public Health in Quebec, Canada.

Produced by: Fiona Hill, Samara Linton and Maria Simons
Editor: Deborah Cohen
Technical Support: Tim Heffer and Giles Aspen

Picture: Covid-19 Vaccination Clinics Open In Surrey, UK, Credit: Leon Neal/Getty Images

Claudia Hammond is joined by experts to answer questions about the coronavirus Covid-19.

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science\u2019s effect on our world

Coronavirus: The Evidence2020122620201227 (WS)Less than a year in, and the first vaccines are already being rolled out, with many more in the pipeline. It is an unprecedented scientific response to the global pandemic and researchers around the world have provided the first hope against one of the most formidable challenges facing humanity in a century.

Claudia Hammond and her expert panel of guests consider the scale of this herculean effort and answer listeners' questions about vaccine safety, trust, immunity and long term protection.

The World Health Organisation has repeatedly said that no-one is safe until we are all safe, so the threat of vaccine nationalism and the purchase of millions of the first vaccine doses by rich countries is something that is concerning everybody worried about equitable vaccine distribution.

How will the COVAX facility, which is designed to boost vaccine purchasing power for the world's poorest countries, fare in the face of nationalistic purchasing - and will surplus doses be shared so that all seven point five billion of us can get protection?

And, finally, the scale of the threat from vaccine hesitancy. Any vaccine is only as good as the numbers of people who will take it to achieve herd immunity. The numbers of those suspicious about a potential Covid-19 vaccine have grown over the course of the pandemic, causing real concern for governments around the world. How can people be reassured that vaccines are safe?

This month, Claudia's guests include Professor Peter Hotez, Dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor college of Medicine in Houston and co-director of the Texas Children's Hospital Centre for Vaccine Development in the USA, Professor Helen Rees, founder and executive director of the Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of Witwatersrand in South Africa, Kalipso Chalkidou, Professor of Practice in Global Health at Imperial College, London and Director of Global Health Policy at the Centre for Global Development and Dr Ève Dubé, a medical anthropologist from the Institute of Public Health in Quebec, Canada.

Produced by: Fiona Hill, Samara Linton and Maria Simons
Editor: Deborah Cohen
Technical Support: Tim Heffer and Giles Aspen

Picture: Covid-19 Vaccination Clinics Open In Surrey, UK, Credit: Leon Neal/Getty Images

Claudia Hammond is joined by experts to answer questions about the coronavirus Covid-19.

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Coronavirus: The Evidence 12020040420200405 (WS)
20200406 (WS)
Claudia Hammond and a panel of international experts discuss the latest research into Covid-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus which is sweeping through the world.

The Evidence looks at what we know about the virus and the immune system, why does it cause mild or even no symptoms in some people but makes others very ill?

And as the disease is now pandemic, is there less stigma?

On the panel are Professor Vivek Jha, the Executive Director of George Institute for Global Health India, Dr Christos Lynteris a medical anthropologist from The University of St. Andrews and Dr Lindsay Broadbent, a virologist from Queens University Belfast.

The Evidence is made in collaboration with the Wellcome Collection.

Presenter: Claudia Hammond
Producer: Geraldine Fitzgerald

(Photo: People taking precautions by wearing masks, New Delhi, India. Credit: Amal KS/Hindustan Times/Getty Images)

International experts take a look at the science surrounding Covid-19

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Email: the.evidence@bbc.co.uk

Covid 19: Ending Lockdowns2020051620200517 (WS)When and how to end lockdowns?

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Claudia Hammond and her panel of scientists and doctors analyse the latest science on the coronavirus and answer the audience’s questions on the impact of the pandemic.

Dr Lucy van Dorp of UCL explores the genetics of the virus and what they can tell us about how far it’s spread and how is it evolving. Can we be sure that vaccines being developed now will still work in the future? Professor Guy Thwaites of the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit in Vietnam explains how the country has succeeding in keeping its cases so low. Professor David Heymann of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and Professor Ngaire Woods, of the Blavatnik School of Government at Oxford University, tackle the question that people all around the world are wondering right now – how does a country safely emerge from lockdown without seeing a surge in cases?

And Professor Lisa Cooper of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and family doctor and Director of the Shuri Network, Dr Shera Chok, discuss why black and other ethnic minorities in the US and UK seem to be so disproportionately impacted by Covid 19.
The Evidence is produced in association with Wellcome Collection.

Producers: Geraldine Fitzgerald and Caroline Steel
Editor: Deborah Cohen

Picture: Barber in Christchurch welcomes back customers, Credit: AFP/Getty Images

Covid 19: Recovery2020071120200712 (WS)Claudia Hammond and a panel of international experts look at the latest research into Covid-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus which is sweeping through the world.

Our panel of experts discuss how many people make full recoveries but others are finding that life hasn’t yet returned to normal months after infection. In India and Sweden, clinics are being set up to follow survivors of the virus and doctors are discovering that people are having difficulties assimilating what happened to them. And we hear about how three generations of one Spanish family all survived and how they are all recovering differently, including the 96 year old grandmother.

On the panel are Seema Shah, Professor of Medical Ethics at North Western University, Professor David Heymann, an infectious disease epidemiologist at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Professor Soo Aleman from the Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden, Dr David Collier, Clinical director of the William Harvey Clinical Research Centre, Queen Mary University of London and Dr Netravathi M, Professor of Neurology at the National Institute for Mental Health and Neuroscience in Bangalore in India.

The Evidence is produced in association with Wellcome Collection.

Producers: Geraldine Fitzgerald and Caroline Steel
Editor: Deborah Cohen

Picture: A physiotherapist takes care of a patient in rehabilitation as he recovers from an infection with the coronavirus COVID-19, Credit: Patrick/AFP via Getty Images

The latest on how people are recovering from Covid 19

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Covid 19: Sub-saharan Africa And Testing2020053020200531 (WS)How sub-Saharan Africa is handling the pandemic and the different kinds of tests

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Claudia Hammond and a panel of international experts look at the latest research into Covid-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus which is sweeping through the world.

As the disease spreads how is sub-Saharan Africa handling the pandemic? We also look at tests – how accurate are they? Should we be testing ourselves at home?

On the panel are Folasade Ogunsola, Professor of Clinical Microbiology at the University of Lagos in Nigeria, Ravi Gupta, Professor of Microbiology at the University of Cambridge’s Department of Medicine, Matthew Fox, Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at Boston University and Dr Margaret Harris, a Spokesperson at the World Health Organisation.

The Evidence is produced in association with Wellcome Collection.
Producers: Geraldine Fitzgerald and Caroline Steel
Editor: Deborah Cohen

(Photo: South Africa coronavirus township testing, Credit: Kim Ludbrook/EPA)

Covid 19: Transmission And South America2020061320200614 (WS)How South America is handling the pandemic and a look at disease transmission.

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Claudia Hammond and a panel of international experts look at the latest research into Covid-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus which is sweeping through the world.

As the disease spreads how is South America handling the pandemic? How are the indigenous people of the Amazon protecting themselves? We also look at the aerodynamics of infection - if the air in an ITU room is changed 12 times and the virus still lingers what hope do offices have?

On the panel are Professor Lydia Bourouiba, Associate Professor at the Fluid Dynamics of Disease Transmission Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr Adam Kucharski from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Professor Holgar Schunemann, co-director of the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Infectious Diseases, Dr David Collier, Clinical Director at Queen Mary University London and Barbara Fraser, health journalist in the Peruvian capital Lima.

The Evidence is produced in association with Wellcome Collection.
Producers: Geraldine Fitzgerald and Caroline Steel
Editor: Deborah Cohen

Picture: Employees of the Ciudad de Dios market wait respecting safety distances to be tested by workers of the Health Ministry to discard COVID-19 in Lima on May 11, 2020. Credit: Ernesto Benavides/AFP via Getty Images

Covid 19: Vaccines And After Lockdown2020062720200628 (WS)The latest on vaccines and how people are behaving after lockdown

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Claudia Hammond and a panel of international experts look at the latest research into Covid-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus which is sweeping through the world.

We look at vaccines to stop the spread of the coronavirus. And as travel opens up in many countries and visiting family and friends is allowed, how do we navigate this new world while avoiding catching the virus.

On the panel are Dr George Hu, clinical psychologist & Section Chief of Mental Health at Shanghai United Family Pudong Hospital in China, Vaccine expert - Professor Gagandeep Kang Executive Director of the Translational Health Science Technology Institute in Faridabad India, Dr Jenny Rohn is an expert in microbiology and viruses at University College London and Dr Margaret Harris, a Spokesperson at the World Health Organisation.

The Evidence is produced in association with Wellcome Collection.
Producers: Geraldine Fitzgerald and Caroline Steel
Editor: Deborah Cohen

Picture: Young couple on date in time of virus pandemic, Credit: urbazon/Getty Images

Covid Lessons For Safe School Reopening2020092620200927 (WS)Claudia Hammond and experts from around the world consider the evidence behind schools, colleges and coronavirus spread. Listeners from India, Cuba, Italy, Brazil, Canada, Hong Kong, France, the USA pitch their questions to the specialists.

Research so far shows a low risk of transmission but as children and young people return to classrooms across the globe, will that remain the case?

And Claudia and the team look at that vital role of “test, trace and isolate” when it comes to SARS-CoV-2, something the World Health Organisation describes as the backbone of any Covid-19 response.

Which countries are getting this right and what can others learn from the best? New research comparing six countries from Europe, Africa and Asia highlights the successes and the failures.

Plus Kat, a nurse from Kansas City, Missouri gives a first hand account of pandemic response in the USA and then, when she moved to Germany in the summer, from Stuttgart.

On the panel are Dr Regina Osih, an infectious disease and public health specialist from the Aurum Institute in South Africa who’s working on the country’s Covid response, Dr Young June Choe, paediatrician and assistant professor at Hallym University in South Korea, Gail Davey, Professor of Global Health Epidemiology at Brighton and Sussex Medical School in England, David Heymann, Professor of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine from France and Dr Margaret Harris from the WHO in Geneva.

The Evidence is produced in association with Wellcome Collection.

Production team: Fiona Hill, Samara Linton and Maria Simons
Studio engineers: Matilda Macari and Tim Heffer
Editor: Deborah Cohen

Picture: Primary school children wearing face masks as a protective measure against the COVID-19 novel coronavirus, Credit: KIM WON JIN/AFP via Getty Images

Will schools and colleges reopening fuel Covid-19 spread?

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Claudia Hammond and experts from around the world consider the evidence behind schools, colleges and coronavirus spread. Listeners from India, Cuba, Italy, Brazil, Canada, Hong Kong, France, the USA pitch their questions to the specialists.

Research so far shows a low risk of transmission but as children and young people return to classrooms across the globe, will that remain the case?

And Claudia and the team look at that vital role of “test, trace and isolate” when it comes to SARS-CoV-2, something the World Health Organisation describes as the backbone of any Covid-19 response.

Which countries are getting this right and what can others learn from the best? New research comparing six countries from Europe, Africa and Asia highlights the successes and the failures.

Plus Kat, a nurse from Kansas City, Missouri gives a first hand account of pandemic response in the USA and then, when she moved to Germany in the summer, from Stuttgart.

On the panel are Dr Regina Osih, an infectious disease and public health specialist from the Aurum Institute in South Africa who’s working on the country’s Covid response, Dr Young June Choe, paediatrician and assistant professor at Hallym University in South Korea, Gail Davey, Professor of Global Health Epidemiology at Brighton and Sussex Medical School in England, David Heymann, Professor of Infectious Disease Epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine from France and Dr Margaret Harris from the WHO in Geneva.

The Evidence is produced in association with Wellcome Collection.

Production team: Fiona Hill, Samara Linton and Maria Simons
Studio engineers: Matilda Macari and Tim Heffer
Editor: Deborah Cohen

Picture: Primary school children wearing face masks as a protective measure against the COVID-19 novel coronavirus, Credit: KIM WON JIN/AFP via Getty Images

Will schools and colleges reopening fuel Covid-19 spread?

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Hopes and Fears for Covid-19 Vaccines20201226

Less than a year in, and the first vaccines are already being rolled out, with many more in the pipeline. It is an unprecedented scientific response to the global pandemic and researchers around the world have provided the first hope against one of the most formidable challenges facing humanity in a century.

Claudia Hammond and her expert panel of guests consider the scale of this herculean effort and answer listeners' questions about vaccine safety, trust, immunity and long term protection.

The World Health Organisation has repeatedly said that no-one is safe until we are all safe, so the threat of vaccine nationalism and the purchase of millions of the first vaccine doses by rich countries is something that is concerning everybody worried about equitable vaccine distribution.

How will the COVAX facility, which is designed to boost vaccine purchasing power for the world's poorest countries, fare in the face of nationalistic purchasing - and will surplus doses be shared so that all seven point five billion of us can get protection?

And, finally, the scale of the threat from vaccine hesitancy. Any vaccine is only as good as the numbers of people who will take it to achieve herd immunity. The numbers of those suspicious about a potential Covid-19 vaccine have grown over the course of the pandemic, causing real concern for governments around the world. How can people be reassured that vaccines are safe?

This month, Claudia's guests include Professor Peter Hotez, Dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor college of Medicine in Houston and co-director of the Texas Children's Hospital Centre for Vaccine Development in the USA, Professor Helen Rees, founder and executive director of the Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of Witwatersrand in South Africa, Kalipso Chalkidou, Professor of Practice in Global Health at Imperial College, London and Director of Global Health Policy at the Centre for Global Development and Dr Ève Dubé, a medical anthropologist from the Institute of Public Health in Quebec, Canada.

Produced by: Fiona Hill, Samara Linton and Maria Simons
Editor: Deborah Cohen
Technical Support: Tim Heffer and Giles Aspen

Picture: Covid-19 Vaccination Clinics Open In Surrey, UK, Credit: Leon Neal/Getty Images

Vaccines could mean liberation for all but will rich countries yet again corner supplies?

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science\u2019s effect on our world

Hopes and fears for Covid-19 vaccines20201226

Less than a year in, and the first vaccines are already being rolled out, with many more in the pipeline. It is an unprecedented scientific response to the global pandemic and researchers around the world have provided the first hope against one of the most formidable challenges facing humanity in a century.

Claudia Hammond and her expert panel of guests consider the scale of this herculean effort and answer listeners' questions about vaccine safety, trust, immunity and long term protection.

The World Health Organisation has repeatedly said that no-one is safe until we are all safe, so the threat of vaccine nationalism and the purchase of millions of the first vaccine doses by rich countries is something that is concerning everybody worried about equitable vaccine distribution.

How will the COVAX facility, which is designed to boost vaccine purchasing power for the world's poorest countries, fare in the face of nationalistic purchasing - and will surplus doses be shared so that all seven point five billion of us can get protection?

And, finally, the scale of the threat from vaccine hesitancy. Any vaccine is only as good as the numbers of people who will take it to achieve herd immunity. The numbers of those suspicious about a potential Covid-19 vaccine have grown over the course of the pandemic, causing real concern for governments around the world. How can people be reassured that vaccines are safe?

This month, Claudia's guests include Professor Peter Hotez, Dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor college of Medicine in Houston and co-director of the Texas Children's Hospital Centre for Vaccine Development in the USA, Professor Helen Rees, founder and executive director of the Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of Witwatersrand in South Africa, Kalipso Chalkidou, Professor of Practice in Global Health at Imperial College, London and Director of Global Health Policy at the Centre for Global Development and Dr Ève Dubé, a medical anthropologist from the Institute of Public Health in Quebec, Canada.

Produced by: Fiona Hill, Samara Linton and Maria Simons
Editor: Deborah Cohen
Technical Support: Tim Heffer and Giles Aspen

Picture: Covid-19 Vaccination Clinics Open In Surrey, UK, Credit: Leon Neal/Getty Images

Vaccines could mean liberation for all, but will rich countries corner supplies?

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science\u2019s effect on our world

Hopes and fears for Covid-19 vaccines2020122620201227 (WS)

Less than a year in, and the first vaccines are already being rolled out, with many more in the pipeline. It is an unprecedented scientific response to the global pandemic and researchers around the world have provided the first hope against one of the most formidable challenges facing humanity in a century.

Claudia Hammond and her expert panel of guests consider the scale of this herculean effort and answer listeners' questions about vaccine safety, trust, immunity and long term protection.

The World Health Organisation has repeatedly said that no-one is safe until we are all safe, so the threat of vaccine nationalism and the purchase of millions of the first vaccine doses by rich countries is something that is concerning everybody worried about equitable vaccine distribution.

How will the COVAX facility, which is designed to boost vaccine purchasing power for the world's poorest countries, fare in the face of nationalistic purchasing - and will surplus doses be shared so that all seven point five billion of us can get protection?

And, finally, the scale of the threat from vaccine hesitancy. Any vaccine is only as good as the numbers of people who will take it to achieve herd immunity. The numbers of those suspicious about a potential Covid-19 vaccine have grown over the course of the pandemic, causing real concern for governments around the world. How can people be reassured that vaccines are safe?

This month, Claudia's guests include Professor Peter Hotez, Dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor college of Medicine in Houston and co-director of the Texas Children's Hospital Centre for Vaccine Development in the USA, Professor Helen Rees, founder and executive director of the Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of Witwatersrand in South Africa, Kalipso Chalkidou, Professor of Practice in Global Health at Imperial College, London and Director of Global Health Policy at the Centre for Global Development and Dr Ève Dubé, a medical anthropologist from the Institute of Public Health in Quebec, Canada.

Produced by: Fiona Hill, Samara Linton and Maria Simons
Editor: Deborah Cohen
Technical Support: Tim Heffer and Giles Aspen

Picture: Covid-19 Vaccination Clinics Open In Surrey, UK, Credit: Leon Neal/Getty Images

Vaccines could mean liberation for all, but will rich countries corner supplies?

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science\u2019s effect on our world

Hopes And Fears For Covid-19 Vaccines2020122620201227 (WS)Less than a year in, and the first vaccines are already being rolled out, with many more in the pipeline. It is an unprecedented scientific response to the global pandemic and researchers around the world have provided the first hope against one of the most formidable challenges facing humanity in a century.

Claudia Hammond and her expert panel of guests consider the scale of this herculean effort and answer listeners' questions about vaccine safety, trust, immunity and long term protection.

The World Health Organisation has repeatedly said that no-one is safe until we are all safe, so the threat of vaccine nationalism and the purchase of millions of the first vaccine doses by rich countries is something that is concerning everybody worried about equitable vaccine distribution.

How will the COVAX facility, which is designed to boost vaccine purchasing power for the world's poorest countries, fare in the face of nationalistic purchasing - and will surplus doses be shared so that all seven point five billion of us can get protection?

And, finally, the scale of the threat from vaccine hesitancy. Any vaccine is only as good as the numbers of people who will take it to achieve herd immunity. The numbers of those suspicious about a potential Covid-19 vaccine have grown over the course of the pandemic, causing real concern for governments around the world. How can people be reassured that vaccines are safe?

This month, Claudia's guests include Professor Peter Hotez, Dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor college of Medicine in Houston and co-director of the Texas Children's Hospital Centre for Vaccine Development in the USA, Professor Helen Rees, founder and executive director of the Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of Witwatersrand in South Africa, Kalipso Chalkidou, Professor of Practice in Global Health at Imperial College, London and Director of Global Health Policy at the Centre for Global Development and Dr Ève Dubé, a medical anthropologist from the Institute of Public Health in Quebec, Canada.

Produced by: Fiona Hill, Samara Linton and Maria Simons
Editor: Deborah Cohen
Technical Support: Tim Heffer and Giles Aspen

Picture: Covid-19 Vaccination Clinics Open In Surrey, UK, Credit: Leon Neal/Getty Images

Vaccines could mean liberation for all but will rich countries yet again corner supplies?

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Claudia Hammond and her expert panel of guests consider the scale of this herculean effort and answer listeners' questions about vaccine safety, trust, immunity and long term protection.

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Claudia Hammond is joined by experts to answer questions about the coronavirus Covid-19.

Claudia Hammond is joined by experts to answer questions about the coronavirus Covid-19.

Hopes And Fears For Covid-19 Vaccines2020122620201227 (WS)Less than a year in, and the first vaccines are already being rolled out, with many more in the pipeline. It is an unprecedented scientific response to the global pandemic and researchers around the world have provided the first hope against one of the most formidable challenges facing humanity in a century.

Claudia Hammond and her expert panel of guests consider the scale of this herculean effort and answer listeners' questions about vaccine safety, trust, immunity and long term protection.

The World Health Organisation has repeatedly said that no-one is safe until we are all safe, so the threat of vaccine nationalism and the purchase of millions of the first vaccine doses by rich countries is something that is concerning everybody worried about equitable vaccine distribution.

How will the COVAX facility, which is designed to boost vaccine purchasing power for the world's poorest countries, fare in the face of nationalistic purchasing - and will surplus doses be shared so that all seven point five billion of us can get protection?

And, finally, the scale of the threat from vaccine hesitancy. Any vaccine is only as good as the numbers of people who will take it to achieve herd immunity. The numbers of those suspicious about a potential Covid-19 vaccine have grown over the course of the pandemic, causing real concern for governments around the world. How can people be reassured that vaccines are safe?

This month, Claudia's guests include Professor Peter Hotez, Dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor college of Medicine in Houston and co-director of the Texas Children's Hospital Centre for Vaccine Development in the USA, Professor Helen Rees, founder and executive director of the Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute, University of Witwatersrand in South Africa, Kalipso Chalkidou, Professor of Practice in Global Health at Imperial College, London and Director of Global Health Policy at the Centre for Global Development and Dr Ève Dubé, a medical anthropologist from the Institute of Public Health in Quebec, Canada.

Produced by: Fiona Hill, Samara Linton and Maria Simons
Editor: Deborah Cohen
Technical Support: Tim Heffer and Giles Aspen

Picture: Covid-19 Vaccination Clinics Open In Surrey, UK, Credit: Leon Neal/Getty Images

Vaccines could mean liberation for all but will rich countries yet again corner supplies?

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

India, Virology, Stigma20200418In The Evidence Claudia Hammond is joined by an expert scientific panel to answer questions from the audience on a variety of aspects of the coronavirus and Covid 19, from the impact of lockdowns and self isolation on the spread of the disease, to the question of who should be tested and the search for treatments.
Professor Vivek Jha, Executive Director, of the George Institute for Global Health, India, talks about the situation in his country where a lockdown was announced four hours before it began.

Dr Lyndsey Broadbent, a virologist at Queens University Belfast in Northern Ireland, explains what is now known about the biology of the virus and why it causes serious disease in some people and no symptoms in others.
Christos Lynteris, a medical anthropologist from St Andrews University, discusses the issue of stigma that’s being experienced by some people who have had Covid-19.

Claudia also hears from a psychiatrist at the University of Verona in northern Italy, which has taken the brunt of cases in the country about some of the most serious consequences for doctors and nurses, and the general population.

Picture: Young adult man wearing a pollution mask to protect himself from viruses, Credit: FilippoBacci/Getty Images

Claudia Hammond is joined by experts to answer questions about the coronavirus Covid-19.

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Mental Health And Covid-192020050220200503 (WS)How is our mental health during the pandemic?

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Now that more than half the population of the world has been living for a time in lockdown, Claudia Hammond and her panel of psychologists and psychiatrists answer the audience’s questions on the impact of the pandemic on our mental health. Dr George Hu, clinical psychologist and section chief of mental health at Shanghai United Family Pudong Hospital, tells us what he has seen in China, as it comes out of lockdown.

Professor Vikram Patel gives us a picture of mental health in India, which went very suddenly into lockdown. Manuela Barreto, Professor of Psychology at Exeter University, explains what research tells us about how isolation and loneliness affects us. Dr Jo Daniels, Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology at the University of Bath in the UK, talks about who is susceptible to long term health anxiety following the pandemic. And Professor Sir Simon Wessley, psychiatrist and Director of the Kings Centre for Military Research in London, answers questions on whether we can learn about the likely psychological consequences from previous pandemics and other global upheavals.

The Evidence is produced in association with Wellcome Collection.

Producer: Caroline Steel
Editor: Deborah Cohen

(Photo: Coronavirus outbreak in Pakistan, Credit: European Photopress Agency)

Pandemic Rules: Follower Or Flouter?2020112820201129 (WS)Millions of us, across the world, are subject to curfews, stay-at-home orders and lockdowns but what makes us stick to the rules, bend them or ignore them altogether? Claudia Hammond and her expert panel of guests consider the psychology of following the rules.

Leading social psychologists share research which show that higher levels of trust in leadership translates to more pandemic guidance followed. A sense of “We” not “I”, a shared identity, makes a difference too, as well as identification with the whole of humankind, not just your immediate family.

But there is danger too, from a “narrative of blame”, where individuals are demonised if they break the rules. Such an approach, Claudia hears, is corrosive to the all-important sense of shared identity and alienates some groups, while making others complacent.

Also in the programme, what impact can rapid “have you got it” antigen tests which give results in minutes, rather than days, have on the virus?

Claudia hears from the Cameroon in Central, West Africa, one of the first countries in the world to try mass testing using these rapid diagnostic tests. And she talks to scientists at the forefront of evaluating and modelling how their use could affect transmission of the virus, and daily life for all of us, until a vaccine is available.

This month, Claudia’s panel of specialists answers BBC World Service listeners’ questions and includes Professor Michael Mina, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology Immunology and Infectious Diseases at Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health in USA, Dr Margaret Harris, from the World Health Organisation in Geneva, Switzerland, Steve Reicher, Professor of Social Psychology at St Andrews University in Scotland, Professor Rolf Van Dick, social psychologist and Vice President of the Goethe University in Frankfurt, Germany and Dr Jilian Sacks, senior scientific officer for Pandemic Preparedness for FIND, the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics in Geneva.

The Evidence is produced in association with Wellcome Collection.
Producer: Fiona Hill
Studio engineer: Sarah Hockley
Editor: Deborah Cohen

Picture: COVID-19 Rapid Antigen detection test in New Delhi Metro stations, Credit: EPA/HARISH TYAGI

Why a sense of \u201cwe\u201d rather than \u201cI\u201d makes us more likely to follow pandemic rules

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Taiwan, Vaccines, Africa Preparedness2020040420200405 (WS)
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Claudia Hammond and a panel of international experts discuss the latest research into Covid-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus which is sweeping through the world.

The Evidence looks at what we know about the virus and the immune system, why does it cause mild or even no symptoms in some people but makes others very ill?

And as the disease is now pandemic, is there less stigma?

On the panel are Professor Vivek Jha, the Executive Director of George Institute for Global Health India, Dr Christos Lynteris a medical anthropologist from The University of St. Andrews and Dr Lindsay Broadbent, a virologist from Queens University Belfast.

The Evidence is made in collaboration with the Wellcome Collection.

Presenter: Claudia Hammond
Producer: Geraldine Fitzgerald

(Photo: People taking precautions by wearing masks, New Delhi, India. Credit: Amal KS/Hindustan Times/Getty Images)

Email: the.evidence@bbc.co.uk

International experts take a look at the science surrounding Covid-19

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Young People, Lifting Lockdowns, Usa And Kenya Updates2020041820200419 (WS)
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International experts take a look at the science surrounding Covid-19

Claudia Hammond joins scientists and experts to explore science's effect on our world

Claudia Hammond and a panel of international experts look at the latest research into Covid-19, the disease caused by the new coronavirus which is sweeping through the world.

As the disease spreads, younger people have perhaps not been getting the attention they deserve. How will this pandemic impact young people and do they feel included in government messaging?

As lockdowns are lifted in China – how can they prepare for what comes next?

And country updates on the USA and Kenya.

On the panel are Professor Tom Kariuki, Director of Programmes of the African Academy of Sciences, Dr Christina Atchison, Senior Clinical Teaching Fellow in Public Health Education at Imperial College London and Dr. Michael Mina, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health.

The Evidence is made in collaboration with the Wellcome Collection.

Presenter: Claudia Hammond
Producer: Geraldine Fitzgerald

Picture: Young adult man wearing a pollution mask to protect himself from viruses, Credit: FilippoBacci/Getty Images

Email: the.evidence@bbc.co.uk