Crossing Continents

Episodes

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19980815

Julian Pettifer goes to Baffin Island, off the Arctic coast of Canada, to meet the Inuit, formerly known as Eskimos, who will soon have their own government.

Will their territory, Nunavut, be a model for Aboriginal people across the world?

19980815

Julian Pettifer goes to Baffin Island, off the Arctic coast of Canada, to meet the Inuit, formerly known as Eskimos, who will soon have their own government.

Will their territory, Nunavut, be a model for Aboriginal people across the world?

19980822
19980822

By Moroccan law, women are still considered minors - a woman can even be imprisoned for having a child out of wedlock.

Olenka Frenkiel talks to the women who are trying to change their society.

19990614
19990621
20000911
20000911

Over 900 murders are committed in Jamaica every year.

Tim Whewell talks to citizens across the island who are determined to bring about change, from former politicians to members of a civil action group.

1999040819990412

Julian Pettifer travels to the Baltic republic of Estonia almost a decade after the Soviet Union began to fall apart.

He investigates an innovative scheme designed to improve relations between Estonians and RUSSIAns by having Estonian farmers foster deprived RUSSIAn children from the city.

1999041519990419

Rosie Goldsmith travels to the INDIAn state of Gujarat, to the place where ships go to die.

She talks to some of the thousands of men who scrape a living taking apart the ships on the beach at Alang and to the wealthy ship-brokers who make huge profits from one of the world's ugliest industries.

1999042219990426

Reports on the stories that matter to people around the world.

Traditional religion is being revived in the Nigerian oilfields as poor villagers invoke magic to fight for a share in the wealth.

John Egan reports on development projects, witchcraft and the market women who enjoy power their husbands can only dream of.

1999042919990503

Reports on the stories that matter to people around the world.

In 1998, Chicago witnessed more murders than NEW YORK or any other city in the UNITED STATES.

Olenka Frenkiel reports on a novel attempt by the city's mayor to control gun violence.

19990510

Reports on the stories that matter to people around the world.

19990517
19990524
19990607
1999062419990628

Reports on the stories that matter to people around the world.

Turkey has rushed to the forefront of countries opening their doors to refugees from Kosovo.

Up to six million Turks are of Albanian origin, but how closely do they identify with their Muslim brothers in the Balkans? Julian Pettifer talks to Albanian refugees, Kurds and Turks to explore the dilemma confronting modern-day Turkey.

1999070119990705

Reports on the stories that matter to people around the world.

Corsica, say the French, can drive people crazy.

In the past 16 months the government representative of PARIS on the island has been assassinated and his replacement arrested.

Rhod Sharp investigates why Corsica is such a difficult place.

1999070819990712

Reports on the stories that matter to people around the world.

Why would a a woman who wants a son kill a baby girl? Because that was the advice given by one of the pirs - living saints - who hold sway over millions of PAKISTANis.

Now tales of sexual abuse by pirs are emerging.

Meriel Beattie investigates.

1999071519990719

The Catholic Church has been virtually synonymous with the Republic of IRELAND since its creation, but the Celtic Tiger does not sit comfortably with the Lamb of God.

As IRELAND enjoys unprecedented wealth and social transformation, the Church is in crisis.

Rosie Goldsmith investigates.

1999072219990726

Zanzibar is one of Africa's magical place names, conjuring up images of adventurers, sultans and spice traders.

The mix of Hindu, Muslim, CHRISTIAN and African cultures is Zanzibar's attraction - but it is also part of its political conflict.

Max Easterman explores the roots of the feud between Zanzibar's two islands and looks at the West African threat to Tanzania's traditional music.

1999080519990809

Jill McGivering, the BBC's Hong Kong correspondent, meets the Hong Kong citizens who are being threatened with deportation following a ruling in Beijing denying residency to over a million mainland Chinese people born to Hong Kong parents.

1999081219990816

More than a third of Mexicans cannot afford to eat properly.

John Egan investigates the Mexican government's radical new scheme to target women and children.

Plus a look at Mexico's history and cuisine, and why the country's drug barons appear to be the new heroes.

2000022420000306

Tim Whelwell investigates the growing debate over female circumcision in Mali, the only West African country which has not outlawed the practice and where it is still practised by many of the country's ethnic groups.

2000030220000313

Julian Pettifer meets Nandor Tanczos, New Zealand's Green MP who wants to legalise cannabis.

Will new Labour government support him? Helen Clark, New Zealand's first elected female prime minister, provides the answer.

2000030920000320

Duncan Hewitt travels to Shanghai to find out what the Chinese authorities are doing to fend off a massive public health crisis caused by smoking.

CHINA has more smokers than anywhere else in the world - the habit is killing a million Chinese every year.

2000031620000327

Tim Whewell reports from Yekaterinburg on the RUSSIAn MAFIA who are standing for parliament, supporting the church and waging war on drugs.

2000032320000403

Linda Pressly investigates the extent to which policing techniques in Rio de Janeiro have been reformed.

Over the last decade, thousands of people have been shot dead, and the city's authorities have pledged to rid the streets of its trigger-happy cops.

Attending a human rights course is now obligatory for promotion, and open-plan police stations discourage torture and corruption.

2000041320000424

Julian Pettifer visits the Philippines, where the Roman Catholic Church and women's rights activists are clashing over birth control.

With one of the fastest-growing populations in the world, experts say family planning is essential to lifting the country out of POVERTY.

With limited access to contraception, many women suffer from unwanted and dangerous pregnancies.

/ John Egan reports on Portugal's appalling record on road safety.

It has the highest death rates on the roads of Europe.

After decades of denial, the issue is now of paramount importance.

He meets Manuel Ramos, who is taking up the issue, having lost his five-year-old daughter on Portugal's most notorious road - the IP5.

2000042020000501

Nearly half of Chile's children are born outside marriage - a statistic the country's conservative elite is trying to sweep under the carpet.

Bob Howard travels to Santiago, where divorce is illegal and abortion a taboo subject, to meet the ordinary citizens determined to modernise Chile's social laws.

2000042720000508

Albania has become a byword for crime and corruption at every level.

Why would a young and successful painter leave his comfortable exile in FRANCE to become Minister of Culture there? Edi Rama has become one of his country's most popular and dynamic politicians.

Rosie Goldsmith hears the secret of his success.

2000070620000717

Julian Pettifer reports from Italy on the issue of immigration, which will feature in the country's next general election.

As in Britain, there is heated debate about how to integrate the growing numbers of foreigners who seek work and asylum in the country.

Pettifer meets immigrants in Turin and follows a leading right-wing politician on an anti-immigrant night patrol.

2000071320000724

Olenka Frenkiel reports on Ukraine's AIDS epidemic - the fastest-growing in Europe, which the UN forecasts could cost two million lives in the next decade.

The centre of the epidemic is the Black Sea port of Odessa, an elegant, cosmopolitan city with a long tradition of drug use and prostitution where she meets a police officer and a pimp who have joined forces to fight the rapid spread of HIV in their city.

2000072720000807

Phil Rees examines how Montenegro - Serbia's last remaining partner in the Yugoslav Federation - has for the past two years been trying to manoeuvre itself out of the stranglehold of Slobodan Milosevic, and how it is preparing for a seemingly inevitable conflict with Serbia over secession.

2000080320000814

Rosie Goldsmith reports from NEW YORK on the plight of mothers in American prisons.

The US locks up more people than any other country, and the fastest-growing sector of the prison population is women.

Most of them are mothers, and a new law has increased the likelihood that they will lose custody of their children.

Goldsmith investigates the psychological trauma caused by the separation of mother and child.

2000081020000821

Tim Whewell investigates the collapse of the cashew nut industry in Mozambique - which many believe to be a direct result of World Bank policies.

Plus the extraordinary story of the baby born in a tree during the recent floods.

2000081720000828

Julian Pettifer travels to Taipei to explore the growing problem of child obesity in Taiwan.

With a fifth of school-age boys now overweight, schools are singling out the heaviest children and giving them three weekly sessions of compulsory exercise.

Pettifer investigates the causes of the problem and asks how far doctors can hope for success.

2000083120000904

Rosie Goldsmith investigates international adoption.

Last year, 1,500 children left Guatemala for a new life with an adoptive family abroad - Guatemala being a popular choice because of the speed of the adoption process and the availability of very young babies.

The UN claims that illegal adoptions take place on a large scale, while allegations abound of stolen infants, and mothers coerced into giving up their children.

20001030

Reports from around the world.

Julian Pettifer tours the Basque Country, visiting both French and Spanish parts.

He finds out about the Basques' wish for independence, and samples the local cuisine, which is reputed to be the best in Spain.

2000110220001106

Olenka Frenkiel investigates the Lord's Resistance Army, which has abducted thousands of Ugandan children and turned them into ruthless killers.

She also assesses the merits of the much-praised President Youweri Museveni and visits to one of Kampala's trendy witch doctors.

2000110920001113

Reports from around the world.

Max Easterman investigates deep-seated corruption and violence in the Romanian police force.

He meets the British officer who is trying to clean up the force and a Romanian whistle blower who has had to leave the country to escape reprisals.

2000111620001120

Reports from around the world.

Olenka Frankiel visits BERLIN to find out about the immigration of Jews from the former Soviet Union and eastern Europe.

All over Germany there are new bagel shops, kosher restaurants, synagogues and Yiddish schools.

How is it possible for Germany to be so popular for Jews, and what kind of Jewish community is being revived?

2000112320001127

Reports from around the world.

Julian Pettifer reports from Fiji, six months after the coup.

The country's two largest ethnic communities, the indigenous Fijians and the Indo-Fijians, are still locked in a bitter struggle that is focused on land.

2000113020001204

Reports from around the world.

George Arney reports from Bangladesh on the position of the country's eunuchs, who are fighting against the marginalisation to which they have traditionally been subject.

2000121420001218

Reports from around the world.

Rosie Goldsmith investigates why the Swedes are becoming stressed at work, doubling Sweden's sick-leave bill in two years, and finds out what is being done to resolve the problem.

2001030120010305

Julian Pettifer investigates why Japan has become scared of its young people, following a series of murders by teenagers.

New laws have been introduced to lengthen prison terms for murderers.

But Japanese methods of rehabilitating wayward teenagers used hitherto have been unusually effective, and it is statistically one of the safest countries in the world.

2001041220010416

In a special edition, Olenka Frankiel visits Rwanda and Italy to investigate the difficult case of 41 Rwandan children who were brought to Italy at the time of the genocide seven years ago.

All have been adopted by local families, but all still have families in Rwanda.

Italy says that they are now Italians and won't be returned, so Rwanda is preparing a legal case to get them back.

2001071220010716

George Arney asks whether IRELAND is ready to become a multi-cultural society, as it tries to cope with a new phenomenon: immigration.

It receives proportionately more asylum seekers than Britain, many pregnant and hoping their children will be born Irish citizens, but some face racial violence.

2001072620010730

In the wake of a series of teenage gang-rape trials that shocked FRANCE, Rosie Goldsmith travels to parts of PARIS that few French people, let alone tourists, ever see.

She asks what FRANCE can do to end the alienation of a growing underclass.

2001081620010820

George Arney tracks health workers up the Congo basin and through the jungle as they carry out an extraordinary polio vaccination campaign across four war-torn countries over just four days.

2001110820011112

ARGENTINA: Julian Pettifer spends 24 hours in Buenos Aires, finding out how ARGENTINA's economic crisis is affecting the capital's population.

2001112920011203

Henry Bonsu goes to Zurich to uncover a story of corporate recklessness and incompetence within recently collapsed airline Swissair.

2002030720020311

Rosie Goldsmith investigates the persecution of HOMOSEXUALs in Egypt, where a recent series of dubious trials has seen a number of gay men sent to jail.

2002041120020415

As East Timor prepares to become an independent state, Julian Pettifer reports on the painful process of reconciliation after years of Indonesian occupation.

2002041820020422

Ecuador have reached the finals of the World Cup for the first time.

Linda Pressly visits the soccer school set up by local hero Agustin Delgado.

2002042520020429

Mark Brayne reports from Moldova, once a relatively prosperous Soviet republic, but now the poorest country in Europe where a third of the working population must seek jobs abroad.

2002082220020826

Stephen Smith meets Kay Fulton, whose brother perished in the Oklahoma bombing.

Kay has dedicated herself to the anti-terrorist cause for seven years.

20030324

Japan's ageing population and increased longevity is creating social and economic problems with more pensions to be paid, and greater demand for care.

Rosie Goldsmith reports.

20030331

This is an updated version of Claire Bolderson's report last December on misery in one of the most exclusive holiday spots of the Caribbean.

Thousands of men and women have fled Haiti, the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, but live in constant fear of deportation.

Many are denied health care, even if they have AIDS.

Many of their children are barred from local schools.

Britain has attempted over the years to grant considerable autonomy to its remaining ""colonies"" or overseas territories.

In attempting to shed the role of imperial ruler, is it failing in its legal duty to uphold human rights? Claire looks at the changes which have taken place since this campaigning programme was broadcast, and asks whether there's been a change of heart in Whitehall.

2003041020030414

"As regime change is being prosecuted in Iraq, Tim Whewell goes to Serbia where four years ago allied planes were bombing another dictatorial regime out of power.

With Slobodan Milosevic in the dock in The Hague and a democratically elected government in power in Belgrade the West claimed success.

But last month the Prime Minister was assassinated in broad daylight and Tim finds the country in turmoil.

An unholy alliance of organised criminal gangs, war criminals, security forces and extreme nationalist politicians is taking on the government in a fight for power.

For Crossing Continents Tim asks will the vulnerable young democracy survive? " / As regime change is being prosecuted in Iraq, Tim Whewell goes to Serbia where four years ago allied planes were bombing another dictatorial regime out of power.

For Crossing Continents Tim asks will the vulnerable young democracy survive?

2003041720030421

Mariusa Reyes travels to the small town of Aranda del Duero where after some 60 years Spain seems finally ready to confront an ugly side of its past, as the mass graves from Spain's Civil War are being excavated.

Mariusa meets some of the relatives, who had never dared speak out before, let alone hope to their loved ones might be exhumed and given a decent burial.

She also meets the mayor, who is one of very few officials prepared to support exhumations financially.

Mariusa meets some of the relatives, who had never dared speak out before, let alone hope that their loved ones might be exhumed and given a decent burial.

2003042420030428

North Korean Refugees: It's the invisible exodus.

Tens of thousands of people have risked everything to flee North Korea, some making it all the way to the south.

Chris Guinness investigates what happens when they get there.

And he talks to some of the dedicated activists who have established channels of escape.

/ Tens of thousands of people have risked everything to flee North Korea.

Chris Gunness reports on the invisible exodus and what happens to the people who make it to the south.

2004101420041018

BBC Radio 4's Crossing Continents goes behind the news headlines. [Rpt of Thu 11.00am]

BBC Radio 4's Crossing Continents goes behind the news headlines. [Rptd Mon 8.30pm]

2004102120041025

All across Angola, families separated by decades of war are setting out to trace missing loved ones. It's not an easy task in a country twice the size of France with a third of the population displaced and the roads riddled with mines. But they have help, from popular TV and radio shows. Andrew Jeffrey sets out to hear their stories.

All across Angola, families separated by decades of war are setting out to trace missing loved ones.

It's not an easy task in a country twice the size of FRANCE with a third of the population displaced and the roads riddled with mines.

But they have help, from popular TV and radio shows.

Andrew Jeffrey sets out to hear their stories.

2004110420041108

The trafficking and sexual exploitation of children in Cambodia is rife. Some commentators say its out of control. In a fractured society, still recovering from genocide, national sexual mores have broken down. And the domestic problem is exacerbated by the large numbers of sex tourists from both the West and other parts of Asia who see Cambodia as a sexual playground. Julian Pettifer travels to Phnom Penh and reports on efforts to bring the perpetrators of sex crimes to justice.

The trafficking and sexual exploitation of children in CAMBODIA is rife.

Some commentators say its out of control.

In a fractured society, still recovering from genocide, national sexual mores have broken down.

And the domestic problem is exacerbated by the large numbers of sex tourists from both the West and other parts of Asia who see CAMBODIA as a sexual playground.

Julian Pettifer travels to Phnom Penh and reports on efforts to bring the perpetrators of sex crimes to justice.

2004111120041115

When did you last hear a programme from inside Zimbabwe? Crossing Continents overcomes reporting restrictions to uncover the truth of life under Mugabe. Rosie Goldsmith talks to farmers, lawyers, aid workers, families, church leaders and politicians from both Mugabe's Zanu-PF Party and the MDC Opposition. We hear stories of starvation and AIDs, of resignation and rebellion but also of hope.

When did you last hear a programme from inside Zimbabwe? Crossing Continents overcomes reporting restrictions to uncover the truth of life under Mugabe.

Rosie Goldsmith talks to farmers, lawyers, aid workers, families, church leaders and politicians from both Mugabe's Zanu-PF Party and the MDC Opposition.

We hear stories of starvation and AIDs, of resignation and rebellion but also of hope.

2004111820041122

In the wake of the Beslan school tragedy, Tim Whewell travels to RUSSIA's restive north Caucasus to find disturbing evidence that terrorism is spreading through the region.

What are the links to radical Islam? And can RUSSIAn contain the threat?

In the wake of the Beslan school tragedy, Tim Whewell travels to Russia's restive north Caucasus to find disturbing evidence that terrorism is spreading through the region. What are the links to radical Islam? And can Russian contain the threat?

2004112220041129

In the wake of the Beslan school tragedy, Tim Whewell travels to Russia's restive north Caucasus to find disturbing evidence that terrorism is spreading through the region. What are the links to radical Islam? And can Russia contain the threat?

2004112920041206

Immigration to Israel has slumped - with only the numbers from France going up. Lucy Ash traveks to Israel to find out why people are leaving, and why some are still arriving in the Promised Land. Because the Arab population of Israel and the Palestinian Territories is growing much faster than the Jewish population, immigration is a top priority for the Israeli government. What effect will this demographic time bomb have on politics in the country?

2004120220041206

The ancient INDIAn city of Hyderabad in the South INDIAn state of Andhra Pradesh teems with highly-educated entrepreneurs and IT professionals.

Thanks to the forces of globalisation, they are taking full advantage of the country's newly-found success in providing the world with computer and call centre services.

Yet just a few miles away, landless rural farmers and their families find themselves unable to afford running water or electricity.

They blame the state's controversial policy of wholesale privatisation of public services, all with the encouragement of global agencies such as the World Bank.

Nigel Cassidy travels to South INDIA to meet some of the winners and losers as globalisation changes the face of Andhra Pradesh.

The ancient Indian city of Hyderabad in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh teems with highly-educated entrepreneurs and IT professionals. Thanks to the forces of globalisation, they are taking full advantage of the country's newly-found success in providing the world with computer and call centre services. Yet just a few miles away, landless rural farmers and their families find themselves unable to afford running water or electricity. They blame the state's controversial policy of wholesale privatisation of public services, all with the encouragement of global agencies such as the World Bank.

20041206

Nigel Cassidy travels to the ancient Indian city of Hyderabad to meet some of the winners and losers as globalisation changes the face of society.

2005021020050214

The Maldive Islands have asked the international community for well over a billion dollars to help them recover from the havoc wreaked by the Asian tsunami.

The government there is keen to restore the islands' image of a palm fringed paradise surrounded by a turquoise sea of breathtaking beauty.

But for many Maldivians this carefully nurtured image belies a reality of political repression and the abuse of human rights.

According to Amnesty International dozens of people have been locked up without trial in recent years and there are well documented accounts of ill-treatment and political intimidation.

President Gayoom - who has kept a steely grip on the islands for the past 26 years - also attempts to control the internet - and has come down hard on those who use the web to criticise his leadership.

Those who persist have had to flee and now operate abroad.

In Crossing Continents, Julian Pettifer travels from Salisbury to Sri Lanka and on to the Maldives to talk to the people fighting for the political future of the islands.

He witnesses the country's parliamentary elections and assesses whether the natural disaster of the tsunami might bring about the political changes longed for by the opposition - or whether it will just be business as usual for the president and his cronies.

20050214

Julian Pettifer investigates reports of political repression by the authoritarian government of the Maldive Islands as they try to restore their image of a pristine paradise.

2005022420050228

In two years time the European Union is to expand eastwards once again. On January 1st 2007, Romania and Bulgaria are set to join the European family. But both countries have some way to go before they fulfil their EU dreams.

In Crossing Continents this week, Rosie Goldsmith will be examining one particular aspect which could prove to be a major stumbling block to EU membership for Bulgaria: organised crime.

In two years time the European Union is to expand eastwards once again.

On January 1st 2007, Romania and Bulgaria are set to join the European family.

But both countries have some way to go before they fulfil their EU dreams.

2005030320050307

The town of Dover in rural Pennsylvania, and its population of 1800, has never been the sort of place to attract attention. But the eyes of the world are now firmly on this small town after its high school became the first in America for several generations to introduce creationism into its science curriculum as an alternative to evolution.

The move is part of a radical new agenda being promoted by an increasingly confident Christian Right, buoyed by its crucial role in re-electing President Bush on the dominant issue of "moral values".

Marvin Rees travels to Pennsylvania and Virginia to look at how state education has become a focal point in the battle for the heart and soul of Middle America.

The town of Dover in rural Pennsylvania, and its population of 1800, has never been the sort of place to attract attention.

But the eyes of the world are now firmly on this small town after its high school became the first in America for several generations to introduce creationism into its science curriculum as an alternative to evolution.

In this week's Crossing Continents, Marvin Rees travels to Pennsylvania and Virginia to look at how state education has become a focal point in the battle for the heart and soul of Middle America.

2005031720050321

In December 2004, Turkey officially knocked on the door of the biggest 'Christian Club' in history - the EU. But all sides seem to agree that the journey to full membership is at least 15-20 years away. It will take that long for Turkey to shake off its old image as a human rights abuser and a holding bay for a vast pool of unskilled labour ready to head West.

But as Nici Marx reports for Crossing Continents, Turkey wants to show the sceptics that it can change. 'Education, education, education' is Turkey's new war cry - westernization through education.

In December 2004, Turkey officially knocked on the door of the biggest 'CHRISTIAN Club' in history - the EU.

But all sides seem to agree that the journey to full membership is at least 15-20 years away.

It will take that long for Turkey to shake off its old image as a Human Rights abuser and a holding bay for a vast pool of unskilled labour ready to head West.

But as Nici Marx reports for Crossing Continents, Turkey wants to show the sceptics that it can change.

'Education, education, education' is Turkey's new war cry - westernization through education.

2005032420050328

Over 3000 people are still missing in Thailand following the Asian tsunami. But while desperate efforts have been made to locate loved ones, there are some who prefer not to be found. In this week's Crossing Continents, Tanya Datta travels to Thailand to track down the tsunami's invisible victims, Burmese migrant workers.

She talks to those who once worked in the coastal areas but are now in hiding, fearful of arrest and deportation and she discovers how the devastating impact of the tidal wave on one of the most vulnerable groups in Thailand has been twofold.

Over three thousand people are still missing in Thailand following the Asian tsunami.

But while desperate efforts have been made to locate loved ones, there are some who prefer not to be found.

Tanya Datta travels to Thailand to track down the tsunami's invisible victims, Burmese migrant workers.

Over three thousand people are still missing in Thailand following the Asian tsunami. But while desperate efforts have been made to locate loved ones, there are some who prefer not to be found.

Tanya Datta travels to Thailand to track down the tsunami's invisible victims, Burmese migrant workers. She talks to those who once worked in the coastal areas but are now in hiding, fearful of arrest and deportation and she discovers how the devastating impact of the tidal wave on one of the most vulnerable groups in Thailand has been twofold.

2005033120050404

Annie Caulfield visits Fespaco, an African film festival held in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso.

Annie Caulfield visits Fespaco, an African film festival held in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. [Rptd Mon 8.30pm]

20050404

Annie Caulfield visits Fespaco, an African film festival held in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. [Rpt of Thu 11.00am] Then News.

"

2005071420050718

Venezuela is the world's fifth largest exporter of oil. President Hugo Chavez, a man who has survived general strikes, civil unrest and a failed coup attempt, has taken control of the state's national oil company, PDVSA, and begun to invest billions of petro-dollars in health, education and employment projects.

Thousands of poor people have benefited from the move, but many middle class Venezuelans and the political opposition argue the policy is unsustainable.

In Crossing Continents, seasoned Latin American analyst, Nick Caistor visits Caracas to assess the claims and counter-claims.

Venezuela is the world's fifth largest exporter of oil.

President Hugo Chavez, a man who has survived general strikes, civil unrest and a failed coup attempt has taken control of the state's national oil company, PDVSA, and begun to invest billions of petro-dollars in health, education and employment projects.

2005092920051003

Richard Miron lived for seven weeks in the Jewish settlements in Gaza, sharing in the lives of the people who lived there. He witnessed the final days of the settlements and the evacuation of the 8000 Jewish people from the place they say was given to them by God, but which the Palestinians say was taken from them by force.

The programme follows individuals from three Jewish settler families - Celia, a British born midwife, Debi, a devout and passionate spokeswoman for the biggest settlement in Gaza, and Avi, a secular Israeli who came to live in Gaza 20 years ago.

Richard follows them through the disengagement process, records their confrontations with the army and later catches up with them on the other side of the green line as they begin building new lives beyond Gaza.

This unique documentary provides an insight into the crisis faced by the Jewish settlers and asks what the future is for their ideology which has been at the forefront of Israeli politics for many years.

Richard Miron lived for seven weeks in the Jewish settlements in Gaza, sharing in the lives of the people who lived there.

He witnessed the final days of the settlements and the evacuation of the 8000 Jewish people from the place they say was given to them by God, but which the Palestinians say was taken from them by force.

Richard follows them through the disengagment process, records their confrontations with the army and later catches up with them on the other side of the green line as they begin building new lives beyond Gaza.

This unique documentary provides an insight into the crisis faced by the Jewish settlers and asks what is the future for their ideology which has been at the forefront of Israeli politics for many years.

2005100620051010

'The devil got our town', according to the mayor of Berat in southern Albania. Paul Kirby travels to Berat to discover how much of a grip the mafia holds on the town and talks to people whose stories are seldom heard.

Among them a 15-year-old girl who is the sole breadwinner for her family, working in a factory making paper bags for luxury western European boutiques.

'The devil got our town', according to the mayor of Berat in southern Albania.

Paul Kirby travels to Berat to discover how much of a grip the mafia holds on the town and talks to people whose stories are seldom heard.

Among them is a 15-year-old girl who is the sole breadwinner for her family, working in a factory making paper bags for luxury western European boutiques.

2005101320051017

Crossing Continents gains exclusive access to the judge who claims to have dealt with the Islamic terrorist threat in Yemen. Since 2002, Judge Hamoud Al-Hitar has been going into Yemeni prisons and meeting Muslim extremists face to face, challenging their theological justification for violence.

Tim Whewell meets the judge and the prisoners, and asks what lessons we can learn back home.

Crossing Continents gains exclusive access to the judge who claims to have dealt with the Islamic terrorist threat in Yemen.

Since 2002, Judge Hamoud Al-Hitar has been going into Yemeni prisons and meeting Muslim extremists face to face, challenging their theological justification for violence.

2005102020051024

It is estimated that 12% of Guatemalans - that's over a million people - have a disability.

Linda Pressly explores some of the stories behind this stark statistic, including the reasons why Guatemala has one of the highest incidences of Spina Bifida in the world.

The spectrum of disabilities associated with this condition is immense, but what is important is early diagnosis and surgery. Neither of these are a given in Guatemala, as Hertilia finds out when her baby Dayana Sofia is born.

Guatemala is still a country recovering from decades of civil war. One of the legacies of the conflict is endemic violence. The United Nations has estimated there are over 1.5 million illegal weapons in Guatemala, and last year 8 out of 10 Guatemalans who died a violent death were shot. There are no statistics recording the number of people disabled as a result of the violence - people like Gustavo who was a judge before he was gunned down in the street. Gustavo's now a quadriplegic, and contemplating a very different life once he is well enough to leave hospital.

In the UK, provision for disabled people - like the availability of wheelchairs - is largely taken for granted. But in a developing country like Guatemala, access to services may be dependent on an individual's (often meagre) resources. In Antigua, the Transitions Foundation is challenging traditional attitudes towards disability, and providing essential material support. In the organisation's wheelchair workshop, four year old Junior is fitted for his very first wheelchair. It will transform his life, but this is also an epic moment for his mother, Melida, who until now has carried him everywhere since he was born.

The spectrum of disabilities associated with this condition is immense, but what is important is early diagnosis and surgery.

Neither of these are a given in Guatemala, as Hertilia finds out when her baby Dayana Sofia is born.

Guatemala is still a country recovering from decades of civil war.

One of the legacies of the conflict is endemic violence.

The United Nations has estimated there are over 1.5 million illegal weapons in Guatemala, and last year eight out of ten Guatemalans who died a violent death were shot.

There are no statistics recording the number of people disabled as a result of the violence - people like Gustavo who was a judge before he was gunned down in the street.

Gustavo's now a quadriplegic, and contemplating a very different life once he is well enough to leave hospital.

In the UK, provision for disabled people - like the availability of wheelchairs - is largely taken for granted.

But in a developing country like Guatemala, access to services may be dependent on an individual's (often meagre) resources.

In Antigua, the Transitions Foundation is challenging traditional attitudes towards disability, and providing essential material support.

In the organisation's wheelchair workshop, four year old Junior is fitted for his very first wheelchair.

It will transform his life, but this is also an epic moment for his mother, Melida, who until now has carried him everywhere since he was born.

Guatemala is still a country recovering from decades of civil war. One of the legacies of the conflict is endemic violence. The United Nations has estimated there are over 1.5 million illegal weapons in Guatemala, and last year eight out of ten Guatemalans who died a violent death were shot. There are no statistics recording the number of people disabled as a result of the violence - people like Gustavo who was a judge before he was gunned down in the street. Gustavo's now a quadriplegic, and contemplating a very different life once he is well enough to leave hospital.

2005111020051114

The last remaining San Bushmen of the Central Kalahari are fighting a desperate battle to remain on their ancestral land. Their supporters have called on tourists to boycott Botswana. But some San say the aggressive tactics used against the government have made matters much worse. Paul Kenyon investigates.

The last remaining San Bushmen of the Central Kalahari are fighting a desperate battle to remain on their ancestral land.

Their supporters have called on tourists to boycott Botswana.

But some San say, the aggressive tactics used against the government have made matters much worse.

Paul Kenyon investigates.

2005111720051121

Stories and issues that matter to people across the world. The spotlight is on Turkmenistan, presented by Lucy Ash. [Rpt of Thu 11.00am]

With reports of plague and anthrax breaking out in Turkmenistan, Lucy Ash goes undercover to find out what ordinary life is like for the citizens.

We talk to people who are struggling to exist in a world where one man's whim is law and where the basic functions of state have long since collapsed into an anarchic quasi system of corruption.

Stories and issues that matter to people across the world.

The spotlight is on Turkmenistan, presented by Lucy Ash

With reports of plague and anthrax breaking out in Turkmenistan, Lucy Ash goes undercover to find out what ordinary life is like for the citizens. We talk to people who are struggling to exist in a world where one man's whim is law and where the basic functions of state have long since collapsed into an anarchic quasi system of corruption.

20060213

2/13. Julian Pettifer travels to the US to tell the story of some of the unlikely new champions of environmentalism: Right-wing Christians, big business and a country music legend.

First he meets the new environmentalists among the Evangelical Right. How did Conservative Christians become the new allies of the environmental lobby?

They first hit the headlines in 2002, when a group of green evangelicals launched a campaign called What would Jesus drive? They pointed out references in the bible to mankind's responsibility for taking care of God's Earth. Since then, the greening of the evangelical movement has grown and the National Association of Evangelicals is about to deliver an important statement about its stance on climate change.

Some within their ranks remain sceptical about a position which smacks of regulation and traditional left-wing activism. Nevertheless, with 30 million members and huge political clout, will they persuade the Bush administration to take action on curbing emissions of greenhouse gases?

Julian also finds out that the image of the US as a gas-guzzling, energy consuming nation doesn't always hold true. There are a growing number of big corporations using renewable energy. But will they continue with no incentive from the federal government?

Lastly, he travels to Texas to fill up with BioWillie, an alternative vehicle fuel that can be made from vegetable oil, seed oil or animal fat and can run diesel-powered vehicles. Its champion is country music legend Willie Nelson, who got behind the initiative to help America's farmers and truckers and to reduce his country's dependence on foreign oil.

2007072620070730

The image of Bahrain is one of a wealthy, progressive and open society. But behind the facade, this strategically positioned island in the Persian Gulf is wrestling with social and religious divisions that often explode into riots. Bill Law investigates the causes of the tension, particularly allegations that the ruling Sunni elite is ruthlessly exploiting a Shia majority.

The image of Bahrain is one of a wealthy, progressive and open society.

But behind the facade, this strategically positioned island in the Persian Gulf is wrestling with social and religious divisions that often explode into riots.

Bill Law investigates the causes of the tension, particularly allegations that the ruling Sunni elite is ruthlessly exploiting a Shia majority.

2007080220070806

Rosie Goldsmith reports from Milan and Prato, the centre of Italy's textile industry which is now perceived to be under siege.

In addition to imported goods from the East, the area has seen a large influx of Chinese workers whose labour practices are seen as a threat to their Italian counterparts. The conflict between two cultures has already spilled over into violence between Chinese clothing merchants and police in Milan.

In addition to imported goods from the East, the area has seen a large influx of Chinese workers whose labour practices are seen as a threat to their Italian counterparts.

The conflict between two cultures has already spilled over into violence between Chinese clothing merchants and police in Milan.

2007082320070827

American radio presenters Stephen Smith and Nick Spitzer offer a provocative cultural tour of New Orleans.

From its brass bands to its renowned jazz festivals, from its legendary craftsmen to its world famous cuisine, the Creole culture of New Orleans is the soul of the city and was one of its most powerful economic engines before Hurricane Katrina. Two years after the disaster, could this be the best way to drive the city's recovery?

From its brass bands to its renowned jazz festivals, from its legendary craftsmen to its world famous cuisine, the Creole culture of New Orleans is the soul of the city and was one of its most powerful economic engines before Hurricane Katrina.

Two years after the disaster, could this be the best way to drive the city's recovery?

20070913

Bill Law tells the story behind the recent Red Mosque siege and the ongoing battle over the future of Pakistan's schools.

2007110820071112

Geoff Adams-Spink visits Spain to talk to Thalidomide survivors fighting for compensation. He meets Pepe Riquelme, who has conducted a solo campaign for recognition for more than 20 years. At the launch of a film based on Pepe's life, he tries to understand why the plight of Spanish Thalidomide children is only now coming to light after half a century.

Geoff Adams-spink visits Spain to talk to Thalidomide survivors fighting for compensation.

He meets Pepe Riquelme, who has conducted a solo campaign for recognition for more than 20 years.

At the launch of a film based on Pepe's life, he tries to understand why the plight of Spanish Thalidomide children is only now coming to light after half a century.

2007111520071119

Lyse Doucet reports on the influence of the mobile phone in Afghanistan. Under the Taleban, Western influences were banned. But the population has now enthusiastically embraced modern technology, especially the ubiquitous mobile. Used for everything from dating to business and even war, the device is dramatically changing popular culture in the land.

Lyse Doucet reports on the influence of the mobile phone in Afghanistan.

Under the Taleban, Western influences were banned.

But the population has now enthusiastically embraced modern technology, especially the ubiquitous mobile.

Used for everything from dating to business and even war, the device is dramatically changing popular culture in the land.

2007112220071126

Rosie Goldsmith reports on the rise of the far right in eastern Germany. The National Democratic Party, until recently considered moribund, is winning seats on local councils and in state parliaments. Much of its support comes from hardcore Neo-Nazi brotherhoods and alliances. It is tapping into a general discontent with mainstream politics and targeting depressed local communities of the old GDR with local festivals, rock concerts and youth clubs.

Rosie Goldsmith reports on the rise of the far right in eastern Germany.

The National Democratic Party, until recently considered moribund, is winning seats on local councils and in state parliaments.

Much of its support comes from hardcore Neo-Nazi brotherhoods and alliances.

It is tapping into a general discontent with mainstream politics and targeting depressed local communities of the old GDR with local festivals, rock concerts and youth clubs.

2007112920071203

Julia Rooke tells the story of Leila, who lives in Tehran. Sold into prostitution by her own mother at the age of nine, Leila was sentenced to death by hanging nine years later. Her life was saved by human rights lawyer Shadi Sadr. Her story provides an insight into poverty in Iran and pays tribute to social workers and lawyers fighting to reform a justice system heavily biased against women.

Julia Rooke tells the story of Leila, who lives in Tehran.

Sold into prostitution by her own mother at the age of nine, Leila was sentenced to death by hanging nine years later.

Her life was saved by human rights lawyer Shadi Sadr.

Her story provides an insight into poverty in Iran and pays tribute to social workers and lawyers fighting to reform a justice system heavily biased against women.

2007120620071210

Lucy Ash reports from Angola, which recently became China's largest supplier of oil and biggest African trading partner. China has provided billions of dollars in credit and shipped in tens of thousands of workers to rebuild the former Portuguese colony's shattered infrastructure. But not everyone in Angola is happy about this burgeoning trade relationship. Critics claim that Chinese money has helped worsen Angola's notorious corruption.

Lucy Ash reports from Angola, which recently became China's largest supplier of oil and biggest African trading partner.

China has provided billions of dollars in credit and shipped in tens of thousands of workers to rebuild the former Portuguese colony's shattered infrastructure.

But not everyone in Angola is happy about this burgeoning trade relationship.

Critics claim that Chinese money has helped worsen Angola's notorious corruption.

2008011020080114

Investigative reports from around the world.

2008031320080317

Jonny Diamond meets the new generation of French protesters who have been spurred into action by the housing crisis in their country. Occupying buildings, sports halls or even pavements in order to provoke the authorities into action, they are fighting against the lack of affordable housing, the shortage of shelters for the homeless and the abusive practices that private landlords are getting away with.

Jonny Diamond meets the new generation of French protesters who have been spurred into action by the housing crisis in their country.

Occupying buildings, sports halls or even pavements in order to provoke the authorities into action, they are fighting against the lack of affordable housing, the shortage of shelters for the homeless and the abusive practices that private landlords are getting away with.

2008042420080428

Israel Football

David Goldblatt reports from Jerusalem, where the fortunes of local football club Beitar Jerusalem have changed following a takeover by Russian billionaire Arkadi Gaydamak. The club is top of the Israeli league, but the behaviour of its hardcore fans continues to cause trouble.

20080428

Julian Pettifer reports on the extraordinary popularity of online games in South Korea and the social problems they can cause.

20080714
20080721
20080728
20080730

Israel Football

David Goldblatt reports from Jerusalem, where the fortunes of local football club Beitar Jerusalem have changed following a takeover by Russian billionaire Arkadi Gaydamak. The club is top of the Israeli league, but the behaviour of its hardcore fans continues to cause trouble.

20080811
20080818
20080825
20080901
20080908
20080922

Northern Uganda

Callum Macrae reports from a devastated region.

The conflict in northern Uganda is one of Africa's longest running and most brutal civil wars. Now, after more than 20 years, a delicate peace reigns, but could this be under threat? The International Criminal Court has issued warrants of arrest against rebel leader Joseph Kony and some of his commanders, but many Ugandans fear that intervention may actually prolong the conflict. On the other hand, international pressure is growing for a military solution to the war, which is now seen to threaten the strategic interests of the west in the region.

Callum investigates the risks of the West's new interest in this war and to examine claims that traditional processes of reconciliation, focusing on forgiveness rather than punishment, may hold the key to bringing a lasting peace to this unhappy land.

20081117
2010040120100405

Mongolia is in the grip of the deadliest winter for a decade.

People have died because they can't reach doctors or hospitals and malnutrition is increasing fast.

Most significantly for a nation where tending livestock is central to its culture, untold millions of animals have died.

Frozen carcasses of sheep and goats litter parts of the country.

Linda Pressly travels to the remote far west of the country to report on this developing emergency.

She asks what it means for Mongolia as rural refugees from the deep freeze have flooded to the capital, Ulan Bator.

And she asks about the prospects of a brighter future with recent discovery of what may be the world's largest deposits of gold.

Producer: Linda Sills.

Linda Pressly witnesses Mongolia's 'deep freeze' which has devastated much of the country.

2010040820100412

In the past few decades, Central America has been in the grip of what has been described as the largest mass conversion in history - the explosive growth of Pentecostalism across Latin America.

The take-up of this new faith in both Guatemala and El Salvador is now estimated at over 40%.

Film maker Steve O'Hagan travelled through those countries to ask why the people there are reaching out to this new religion, after 400 years of rule from the Vatican.

Forty years ago, a radical new Catholic offshoot known as Liberation Theology looked set to transform Central American society as the theological wing of the socialist-inspired revolutions that were erupting across the region.

In a conservative backlash, Pentecostalism became the faith of those who opposed these revolutions and wanted to keep the status quo.

The two movements found themselves on opposite sides in the brutal civil wars of the 1980s and 90s.

From the space-age opulence of the biggest church in all of Latin America on the outskirts of Guatemala City, to the rapidly mushrooming micro-churches operating out of back rooms and alleyways of the working class suburbs of San Salvador, Steve O'Hagan searches for the reasons why Pentecostalism - a faith associated with wealth, televangelists, and the North American Right - has proven so successful here.

Increasingly from the margins of the society, the Catholics of Liberation Theology continue to dedicate themselves to their work.

In the mountainous former rebel strongholds of El Salvador, Steve meets a Belgian priest who ministered to the guerrillas throughout the 12-year civil war and today is still tending his flock.

But in a surprising coda, we discover that perhaps the spirit of Liberation Theology will live on in its theological 'conqueror'.

Some Pentecostal groups in El Salvador are beginning to cast off the right-wing tendencies of their past, and pick up the torch of liberation first lit by the Catholics decades earlier.

Presenter: Steve O'Hagan

Producer: Lucy Ash.

Steve O'Hagan reports on the explosive growth of Pentecostalism across Latin America.

20100422

A stolen kiss or a little pinch leaves no trace but once her hymen is broken, a woman loses everything." (Nada)

"In the future I won't be thinking with my heart or falling in love.

I will only use my mind.

He has to be a family man - a father.

Nothing else." (Mona)

"One must conform to the norms of the society we live in.

Therefore my daughter - she must remain a virgin." (Sonia)

Across the Arab world, whether the woman is Christian or Muslim, virginity before marriage is the most coveted gift on the wedding list.

It signifies the honour of the bride's family and reflects the integrity of the groom and his family.

Now women who have lost their virginity before their wedding night have discoered a face-saving solution to this controversial and sometimes life-threatening dilemma.

Under cover of the burgeoning fashion for plastic surgery, women are undergoing hymen repair surgery to artificially restore the appearance of "virginity", and so bridging this cultural and sexual divide.

Lebanese journalist Najlaa Abou Merhi from the BBC Arabic TV Service meets "Nada," "Mouna" and "Sonia" - Arab women spanning three generations who lost their virginity while teenagers but felt compelled to regain it through the medical procedure called hymenoplasty.

While they wish to remain anonymous, they hope by sharing their stories that other women in their situation will feel they are not alone and that there is a way to cross what Nada describes as an unbreachable wall.

But is this an act of liberation or repression for women? How will this cycle of cultural expectation versus the reality of sexual liberation be broken?

Producer: Linda Sills.

Najlaa Abou Merhi investigates the taboos surrounding virginity across the Arab world."

20100429

The world famous Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto believes that the key to ending poverty for countless millions is to give them the right to own the land that they live on.

If a person owns the land, his theory says, they can borrow money from banks to help build businesses and improve their quality of life.

But de Soto's ideas have proved controversial.

They have encouraged people to buy their land in the slums of Lima.

While many of them claim to have been helped, some have borrowed money that they cannot afford to replay and are still locked into a cycle of poverty.

Now de Soto's ideas are being tested in the rainforests of the Amazon.

The native Peruvian Indians who live there believe that they already own the land and protest against what they see as a failure to recognise their ancient rights.

Protests recently culminated in a massacre, which left 30 dead and hundreds unaccounted for.

Linda Pressly journeys from Lima to the heart of the Amazon region with Hernando de Soto himself to discover how plans to develop land rights have become an issue about power and politics, not just about livelihoods.

Presenter: Linda Pressly

Producer: Paul Vickers.

Can a controversial economic theory improve the lives of Peru's poorest?

2010082620100830

Luol Deng is a giant - both physically and in the world of American professional basketball where is one of the biggest stars, and reportedly Barack Obama's favourite player.

He was born in South Sudan but had to flee as a child because of his father's political activities.

His family moved to Brixton where Luol's talents on the basketball court were spotted as a teenager.

He's now established a charity working with the "lost boys" of Sudan - young men who have lived their entire lives in refugee camps after fleeing the country as children.

Now Sudan is facing the prospects of partition, with a referendum next year expected to endorse splitting the mainly Christian South from the mainly Muslim North.

Tim Franks joins Luol Deng as he returns to Sudan to assess the prospects for peace - and of course to show his skills with a basketball.

Producer: Edward Main.

Basketball superstar Luol Deng returns to the Sudanese town where he was born and raised.

Luol Deng is a giant - both physically and in the world of American professional basketball where is one of the biggest stars, and reportedly Barack Obama's favourite player. He was born in South Sudan but had to flee as a child because of his father's political activities. His family moved to Brixton where Luol's talents on the basketball court were spotted as a teenager. He's now established a charity working with the "lost boys" of Sudan - young men who have lived their entire lives in refugee camps after fleeing the country as children. Now Sudan is facing the prospects of partition, with a referendum next year expected to endorse splitting the mainly Christian South from the mainly Muslim North. Tim Franks joins Luol Deng as he returns to Sudan to assess the prospects for peace - and of course to show his skills with a basketball.

2011080420110808

Tim Judah travels to Senegal to report on the Mourides, an increasingly powerful Senegalese Muslim movement that stresses the importance of hard work

Many of the African street sellers in cities like Paris or Rome, and on Mediterranean beaches, are in fact Mourides.

Far from being chancers who washed up on Europe's shores and now barely scrape a living from selling fake designer handbags or miniature Eiffel towers, they are part of a very organised and supportive brotherhood that now wields great economic and political power in Senegal.

Thanks to their strong work ethic and the unparalleled networking opportunities the brotherhood provides, Mourides now dominate many sectors of the economy.

They are said to constitute up to 40% of Senegalese Muslims (who make up over 90% of the population.) So not surprisingly, senior politicians, if they are not Mourides anyway, are courting the Mouride vote by going on pilgrimage to the Mouride holy city, Touba, several hours' drive east of the capital.

The president of Senegal is a Mouride, as is the man who is probably the most famous Senegalese of all: singer Youssou N'Dour, who tells Tim why his Mouridism matters to him, and why it could be a way forward for Africa.

So who are the Mourides? What do they believe and what matters to them? Tim travels to Dakar and the fabled holy city of Touba to find out.

Producer: Arlene Gregorius.

Tim Judah reports from Senegal on the growing influence of the Mouride Sufi brotherhood.

Many of the African street sellers in cities like Paris or Rome, and on Mediterranean beaches, are in fact Mourides. Far from being chancers who washed up on Europe's shores and now barely scrape a living from selling fake designer handbags or miniature Eiffel towers, they are part of a very organised and supportive brotherhood that now wields great economic and political power in Senegal.

They are said to constitute up to 40% of Senegalese Muslims (who make up over 90% of the population.) So not surprisingly, senior politicians, if they are not Mourides anyway, are courting the Mouride vote by going on pilgrimage to the Mouride holy city, Touba, several hours' drive east of the capital. The president of Senegal is a Mouride, as is the man who is probably the most famous Senegalese of all: singer Youssou N'Dour, who tells Tim why his Mouridism matters to him, and why it could be a way forward for Africa.

20111229
2012071220120716

Writer and broadcaster Maria Margaronis follows the route taken by migrants fleeing war or poverty who are risking their lives to reach the Europe Union. It is estimated that around 75 thousand people are attempting to make the perilous journey each year in the hands of unscrupulous traffickers. They are fleeing from war-torn countries like Afghanistan and Somalia or simply in search of a better life where their economic prospects aren't so bleak. Some of them never make it, suffocating in the back of a crowded lorry or drowning in the fast flowing river that marks the border between Turkey and Greece.

The programme meets up with migrants in Istanbul, on the narrow Bosphorus Strait, which has served as the crossroads of the world for thousands of years. There are children making the journey on their own and one man who has lost his fingers and toes to frostbite on a perilous journey over the mountains from Iran. Two of his companions died. The Turkish authorities confess to being overwhelmed by the numbers which are estimated to be up to 250 people a day. Illegal migrants are detained but seldom, it seems, sent back to the countries they came from. There has been an attempt to clamp down on the people traffickers but there are huge profits to be made.

The most dangerous part of the trip is along Turkey's border with Greece. The Greeks are supposed to be building an eight mile fence but that still leaves a river which is 125 miles long. Traffickers put their charges into cheap inflatable boats and push them across, regardless of whether they are able to handle a boat or to swim. Many of them can't.

For those that do make it, there is no Promised Land but an economic crisis and yet more troubles ahead.

*2007122020071224

Robert Hodierne reports on the high proportion of Native Americans joining the US military and their relatively high susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder.

Now, in addition to counselling, some clinics are offering traditional American Indian healing methods, paid for by the Federal Government.

Robert Hodierne reports on the high proportion of Native Americans joining the US military and their relatively high susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder. Now, in addition to counselling, some clinics are offering traditional American Indian healing methods, paid for by the Federal Government.

*2007122720071231

Tanzania is a poor country, but rich in wildlife.

Vast areas of the land are set aside for wildlife conservation, including the famous Serengeti National Park.

But poor people and conservation can make bad neighbours.

Kerri Miller of American Public Media meets a man who has tried to ease the conflict between animals and people.

Along the way, he becomes a threatened species himself.

Tanzania is a poor country, but rich in wildlife. Vast areas of the land are set aside for wildlife conservation, including the famous Serengeti National Park. But poor people and conservation can make bad neighbours. Kerri Miller of American Public Media meets a man who has tried to ease the conflict between animals and people. Along the way, he becomes a threatened species himself.

*2008010320080107

Julian Pettiferreports on the extraordinary popularity of online games in South Korea and the social problems they can cause.

*2009123120100104
* * Uzbekistan2008040320080407

In a repressive state governed by a hardline regime in Tashkent, Natalia Antelava asks whether the radical independent Ilkhom Theatre founded by Russian Jew Mark Weil can survive without its director after Weil was stabbed to death in the street last year.

Uzbekistan

* Las Vegas2008041720080421

Nevada is the only state in the US which permits prostitution.

But in the largest city, Las Vegas, known for its sex and sleaze image, it is illegal.

The popular mayor of Las Vegas, Oscar Goodman, now says he wants to legalise prostitution.

Rosie Goldsmith hears the arguments over the role of the world's oldest profession.

Las Vegas

Nevada is the only state in the US which permits prostitution. But in the largest city, Las Vegas, known for its sex and sleaze image, it is illegal. The popular mayor of Las Vegas, Oscar Goodman, now says he wants to legalise prostitution. Rosie Goldsmith hears the arguments over the role of the world's oldest profession.

01/04/201020100405
04/08/201120110808

Tim Judah travels to Senegal to report on the Mourides, an increasingly powerful Senegalese Muslim movement that stresses the importance of hard work

Many of the African street sellers in cities like Paris or Rome, and on Mediterranean beaches, are in fact Mourides. Far from being chancers who washed up on Europe's shores and now barely scrape a living from selling fake designer handbags or miniature Eiffel towers, they are part of a very organised and supportive brotherhood that now wields great economic and political power in Senegal.

Thanks to their strong work ethic and the unparalleled networking opportunities the brotherhood provides, Mourides now dominate many sectors of the economy.

They are said to constitute up to 40% of Senegalese Muslims (who make up over 90% of the population.) So not surprisingly, senior politicians, if they are not Mourides anyway, are courting the Mouride vote by going on pilgrimage to the Mouride holy city, Touba, several hours' drive east of the capital. The president of Senegal is a Mouride, as is the man who is probably the most famous Senegalese of all: singer Youssou N'Dour, who tells Tim why his Mouridism matters to him, and why it could be a way forward for Africa.

So who are the Mourides? What do they believe and what matters to them? Tim travels to Dakar and the fabled holy city of Touba to find out.

Producer: Arlene Gregorius.

Tim Judah reports from Senegal on the growing influence of the Mouride Sufi brotherhood.

08/04/201020100412
24 Hours In Tulsa

24 Hours In Tulsa2010011420100118

Hugh Levinson hears the best of Officer Jay Chiarito-Mazarrella's Street Stories.

24 Attacks by midget gangsters; incompetent thieves who resort to stealing air-conditioning units; a teenage girl with a crack habit who gets shot a few days after promising to go clean. These are just some of the criminals and junkies encountered by one police officer cruising the streets of one Midwestern US city.

But this is Officer Jay Chiarito-Mazarrella, who created a cult following for his Street Story podcasts, vivid vignettes of his work for the Tulsa Police Department. Hugh Levinson hears the best of the Street Stories, giving a fresh, funny and sometimes downright scary insight into policing from the horse's mouth.

Producer: Hugh Levinson.

24 Hours In Tulsa20100118

Hugh Levinson hears the best of Officer Jay Chiarito-Mazarrella's Street Stories.

24 Hours In Tulsa *2010011420100118

24 Attacks by midget gangsters; incompetent thieves who resort to stealing air-conditioning units; a teenage girl with a crack habit who gets shot a few days after promising to go clean.

These are just some of the criminals and junkies encountered by one police officer cruising the streets of one Midwestern US city.

But this is Officer Jay Chiarito-Mazarrella, who created a cult following for his Street Story podcasts, vivid vignettes of his work for the Tulsa Police Department.

Hugh Levinson hears the best of the Street Stories, giving a fresh, funny and sometimes downright scary insight into policing from the horse's mouth.

Producer: Hugh Levinson.

Hugh Levinson hears the best of Officer Jay Chiarito-Mazarrella's Street Stories.

26/08/201020100830

Luol Deng is a giant - both physically and in the world of American professional basketball where is one of the biggest stars, and reportedly Barack Obama's favourite player. He was born in South Sudan but had to flee as a child because of his father's political activities. His family moved to Brixton where Luol's talents on the basketball court were spotted as a teenager. He's now established a charity working with the "lost boys" of Sudan - young men who have lived their entire lives in refugee camps after fleeing the country as children. Now Sudan is facing the prospects of partition, with a referendum next year expected to endorse splitting the mainly Christian South from the mainly Muslim North. Tim Franks joins Luol Deng as he returns to Sudan to assess the prospects for peace - and of course to show his skills with a basketball.

Producer: Edward Main.

Basketball superstar Luol Deng returns to the Sudanese town where he was born and raised.

31/12/200920100104

Giving a human dimension to the big international stories making the headlines.

33 Ways To Dispel A Chinese Mistress20171221

Ed Butler explores an unusual new industry that has taken hold in some of China's cities.

There are 33 ways to dispel a mistress according to one of China's top love detectives. An unusual new industry has taken hold in some of the country's top cities. It's called "mistress-dispelling", and it involves hired operatives doing what it takes to separate cheating husbands from their mistresses. With the surge in super-affluent families in China, there has also been an apparent upsurge in the number of men choosing to keep a concubine. And for wives who see divorce as a humiliating option, almost no expense is sometimes spared in seeing off the rival. For Crossing Continents, Ed Butler meets some of these private detectives and "marriage counsellors", heads off on a mistress "stake-out", and asks whether this is all a symptom of a deeper crisis in gender relations in China.

Reported and produced by Ed Butler.

33 Ways to Dispel a Chinese Mistress20171221

Ed Butler explores an unusual new industry that has taken hold in some of China's cities.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

There are 33 ways to dispel a mistress according to one of China's top love detectives. An unusual new industry has taken hold in some of the country's top cities. It's called "mistress-dispelling", and it involves hired operatives doing what it takes to separate cheating husbands from their mistresses. With the surge in super-affluent families in China, there has also been an apparent upsurge in the number of men choosing to keep a concubine. And for wives who see divorce as a humiliating option, almost no expense is sometimes spared in seeing off the rival. For Crossing Continents, Ed Butler meets some of these private detectives and "marriage counsellors", heads off on a mistress "stake-out", and asks whether this is all a symptom of a deeper crisis in gender relations in China.

Reported and produced by Ed Butler.

33 Ways To Dispel A Chinese Mistress2017122120171225 (R4)

Ed Butler explores an unusual new industry that has taken hold in some of China's cities.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

There are 33 ways to dispel a mistress according to one of China's top love detectives. An unusual new industry has taken hold in some of the country's top cities. It's called "mistress-dispelling", and it involves hired operatives doing what it takes to separate cheating husbands from their mistresses. With the surge in super-affluent families in China, there has also been an apparent upsurge in the number of men choosing to keep a concubine. And for wives who see divorce as a humiliating option, almost no expense is sometimes spared in seeing off the rival. For Crossing Continents, Ed Butler meets some of these private detectives and "marriage counsellors", heads off on a mistress "stake-out", and asks whether this is all a symptom of a deeper crisis in gender relations in China.

Reported and produced by Ed Butler.

9/11 - Toxic Ash2011090120110905

David Shukman reports on the thousands who have become ill from the toxic dust that blanketed Lower Manhattan after the Twin Towers collapsed on Sept 11th.

The buildings released a cocktail of deadly carcinogens including, asbestos, lead, mercury and PCBs.

Frontline responders such as fire-fighters, police and emergency medical workers breathed in the contamination for several weeks as they toiled at Ground Zero.

The fires burned for a hundred days and many of the emergency workers toiled without respirators or proper protection amid the dust and debris.

Now officials say more than 18,000 people have received medical treatment in the last 12 months for World Trade Center related conditions - many of them serious.

The head of the federal programme overseeing victims compensation says he expects more people to die because of their exposure.

Nearly three thousand people perished on the day, but the suffering resulting from the attack is far from over.

Producer: Linda Sills.

Investigating the health impact on New York from the collapse of the World Trade Centre.

David Shukman reports on the thousands who have become ill from the toxic dust that blanketed Lower Manhattan after the Twin Towers collapsed on Sept 11th. The buildings released a cocktail of deadly carcinogens including, asbestos, lead, mercury and PCBs.

Frontline responders such as fire-fighters, police and emergency medical workers breathed in the contamination for several weeks as they toiled at Ground Zero. The fires burned for a hundred days and many of the emergency workers toiled without respirators or proper protection amid the dust and debris.

Now officials say more than 18,000 people have received medical treatment in the last 12 months for World Trade Center related conditions - many of them serious. The head of the federal programme overseeing victims compensation says he expects more people to die because of their exposure.

9/11 - Toxic Ash20110905

David Shukman reports on the thousands who have become ill from the toxic dust that blanketed Lower Manhattan after the Twin Towers collapsed on Sept 11th. The buildings released a cocktail of deadly carcinogens including, asbestos, lead, mercury and PCBs.

Frontline responders such as fire-fighters, police and emergency medical workers breathed in the contamination for several weeks as they toiled at Ground Zero. The fires burned for a hundred days and many of the emergency workers toiled without respirators or proper protection amid the dust and debris.

Now officials say more than 18,000 people have received medical treatment in the last 12 months for World Trade Center related conditions - many of them serious. The head of the federal programme overseeing victims compensation says he expects more people to die because of their exposure.

Nearly three thousand people perished on the day, but the suffering resulting from the attack is far from over.

Producer: Linda Sills.

Investigating the health impact on New York from the collapse of the World Trade Centre.

A Death In Honduras2012050320120507

A profile of the People's Funeral Service in Honduras, the most murderous nation on earth.

Honduras has the highest murder rate in the world. The People's Funeral Service deals daily with the fall-out from these extreme levels of violence. Set up by the Mayor of Tegucigalpa, the capital city, it distributes coffins, maintains two funeral homes, and even offers a mobile service where employees take everything necessary for a wake - including bread and coffee - to someone's house or local church. All of these services are totally free for poor people in the city.

In Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly profiles this unique organisation, and meets some of the families using its services. Among them, is the family of Ramon Orlando Varela, a 26 year old gunned down in the street after dropping his children off at school. It isn't clear why Ramon was targeted. But a toxic mix of gangs, guns, drug cartels - and fear - pervades Honduras. And it's unlikely his killers will ever be caught. Police corruption is endemic, impunity almost a given.

But in spite of the everyday challenges, the workers at the People's Funeral Service offer what help they can. At least they can lend some dignity to proceedings for families who have almost nothing.

A Death In Honduras20120507

Honduras has the highest murder rate in the world. The People's Funeral Service deals daily with the fall-out from these extreme levels of violence. Set up by the Mayor of Tegucigalpa, the capital city, it distributes coffins, maintains two funeral homes, and even offers a mobile service where employees take everything necessary for a wake - including bread and coffee - to someone's house or local church. All of these services are totally free for poor people in the city.

In Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly profiles this unique organisation, and meets some of the families using its services. Among them, is the family of Ramon Orlando Varela, a 26 year old gunned down in the street after dropping his children off at school. It isn't clear why Ramon was targeted. But a toxic mix of gangs, guns, drug cartels - and fear - pervades Honduras. And it's unlikely his killers will ever be caught. Police corruption is endemic, impunity almost a given.

But in spite of the everyday challenges, the workers at the People's Funeral Service offer what help they can. At least they can lend some dignity to proceedings for families who have almost nothing.

A profile of the People's Funeral Service in Honduras, the most murderous nation on earth.

A Journey Without Maps

A Journey Without Maps2009073020090803

Humphrey Hawksley retraces the extraordinary journey undertaken on foot by the novelist Graham Greene from Sierra Leone across Liberia in 1935.

He feasts on sardines and luncheon meat, meets the lightning makers and devil dancers and is involved in a near-fatal car crash.

How has West Africa changed? Is it better or worse than it was 70 years ago?

Humphrey Hawksley retraces an extraordinary journey undertaken by Graham Greene

A Journey Without Maps20090803
A Journey Without Maps *2009073020090803
A Land Forgotten20170817

Tim Whewell travels to remote Abkhazia where the price of statehood is deep isolation.

It's a state that most of the world says doesn't exist. But remote Abkhazia, on the far north-east shore of the Black Sea, has had the trappings of independence for a generation, since it broke away from Georgia in a short but brutal war. Foreign reporters rarely visit Abkhazia - but Tim Whewell gets there by horse-drawn wagon, as it's hard to cross the frontier by car. He finds a stunningly beautiful country still recovering physically and psychologically from the war, that's determined to preserve its independence and ancient culture - including a pagan religion built around animal sacrifices. But the price of statehood is deep isolation - and a future for many young people without opportunities. How long can this "frozen conflict" - and others around the Black Sea - continue?

A Mediterranean Rescue2015073020150803 (R4)

In one of the largest operations of its kind, thousands of migrants, mostly from sub-Saharan Africa, were pulled off cramped, unseaworthy boats in the Mediterranean in June. Gabriel Gatehouse has had rare access to the operation. He follows two young men as they try to find a new home in Europe, from the moment they board a privately-funded search and rescue ship, to their attempts to evade the Italian police.

Gabriel Gatehouse aboard a rescue ship searching for migrants in the Mediterranean.

A Small Town In Mississippi

A Small Town In Mississippi2009112620091130

In 1995, four people were murdered in Winona, Mississippi.

The black man charged with their murders is now facing his sixth trial.

Racial tensions helped lead to three convictions being overturned and two trials were deadlocked by hung juries.

Tom Mangold visits the Deep South to investigate and to speak to those most closely involved.

What he discovers says much about whether the high hopes of an increasingly race-neutral America are still justified at the close of the first year of Barack Obama's presidency.

Investigating the sixth trial of a black man over the murder of four people in Mississippi

A Small Town In Mississippi20091130

Investigating the sixth trial of a black man over the murder of four people in Mississippi

A Song For Spanish Miners2014090420140908

In the Spanish mining town of Turon a male choir meets once a week for rehearsals. They often sing to the patron saint of miners Santa Bárbara Bendita. Since 1934 miners have been singing this beautiful song in memory of four miners killed in a mining accident in the Maria Luisa mine. Coal mining, once a major industry in Spain, has been in decline for years and in the next few years the EU's subsidies for non-profitable pits will stop altogether. For most miners the closure of pits signals the death of their communities. Natalio Cosoy travels to northern Spain to talk to the miners and their families. Will Santa Bárbara Bendita watch over them as they face an uncertain future? James Fletcher producing.

A Song for Spanish Miners: Reports from around the world.

Abdi And The Golden Ticket20141229

Each year, the US government does a strange and slightly surprising thing: it gives away 50,000 green cards (permanent resident visas) to people chosen at random via a lottery.

But becoming an American is not easy, even if you do win a golden ticket.

For Crossing Continents, Leo Hornak follows the story of Abdi Nor, a young Somali lottery winner living in one of the toughest slums in Kenya, as he prepares for his final US embassy interview and the chance of a new life in the States.

But as Abdi's interview date approaches, the obstacles to him achieving his American dream appear to grow ever greater.

Abdi In America20170831
Abdi In America20170904

A young Somali refugee tries to live the American dream.

A young Somali refugee struggles to live the American dream in the USA's whitest state, during the rise of Donald Trump. Is the dream still possible?

In December 2014, in 'Abdi and the Golden Ticket,' the BBC's Leo Hornak followed Somali refugee Abdi Nor Iftin as he battled to make it to America through the US green card lottery.

Since then, Abdi been trying to make a new life for himself in the US state of Maine, striving to become a 'real American'. He hopes to get educated and start a career, but the pressures of supporting a family in Mogadishu make this seem ever more difficult. And then there is the plan to have his brother Hassan join him.

The state of Maine remains almost entirely white, and amid growing public fear of Muslims and immigration, Abdi's American dream runs into obstacles that he never expected. Using personal conversations and audio diaries recorded over three years, 'Abdi in America' documents the highs and lows of one man's struggle to become American.

Producer - Michael Gallagher.

Abkhazia - A Land Forgotten20170821

Tim Whewell travels to remote Abkhazia where the price of statehood is deep isolation.

It's a state that most of the world says doesn't exist. But remote Abkhazia, on the far north-east shore of the Black Sea, has had the trappings of independence for a generation, since it broke away from Georgia in a short but brutal war. Foreign reporters rarely visit Abkhazia - but Tim Whewell gets there by horse-drawn wagon, as it's hard to cross the frontier by car. He finds a stunningly beautiful country still recovering physically and psychologically from the war, that's determined to preserve its independence and ancient culture - including a pagan religion built around animal sacrifices. But the price of statehood is deep isolation - and a future for many young people without opportunities. How long can this "frozen conflict" - and others around the Black Sea - continue?

Producer, Monica Whitlock.

Addicted In Suburbia20160901

The United States is in the throes of a heroin and opiate epidemic. For Crossing Continents, India Rakusen travels to Lorain County, in the state of Ohio, where addiction has become part of everyday life. West of the city of Cleveland, Avon Lake is a wealthy suburb - its large, expensive properties back onto the shores of Lake Eerie, and wild deer frolic on neat lawns. But behind this façade, there is a crisis. Many families have felt the damaging impact of addiction. And across Lorain County, opiates - pharmaceutical and street heroin - have killed twice as many people in the first six months of 2016 alone, as died in the whole of 2015.

Producer Linda Pressly.

Afghanistan

Afghanistan20090820
Afghanistan20090824
Afghanistan *2009082020090824

Eight years into the war in Afghanistan, many fear it is unwinnable.

In response, the US-led international force has decided to adopt a counter-insurgency strategy, abandoning 40 years of military doctrine.

It emphasises security and development for the civilian population rather than simply battling the Taliban.

Lyse Doucet investigates if the US army can embrace a radical new strategy and if it will be successful.

Lyse Doucet reports on the US army's new counter-insurgency strategy in Afghanistan.

Albania: Shadows Of The Past2015120320151207 (R4)

Maria Margaronis explores the debris of Albania's painful past-the prison labour camps, concrete bunkers and secret police headquarters--as archives are unlocked and new monuments put up in an effort to redefine who Albanians are. The country's citizens are trying to come to terms with history and move on from Enver Hoxha's dictatorial regime, the pyramid schemes and the political and economic collapse that followed. Instead of moving on, though, many are moving out of the country altogether. Do their leaders' efforts represent real change, or are they just an attempt to plaster over the cracks and reinforce Albania's plan to enter the EU?

Albania's Cannabis Boom2016120120161205 (R4)

Albania has become the largest producer of outdoor-grown cannabis in Europe. This illicit industry - overseen by organised crime groups - began in the late 1990s and has spread across this small, Balkan nation. Most of this 'green gold' is trafficked out, with whole villages depending on the money it makes. The Albanian government is attempting to contain the industry by eradicating millions of plants, and seizing industrial-sized quantities that are dried and prepared for market in secret locations. With producer Albana Kasapi, Linda Pressly investigates Albania's cannabis boom.

Image: Commander Agron Cullhaj assesses one of the largest seizures of cannabis Albanian police have ever made – over 4 tons. Copyright BBC.

Americans And Litigation And Tort Reform2003112720031201

Geoff Adams-Spink examines the price Americans are paying for their love affair with litigation, a habit now so widespread that in some states health provision is being put at risk.

President Bush wants to reverse the rise in the number of lawsuits, which last year went up by 14%.

This area of the law is known as "tort" and the President sees his plans to reform it as a potential vote winner for the Republicans in the forthcoming election campaign.

Amur River Valley In Eastern Siberia2003121820031222

It's the faultline where two continents meet: the Amur River Valley in Eastern Siberia, a pivotal frontier between two empires.

On one side of the river CHINA: densely populated, thriving, assertive.

On the other side RUSSIA: POVERTY, a shrinking population, resentment and the old fears of "the yellow peril".

Once the Amur River kept the two enemies apart, today thousands of Chinese migrants - many illegal - cross the river to trade, to work in catering and construction.

Officially they're welcomed - and needed - by the RUSSIAns but in the markets and on the river banks the old rivalries live on.

Rosie Goldsmith profiles this remote region and asks whether these new tensions between CHINA and RUSSIA on the Amur River can be bridged or whether the river is a symbol of a permanent divide.

Anti Muslim Violence In Gujarat20040101

During last year's riots in Gujarat INDIA experienced the worst anti-Muslim violence in generations.

Linda Pressly travels to INDIA with the younger brother of one of the victims.

Arab America2001110120011105

`Arab America'.

George Arney visits Detroit, home to America's biggest community of people of Arab descent, to find out how the terrorist attacks have affected them.

Argentina: Gm's New Frontline2014050820140512

The transgenic revolution in agricultural production turned Argentina into one of the world's largest producers and exporters of genetically modified soybean and corn. But there is unease across the nation's vast GM belt, especially about health. In the northerly province of Chaco, the Minster of Public Health wants an independent commission to investigate cases of cancer and the incidence of children born with disabilities.

Produced and presented by Linda Pressly.

Could agrochemical use across Argentina's vast GM farming belt seriously affect health?

In Argentina, there's a growing mistrust among some scientists, doctors and activists of the nation's GM farming model. The transgenic revolution in agricultural production turned Argentina into one of the world's largest producers and exporters of genetically modified soybean and corn. But it isn't GM per se that's caused unease and provoked protests - it's the agrochemicals that have accompanied the boom.

Linda Pressly investigates allegations by some experts that the use of herbicides like glyphosate, and other agrochemicals, have engendered a health crisis, especially across Argentina's vast soybean belt. She visits the province of Chaco where it's claimed the numbers of children born with disabilities has increased exponentially, and meets a doctor who believes agrochemical use is causing more cancer in the local population.

The anxiety about health in Argentina has sparked political resistance to the GM industry. In Cordoba, bloody clashes between police and protesters have been a regular occurrence at a building site on the edge of the city - the location where Monsanto, a multinational company, planned to construct a GM seed corn plant.

In Crossing Continents, we hear from families, farmers, doctors, protesters and representatives of the bio-tech industry as they position themselves on GM's important new front line.

Arizona: The Missing Migrants2014050120140505

Will Grant meets people trying to identify illegal migrants who die in the Arizona desert.

Each year, thousands of illegal migrants try to enter the United States via a treacherous journey across the Arizona desert. Some succeed, while others are captured by US border patrols and are immediately deported - but not everyone is so fortunate. A growing number simply drop dead from exhaustion.

The Missing Migrant Project works on identifying the deceased, piecing together clues found in the personal effects collected alongside the decomposed bodies found in the desert.

In this programme, the BBC's Mexico correspondent Will Grant travels to Tucson, Arizona to meet project co-founder Robin Reineke to learn of the challenges facing her office in the small southwestern city of Tucson - which has the third-highest number of unidentified bodies in the United States, after New York and Los Angeles.

Migrant rights groups say the vast expansion of the US Border Patrol has exacerbated the problem because the heightened policing of the border along traditional urban crossing points has forced clandestine border crossers out into the wilds of the desert.

Such tough border protection is popular among many American voters, especially in conservative border states like Arizona and Texas - but some locals have shown sympathy, heading out into the desert to leave water, food and blankets in the hope of saving the lives of desperate migrants.

In Mexico, Crossing Continents also meets the relatives of those who have died in the desert, revealing their motivations to move north - motivations which they share with many men, women and children from across Latin America, who are still willing to risk their lives embarking on this increasingly dangerous and potentially deadly trip.

Reporter: Will Grant

Producer: Richard Fenton-Smith.

Australia2001102520011029

Rosie Goldsmith talks to those who make Australia's immigration policy and to those who have sought asylum there over the past 50 years.

Australia's Northern Territory2008121120081215

Lorena Allam investigates the Australian government's intervention in the remote Aboriginal areas after claims of rampant alcoholism and child abuse.

Last year, army, police, doctors, nurses and bureaucrats were sent there in a billion-dollar state-run bid to curb violence and improve the wellbeing of Aboriginal families.

But Lorena finds that their work has had mixed results, and in some cases has led to poorer diets, premature babies and even an increase in teenage suicides.

Australia's Northern Territory20081215
Australia's Wood Trade2005072120050725

An almighty row is taking place between Australia's wool producers and animal welfare groups.

It centres on the controversial practice of mulesing - shaving flesh from the sheep to protect them from insects.

The animal rights organisation, PETA claims this is cruel because no pain relief is administered and they've called on retailers to boycott Australian wool.

Wendy Carlisle finds out how the row is being played out in Australia and what the long-term effect might be on Australia's wool industry.

Australia's Wood Trade

An almighty row is taking place between Australia's wool producers and animal welfare groups. It centres on the controversial practice of mulesing - shaving flesh from the sheep to protect them from insects. The animal rights organisation, PETA claims this is cruel because no pain relief is administered and they've called on retailers to boycott Australian wool.

Baghdad Airport2011032420110328

Gabriel Gatehouse hears the extraordinary tales of the people coming into and out of Iraq - and paints a portrait of a still troubled country through its international gateway.

It's not been the safest of places: one worker describes seeing a car bomb attack on the airport road and you still need to pass through five checkpoints to enter the terminal.

Gabriel meets the people entering the country - like British and Ugandan security men, and pilgrims from Iran, bound for Iraq's Shia holy sites.

There are the people leaving Iraq, including a Christian family who fear for their lives if they stay.

And then there are the people who live in the airport compound - like the American air traffic controller who never leaves, except to return home on holiday.

Producer: Becky Lipscombe.

A portrait of life in Iraq through the story of its international gateway.

It's not been the safest of places: one worker describes seeing a car bomb attack on the airport road and you still need to pass through five checkpoints to enter the terminal. Gabriel meets the people entering the country - like British and Ugandan security men, and pilgrims from Iran, bound for Iraq's Shia holy sites. There are the people leaving Iraq, including a Christian family who fear for their lives if they stay. And then there are the people who live in the airport compound - like the American air traffic controller who never leaves, except to return home on holiday.

Baghdad Airport20110328

Gabriel Gatehouse hears the extraordinary tales of the people coming into and out of Iraq - and paints a portrait of a still troubled country through its international gateway.

It's not been the safest of places: one worker describes seeing a car bomb attack on the airport road and you still need to pass through five checkpoints to enter the terminal. Gabriel meets the people entering the country - like British and Ugandan security men, and pilgrims from Iran, bound for Iraq's Shia holy sites. There are the people leaving Iraq, including a Christian family who fear for their lives if they stay. And then there are the people who live in the airport compound - like the American air traffic controller who never leaves, except to return home on holiday.

Producer: Becky Lipscombe.

A portrait of life in Iraq through the story of its international gateway.

Bangladesh Prawn Farming2005021720050221

Lucy Ash travels to Bangladesh to investigate the prawn farming industry, amid allegations of environmental destruction and human rights abuse.

Lucy Ash travels to Bangladesh to investigate the prawn farming industry, amid allegations of environmental destruction and human rights abuse. [Rpt of Thu 11.00am]

Lucy Ash travels to Bangladesh to investigate the prawn farming industry, amid allegations of environmental destruction and human rights abuse. [Rptd Mon 8.30pm]

Bangladesh: Trials Of Strength2013121920131223

Farhana Haider investigates the war crimes trials which have divided Bangladesh.

episode-b03ls15d.jpg

Farhana Haider investigates the prosecution of alleged war criminals and asks if the trials are being used to target the opposition.

There were numerous reports of atrocities during the brutal war of 1971 between Pakistan on one side and the new state which was to become Bangladesh, which had support from India. The Pakistani Army and Islamic sympathisers in Bangladesh were accused of rape and of mass killings which some have described as genocide. Four years ago, the governing Awami League set up war crimes trials which have started to hand down convictions this year, attracting strong public support. However, many international observers have criticised the conduct of the trials as less than free and fair. And supporters of the opposition Jamaat-e-Islami party have reacted furiously to the conviction of several of their leaders, saying the process is politically motivated.

Farhana Haider asks whether the legal process will really enable Bangladesh to come to terms with its bloody beginnings.

Producer: John Murphy.

Banishing America's 'bad Hombres'20170522

Lucy Ash asks how a ruthless street gang is affecting the immigration debate in the US.

President Donald Trump has pledged to chase what he called the 'bad hombres' out of America. One of the organisations the President is targeting is the notorious Mara Salvatrucha gang, better known as MS-13 whose members deal in drugs, human smuggling and underage prostitution. They aggressively recruit young Latino immigrants in U.S. cities and suburban communities and have recently been responsible for a number of shockingly brutal murders, including the killing of two teenage girls with machetes and baseball bats. Lucy Ash travels to Long Island in New York and to Maryland to investigate. She asks what impact such crimes have on the heated debate about illegal border crossings and she asks if tougher immigration policies will really make America safe again.

Belarus2001042620010430

Tim Whewell investigates the political situation in Belarus, which, since 1994, has been ruled by decree by its Soviet-style president, Alexander Lukashenko.

Whewell tries to find out what has happened to Lukashenko's opponents, particularly those who have simply disappeared.

Belarus Youth *20080804

Lucy Ash travels to Belarus ahead of parliamentary elections this autumn to ask the post-Soviet generation where they think their future lies on a country often described as the last dictatorship in Europe.

Former collective farm boss Alexander Lukashenka has kept an iron grip on power for the past 14 years in this country sandwiched between Russia and the European Union.

After rigged presidential elections in 2006, thousands took to the streets hoping to emulate the bloodless regime changes in neighbouring Ukraine and Georgia.

But they failed and the nation still seems stuck in a Communist era time warp.

So are young people happy with the status quo or are they paralysed by fear?

Belarus Youth

Lucy Ash travels to Belarus ahead of parliamentary elections this autumn to ask the post-Soviet generation where they think their future lies on a country often described as the last dictatorship in Europe. Former collective farm boss Alexander Lukashenka has kept an iron grip on power for the past 14 years in this country sandwiched between Russia and the European Union. After rigged presidential elections in 2006, thousands took to the streets hoping to emulate the bloodless regime changes in neighbouring Ukraine and Georgia. But they failed and the nation still seems stuck in a Communist era time warp. So are young people happy with the status quo or are they paralysed by fear?

Belarus's University In Exile2013042520130429

Belarus has been described as the last dictatorship in Europe. Few dare speak out against President Alexander Lukashenko and his ruling elite. But the opposition has found a way of making its voice heard through an academic community which has taken refuge abroad.

Lucy Ash visits the European Humanities University which teaches Belarusian students on its campus in neighbouring Lithuania. She talks to teachers and students, many of whom commute back and forth across the border. Is the EHU devoted to intellectual freedom and training future leaders of Belarus or is it a "trampoline for emigration" to the west?

Producer: Tim Mansel.

Belgium2003040320030407

Meriel Beattie goes to Antwerp to meet Dyab Abou Jahjah, whose dream is to create a pan-Arab nationalist movement across Europe.

Bihar

Bihar20090827
Bihar20090831
Bihar *2009082720090831

David Goldblatt reports from a small town in the Indian state of Bihar that has turned into something of an academic hothouse.

More than 50 students from the poor weaving community of Patwatoli have gained entry to the IITs, India's scientific equivalent of Oxbridge, in the last ten years.

It is the week before the annual entrance exam, and the tension among the students is mounting.

David Goldblatt reports from a small town in India that is nurturing academic excellence.

Black And Proud In Brazil20180104

How black Brazilians are asserting their rights thanks to a controversial education law.

For decades, Brazil has presented itself as a colour-blind nation in which most citizens are, at least to some extent, racially mixed. But a controversial education law is encouraging black Brazilians to assert their own distinct identity. Federal public universities now have to comply with government quotas for black students, as well as others deemed to be at risk of discrimination. Yet, since the rules allow applicants to self-define their colour, there have been numerous alleged frauds, and some universities are now creating inspection boards to assess students based on whether they appear phenotypically black. On the political right, there's a backlash among those who say the quotas are divisive and even racist. While some people of mixed race complain that they are 'not black enough'. But many black Brazilians themselves say they finally have a reason to acknowledge their ethnicity in a country where privilege all too often belongs to those of European descent. For Crossing Continents, David Baker reports on an issue that is at the heart of what it means to be black in Brazil.

Michael Gallagher producing.

Bombay2001041920010423

Meriel Beattie goes to Bombay, where a series of high-profile murders and blackmail threats have highlighted the links between the Bollywood film industry and organised crime.

Bombay has decided to clean up its act, but is it possible to build a new Bollywood?

Born Free, Killed By Hate In South Africa2016040720160411 (R4)

The story of Pasca, a young lesbian, and how South Africa's rainbow nation has failed her.

In 1994 apartheid ended in South Africa and Nelson Mandela was elected president. He promised in his inauguration speech to "build a society in which all South Africans will be able to walk tall, without any fear in their hearts... a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world." These promises were enshrined in South Africa's post-apartheid constitution, the first in the world to outlaw all forms of discrimination.

In 1994 Motshidisi Pascalina Melamu was born, making her one of the first of the so-called 'born free generation'. Pasca, as she was known, dreamed of becoming a politician, and studied hard at school. She loved singing, dancing and football. And girls - Pasca was a lesbian.

In December last year, Pasca's body was found in a field. She had been beaten and mutilated. She was one of three LGBTI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or intersex) people murdered in a six-week period last year. Hate crimes against the LGBTI community have long been a problem in South Africa, and the government has tried to tackle them. But activists say these recent crimes are just one sign that things aren't getting better. James Fletcher travels to the townships south of Johannesburg to speak with Pasca's family and friends, and to ask whether the government is failing LGBTI South Africans.

Bosnia2002040420020408

`Bosnia'.

George Arney meets a young man who, despite being paralysed by a sniper's bullet, has become a vigorous campaigner for the rights of others disabled by the war in Bosnia.

Brazil Versus Sleaze2016010720160111 (R4)

Untangling the web of corruption in a forgotten corner of Brazil. With Linda Pressly.

Brazil is in crisis. Confronted with a massive downturn in the economy, its currency has crashed, while its political class sinks in a quagmire of corruption allegations linked to the state oil company, Petrobras. In the northern state of Maranhao - dominated for decades by the powerful Sarney family - a new governor from the Communist Party of Brazil is attempting to bring a fresh broom to one of the country's most undeveloped states. Already he claims to have cut expenses by millions of Reals just by removing seafood and champagne from state banquet menus. But the malaise runs deep in Maranhao. In the small community of Bom Jardim, a 25-year-old mayor is under house arrest accused of skimming the education budget and running council business remotely using WhatsApp. And with the cancelling of a project to build a huge Petrobras refinery, Maranhao is feeling the economic pressure. Linda Pressly reports from one of Brazil's least known regions.

Brazil: Fighting Slavery2013122620131230

Linda Pressly goes on the road with Brazil's anti-slavery hit squads.

Brazil's anti-slavery hit-squads are unique. Since 1995, these committed bands of labour inspectors, accompanied by heavily armed police, have rescued 46,000 people deemed to be working as slaves. But Brazil's legal definition of slavery is contentious. It includes degrading conditions of work, which campaigners say amount to coercion. Some employers reject that. And now the stakes have been raised by proposals to confiscate land from bosses found to be flouting the anti-slavery standards. In a journey that takes her from cattle country on the edge of the Amazon, to the parched, rocky badlands of the north-east, Linda Pressly meets the campaigners, employers and politicians on both sides of the argument, and hears powerful testimony from the workers trapped in the middle.

Producer: Stephen Hounslow.

Brazil's Modern-day Captains Of The Sands2017033020170403 (R4)

Eighty years ago, the Brazilian writer Jorge Amado published Captains of the Sands, a powerfully moving novel about the lives of a gang of orphaned children living on the streets of Salvador. The book had a huge impact, showing wealthy Brazilians the truth about the inequality in their country and the humanity of the children they were used to regarding as "pests". It is now a literary classic and read by almost every Brazilian child at school. Eighty years on, though, thousands of adolescents and children still live in the streets in Salvador. Their lives are still marked by poverty and crime, intensified since Amado's day by the growth of the drugs trade and the addiction and violence it brings. And they still find alternative bonds of family in the kind of gangs that Amado would have recognised. For Crossing Continents, David Baker meets these modern-day Captains of the Sands and hears their stories and those of the people trying to help them.

James Fletcher producing.

A Brazilian novel about street children written 80 years ago still resonates today.

Bulgaria20170907

Reports from around the world.

Bulgaria On A Cliff Edge20170911

What's it like to live in the country with the fastest-shrinking population in the world?

What's it like to live in the country with the fastest-shrinking population in the world? In the mountain village of Kalotinsi in western Bulgaria, there is no shop, no school, no bus service. Until a few decades ago, 600 people lived here but now most of the houses stand empty. Thirteen residents remain, struggling to make a life in a place most people have given up on. There are many other near-deserted villages like this in Bulgaria. With women having few children, and many choosing to work abroad, Bulgaria is facing a population crisis. Ruth Alexander travels to the country to find out what life is like for those left behind, and to ask what is being done to reverse the population decline.

Producer: John Murphy.

Bulgaria's Criminal Football2012082320120827

No fewer than 15 football club bosses have been murdered in Bulgaria's top football league in the last decade alone. In this edition of Crossing Continents Margot Dunne investigates reports that many have been deeply involved in mafia businesses.

There are continuing reports that the game is riddled with corrupt practices including match-fixing and the illegal procurement of European Union passports for overseas players.

Crossing Continents examines these claims, attending a match which has allegedly been fixed in advance and speaks to a player who says he was offered money to throw a match.

The programme also meets Todor Batkov, chairman of one of the country's best known football clubs, Levski Sofia, who accepts that corruption in the national game is as deep rooted as ever.

Producer: Ed Butler.

Investigating the links between football, corruption and politics in Bulgaria.

In Bulgaria crime and politics have long had close connections with football. As the new season begins, Margot Dunne asks if the violence and corruption are getting out of hand?

Burma2012122720121231

Lucy Ash investigates an increasingly bitter row over a major Chinese investment in Burma.

Lucy Ash asks what the explosion in popular protest over a Chinese-backed copper mine says about changes in Burma and asks if this is a test case for the government's commitment to democratic reforms.

Farmers' daughters Aye Net and Thwe Thwe Win have led thousands of villagers in protest against what they say is the unlawful seizure of thousands of acres of land to make way for a $1 billion expansion of a copper mine run by the military and a large Chinese arms manufacturer. They have been thrown in jail and they have been harassed by their own police and military, and yet they have refused to back down.

Their bravery has been celebrated by the poet Ant Maung from the nearest big city Monywa, who wrote: "The struggle made them into iron ladies...This is life or death for them - they will defend it at the cost of everything."

Burmese officials and the Chinese company say the Monywa copper mine will create jobs and bring prosperity to one of the poorest and least developed nations in Asia. But the villagers complain about pollution, damage to crops and the loss of fertile land.

A violent crackdown on the protestors was a stark reminder that the country's transition to democracy remains fraught with difficulties. Some suspect the government acted to avoid scaring away foreign investors. Others say the brutal response shows Burma's military leaders are still in charge behind the scenes and that they are not prepared to tolerate any dissent which encroaches on their economic interests.

Meanwhile there is a rising tide of Sinophobia in a country which feels overshadowed by its powerful northern neighbour. How the mine dispute is resolved may provide vital clues about the future of Burma.

Producer: Katharine Hodgson.

Cambodia2001112220011126

`CAMBODIA'.

Clare Arthurs visits the temples of Angkor, one of the world's greatest archaeological heritage sites, which were out of bounds during the Pol Pot era.

Cambodia: Country For Sale
Cambodia: Country For Sale20110113

The paddy fields of impoverished Cambodia have suddenly become a prime slice of global real estate. But will the rural poor pay the price? This tiny Asian nation has just begun to recover after dictator Pol Pot's reign of terror, in which around 2 million Cambodians died, and the brutal civil war that followed. But now a very different story is unfolding in the agricultural heartland which once became notorious as the "killing fields." In a world plagued by food shortages, Cambodia is suddenly awash with global investors keen to snap up its cheap fertile land. The global financial elite see it as a recession-proof investment, and the government is desperate to invite in money and development. But it's driving a surreal land boom in the poorest villages: an estimated 15% of the country is now leased to private developers and stories are filtering in from the country's most impoverished farmers who tell of fear, violence and intimidation as private companies team up with armed police to force them from their land. In this week's Crossing Continents, Mukul Devichand samples the heady atmosphere of Cambodia's business elite, uncovers a lawless reality and investigates the claims of corruption and violence visited on the poor. He tells the stories of three very different men, Cambodian and foreign, who have very different plans for Cambodia's land: and asks what's really happening as one of rising Asia's poorest nations struggles to catch up.

Producer: Jo Mathys.

Cambodia is selling vast swathes of its land to global investors - but at what price?

Cambodia: Trust Me, I'm Not A Doctor2015121720151221 (R4)

The risks people take in rural Cambodia to get basic healthcare.

The Cambodian government has recently announced a clampdown on unlicensed doctors. This comes after a mass infection of HIV in a rural village, blamed on an unlicensed doctor re-using syringes. The "doctor", recently convicted of manslaughter, has just begun a 25 year prison sentence.

For millions of people, self-taught, unlicensed doctors are often their cheapest - and only - option if they fall ill. Cambodia has one of the world's lowest numbers of doctors per head of population, on a par with Afghanistan. For Crossing Continents, John Murphy travels outside the capital Phnom Penh to see whether the government clampdown is having an effect. He finds evidence that self-taught doctors are still operating in villages, without hindrance - and with plenty of local support. Producer Helen Grady.

Cameroon2001071920010723

Tim Whewell discovers how booming demand for natural health products in the West threatens a precious African medicinal tree with extinction, and visits an orphanage for baby gorillas whose mothers have been killed for meat.

Can An Economist Save Peru?20100510

The world famous Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto believes that the key to ending poverty for countless millions is to give them the right to own the land that they live on.

If a person owns the land, and has the paperwork to prove it, his theory says, they can use it as collateral to borrow money from banks to help build businesses and improve their quality of life.

But de Soto's ideas have proved controversial.

Now they are being tested in the rainforests of the Amazon.

The indigenous Peruvians who live there believe that they already own the land and protest against what they see as the encroachment of big business.

Last year, protests culminated in more than 30 deaths at Bagua

Linda Pressly journeys from Lima to the heart of the Amazon region with Hernando de Soto to discover how he is working with indigenous people.

Presenter: Linda Pressly

Producer: Paul Vickers.

Can a controversial economic theory improve the lives of Peru's poorest?

Canada's Jihadists20081218
Canada's Prescription Drug Crisis2012032920120402

Canada's First Nations communities are in crisis. Addiction to prescription pain-killers is rife, and it's devastating the fragile communities of northern Ontario.

OxyContin - an opioid drug capable of inducing a high like heroin - is widely abused in Canada. But on isolated reserves, people talk of an epidemic. For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly travels to Fort Hope - Eabametoong First Nation - to investigate the impact of drug use.

Fort Hope is accessible only by air, apart from a six week window in winter when you can drive across the frozen lakes on ice roads. It has a population of just 1200 people, but it's estimated up to 80% of the working-age population are abusing OxyContin.

The beauty of Fort Hope in deepest winter with its snow-covered streets conceals the fall-out from endemic drug use. This community has experienced a crime wave out of proportion to its size. Murder, theft and arson propelled the Chief to declare a 'state of emergency'. Even with police help it's hard to stop the pills getting onto the reserve. And the mark-up for the pushers - one 80mg tablet of OxyContin sells for up to $600 - means the addicts of Fort Hope are a lucrative market.

There's a glimmer of optimism. Doris Slipperjack, a 23 year old mother of three, is fighting back. She's determined to beat her addiction. She's become an inspiration to many First Nations people. But the road ahead is tough. The aboriginal people of Canada have a troubled history of addiction. Alcohol, gasoline and glue sniffing, drugs - this is a community that has experienced it all. But people will tell you that OxyContin is the worst, because it is so highly addictive. Who knows if people like Dave Waswa - a talented artist, will ever be able to kick the habit.

Crossing Continents investigates prescription drug abuse among Canada's aboriginal people.

Canada's Prescription Drug Crisis20120402
Cape Town2001032920010402

Tim Whewell finds out that in Cape Town, people of all racial backgrounds are now laughing at jokes that expose prejudice, as South Africa's new generation of stand-up comics discard the old racist jokes.

But have race relations really improved that much?

Central African Republic: A Road Through Hatred2014041020140414

Can a unique friendship between two men end the killings in the Central African Republic?

How do you restore peace to a country now being torn apart by a vicious campaign of ethnic and religious cleansing? Two men in the Central African Republic believe they have the answer - friendship. Tim Whewell joins the Catholic Archbishop of Bangui, Dieudonne Nzapalainga and the country's Chief Imam, Oumar Kobine Layama as they travel across the country trying to reconcile Christian and Muslim communities.

Chasing China's Doomsday Cult2014081420140818

Almighty God vs the Red Dragon: It sounds like a fantasy action film but it is in fact a real and disturbing struggle in China. The most vivid case involves a group of people who beat a stranger to death in a fast food restaurant. They said they had no choice because the victim was a 'demon'. The killers are fanatical followers of the Church of the Almighty God, a Christian doomsday cult which claims millions of members across China and pledges to overthrow the Chinese Communist Party - which it calls the 'Great Red Dragon'. Gracie uses her fluent Chinese to gain access to families of those caught up in the cult, including a man who infiltrated it to save his wife.

Chechnya

Chechnya20090720

A prominent human rights worker called Natalya Estemirova has been shot dead in the Russian republic of Chechnya.

She was one of the people interviewed by Lucy Ash during her investigation of the treatment of women in Chechnya.

There are reports of the police failing to investigate the common practice of the abduction of women, and of a series of murders and disappearances of women allegedly because of their immoral lifestyle.

Lucy Ash asks what the uneasy peace there means for Chechen women.

Lucy Ash investigates the treatment of women in Chechnya.

Checkmate For The King Of Chess?2016112420161128 (R4)

The bizarre and extraordinary story of Kirsan Ilyumzhinov, the eccentric Russian tycoon and president of FIDE, the international chess governing body. His twenty years in office have been dogged by allegations of corruption and vote-rigging and he’s recently been banned from entering the United States by the US Treasury for his alleged involvement in assisting the Assad regime in Syria. It’s prevented him from presiding over this month’s World Chess Championships in New York. For Assignment Tim Whewell reports from Moscow and New York on the deeply politicised game of chess and asks if it’s finally checkmate for the king of chess.

Dina Newman producing.

Photo: Kirsan Ilyumzhinov with the letter from the US Treasury informing him why he had been placed under US sanctions.

Credit: K.Ilyumzhinov’s archive

Kirsan Ilyumzhinov - master or pawn in the great game of chess?

Checkmate Me In St Louis2016051220160516 (R4)

The mid-western city which has become a world centre for the game of chess.

Dave Edmonds travels to the mid-western city of St Louis (location for the musical 'Meet Me In St Louis', starring Judy Garland) for the US chess championships. The city has become a world centre for the game of chess. Its status has partly been achieved by funding from a controversial multi-millionaire, whose childhood included time in an orphanage. Rex Sinquefield is well known for his fascination with the game and his enthusiasm is shared by many others. There is a thriving chess centre, elite tournaments which attract some of the top players, a Chess Hall of Fame and chess lessons in local schools.

St Louis is one of America's most violent cities and has most recently been in the news for race riots which erupted when an unarmed black man was shot by police. Can the game of chess serve to lessen racial tension and unite its citizens across the board?

Producer: Mark Savage.

Chile - Sexual Abuse, Secrets and Lies2018091320180917 (R4)

The dark secrets of Chile's Catholic Church.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

The dark secrets of Chile's Catholic Church. El Bosque is the wealthy Santiago parish where Fernando Karadima, a charismatic priest, attracted hundreds of young men to the priesthood. In 2010, he was exposed as a paedophile after survivors revealed he had sexually abused them. The Vatican sentenced Karadima to a life of penance and prayer. But this was no one-off, rogue priest. This year the scale of Chile's abuse scandal has been revealed - multiple allegations of sexual exploitation and cover-up are now being investigated across this Andean nation, including allegations made by a congregation of nuns. At first Pope Francis failed to respond. Subsequently he was forced to send his experts in sex crime to Santiago to hear evidence. Most recently, bishops have resigned, and nearly a hundred priests are being investigated by Chile's prosecutors. For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly travels to Chile to meet survivors of sexual abuse, whistle-blowers and devout Catholics, and explores a story that continues to haunt the Francis papacy.

Presenter: Linda Pressly
Producer in Chile: Jane Chambers

(Photo: Javier Molina, survivor of clerical sexual abuse. When he reported the abuse in 2010, the Catholic Church took no action.).

Chile - Sexual Abuse, Secrets and Lies20180913

The dark secrets of Chile's Catholic Church.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

The dark secrets of Chile's Catholic Church. El Bosque is the wealthy Santiago parish where Fernando Karadima, a charismatic priest, attracted hundreds of young men to the priesthood. In 2010, he was exposed as a paedophile after survivors revealed he had sexually abused them. The Vatican sentenced Karadima to a life of penance and prayer. But this was no one-off, rogue priest. This year the scale of Chile's abuse scandal has been revealed - multiple allegations of sexual exploitation and cover-up are now being investigated across this Andean nation, including allegations made by a congregation of nuns. At first Pope Francis failed to respond. Subsequently he was forced to send his experts in sex crime to Santiago to hear evidence. Most recently, bishops have resigned, and nearly a hundred priests are being investigated by Chile's prosecutors. For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly travels to Chile to meet survivors of sexual abuse, whistle-blowers and devout Catholics, and explores a story that continues to haunt the Francis papacy.

Presenter: Linda Pressly
Producer in Chile: Jane Chambers

(Image: Sister Yolanda Tondreaux is one of the Chilean nuns who complained of sexual harassment or abuse. Credit: BBC).

Chile - Sexual Abuse, Secrets And Lies2018091320180917 (R4)

The dark secrets of Chile's Catholic Church.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

The dark secrets of Chile's Catholic Church. El Bosque is the wealthy Santiago parish where Fernando Karadima, a charismatic priest, attracted hundreds of young men to the priesthood. In 2010, he was exposed as a paedophile after survivors revealed he had sexually abused them. The Vatican sentenced Karadima to a life of penance and prayer. But this was no one-off, rogue priest. This year the scale of Chile's abuse scandal has been revealed - multiple allegations of sexual exploitation and cover-up are now being investigated across this Andean nation, including allegations made by a congregation of nuns. At first Pope Francis failed to respond. Subsequently he was forced to send his experts in sex crime to Santiago to hear evidence. Most recently, bishops have resigned, and nearly a hundred priests are being investigated by Chile's prosecutors. For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly travels to Chile to meet survivors of sexual abuse, whistle-blowers and devout Catholics, and explores a story that continues to haunt the Francis papacy.

Presenter: Linda Pressly
Producer in Chile: Jane Chambers

(Image: Sister Yolanda Tondreaux is one of the Chilean nuns who complained of sexual harassment or abuse. Credit: BBC).

China Tweeting2012071920120723

Shanghai-based journalist Duncan Hewitt finds out how microblogging is changing China.

In just three years China's main microblogging site, Sina Weibo, has surpassed Twitter's entire global membership. More than 300 million Chinese are now tweeting, with millions more joining the national conversation every month. Shanghai-based journalist Duncan Hewitt finds out how microblogging is changing China.

Thanks to social media China is witnessing the emergence of a civil society of activists and justice-seekers. These 'netizens' are using Sina Weibo and other services to publicise miscarriages of justice, instances of corruption and environmental issues and force local and central government to act. The victim of a horrific attack shows Duncan how her desperate plea for redress on Sina Weibo led to a nationwide outcry. In Beijing he meets the dogs saved from a grisly death in the dog-eating South thanks to flashmob rescuers organised on Sina Weibo. And a group of mothers who met on Sina Weibo tell him about their campaign to promote breastfeeding across China. None of this was possible before the internet - but where will it all lead?

While some subjects are banned, Sina Weibo has also given Chinese people a new freedom to voice opinions on the news, their lives and their country.

Duncan meets the young people of Chengdu in Western China who are now part of a small but growing graffiti, hip-hop and dance scene. Just 15 years ago there was no way they could communicate with fellow fans, never mind the outside world. He'll visit Youku, China's YouTube, to watch their online X-Factor-style competition as it is filmed. And he'll meet the famous cartoonist using animation to ask questions about the materialism of the young and the detention of his fellow artist and friend, Ai Weiwei.

China: Too Old To Get Rich?2012051720120521

In this week's Crossing Continents, Mukul Devichand tells the stories of Shanghai's rapidly ageing population.

China's natural ageing process has been accelerated by the One Child Policy. Mukul tells the stories of an ageing city and asks whether China's rapid economic growth could be undermined.

Shanghai's image is youthful and contemporary, of a globalised metropolis buying into a new lifestyle at chains like Ikea. But the Ikea Shanghai store is home to a different category -- and age -- of customer. The store canteen has become a meeting point for elderly singles, looking for love and friendship. It's a story repeated across Shanghai: in places you may expect to millions of young people, you'll see the elderly.

Like the rest of urban China, Shanghai is growing old. A quarter of the city's resident population is now retired, putting it in the same demographic league as countries like the UK or Germany. But ageing in China is different. Its fertility rates have dropped at a speed unprecedented in modern history because its "One Child" policy. 30 years after the policy started, the speed of ageing is faster in China than anywhere else. The burden of ageing is not only coming faster, it's also much also harsher here, because China is still a developing country -- with hundreds of millions of poor people to support, as well as hundreds of millions of additional elderly. That has led to a deep seated anxiety in China: will the country grow too old to get rich?

Nestled amid skyscrapers, Mukul tells the stories of the old Shanghai of inner city districts, a place of tumbledown old blocks where the elderly are concentrated. He meets the couples and families struggling with new complaints, such as dementia and alzheimers, under the burden of low incomes and limited welfare. This story of poverty amid plenty symbolises the deeper worry: of the expense of an ageing China in a country where elderly care has traditionally been managed by the family.

In the same city districts, public and private nursing homes are now opening their doors. These cater to a growing demand from families who can't manage the traditional custom of "many generations under one roof" and represent a big cultural change in China. But who will pay for this kind of care nationally? Mukul tells the stories of the rural migrants, caught between the gaps of China's welfare system -- the millions for whom such care is simply not an option.

What can be done? One solution is to encourage more babies in each family. But that is antithetical to China's historically draconian "One Child" family planning, which is now deeply entrenched in the culture. Mukul visits a family planning centre, which now encourages some couples to have more than one -- and finds the couples aren't always listening. He speaks to Shanghai's leading family planning officials to ask if they are changing the "One Child" policy, and how fast.

At its root, the real problem is not just too many elderly. Rather it's a shortage of young workers, threatening China's economic model itself. A lack of willing youth is a huge issue for a country whose entire business model is based on millions of cheap workers. In the industrial zones south of Shanghai, Mukul tells the stories of a crisis in labour. Will China's factory of the world collapse under the burden of ageing?

China's Children2007081620070820

Marijke van der Meer of Radio Netherlands Worldwide talks to young Chinese, who speak frankly about being members of the first generation to be born under China's one child policy.

They claim that traditional Chinese family values are being turned upside down.

China's Children

Marijke van der Meer of Radio Netherlands Worldwide talks to young Chinese, who speak frankly about being members of the first generation to be born under China's one child policy. They claim that traditional Chinese family values are being turned upside down.

China's Family Planning Army2016050520160509 (R4)

Now that China has ended its One Child policy, one group of state employees may soon be out of a job - the country's hated population police. Hundreds of thousands of officers used to hunt down families suspected of violating the country's draconian rules on child bearing, handing out crippling fines, confiscating property and sometimes forcing women to have abortions. But with an eye on improving child welfare in the countryside, there is a plan to redeploy many of these officers as child development specialists. Lucy Ash visits a pilot project in Shaanxi Province training former enforcers to offer advice and support to rural grandparents who are left rearing children while the parents migrate to jobs in the big cities. If successful, the scheme could be rolled out nationwide to redeploy an army of family planning workers and transform the life prospects of millions of rural children.

China's once-hated population police are being turned into child development specialists.

China's Ketamine Fortress2015080620150810 (R4)

Celia Hatton goes undercover to The Fortress, the Chinese village at the centre of the world's illicit ketamine problem. She hears how China is a top maker and taker of the drug. Celia visits karaoke bars where ketamine is snorted regularly; she hears from those trying to wean themselves off their addiction; and hears from police who took part in a major raid on a village accused of producing vast quantities of illegal ketamine. A local farmer complains that his land and his crops have been destroyed by the drug gangs and Celia discovers how Chinese ketamine has led to the problem known as "Bristol bladder" back in the UK. John Murphy producing.

Celia Hatton explores how China is struggling to contain underground ketamine.

China's Migrant Worker Mega-city2011121520111219

The world economy has pinned its hopes on China's economy, which depends on over 150 million migrant workers and their labour.

The system of internal migration, based on the idea that workers do not settle in the places they work, has sustained an economic miracle and rapid development.

But the country has seen a summer of unrest, with rioting among migrants in the Pearl River Delta and angry reactions to the injustices of the system.

Mukul Devichand visits Guangzhou, the southern metropolis where 7 million migrants form half the population.

There is anger and frustration with the hukou, China's "internal passport." Meanwhile, the city is now also home to communities from around the world, with 100,000 Africans adding to the already sensitive ethnic mix.

How will the city change under the pressure of migration, and will its economic success survive the social tensions?

Tales of discontent and reform from Guangzhou, China's mega-city of migrants.

The world economy has pinned its hopes on China's economy, which depends on over 150 million migrant workers and their labour. The system of internal migration, based on the idea that workers do not settle in the places they work, has sustained an economic miracle and rapid development. But the country has seen a summer of unrest, with rioting among migrants in the Pearl River Delta and angry reactions to the injustices of the system. Mukul Devichand visits Guangzhou, the southern metropolis where 7 million migrants form half the population. There is anger and frustration with the hukou, China's "internal passport." Meanwhile, the city is now also home to communities from around the world, with 100,000 Africans adding to the already sensitive ethnic mix. How will the city change under the pressure of migration, and will its economic success survive the social tensions?

China's Migrant Worker Mega-city20111219

The world economy has pinned its hopes on China's economy, which depends on over 150 million migrant workers and their labour. The system of internal migration, based on the idea that workers do not settle in the places they work, has sustained an economic miracle and rapid development. But the country has seen a summer of unrest, with rioting among migrants in the Pearl River Delta and angry reactions to the injustices of the system. Mukul Devichand visits Guangzhou, the southern metropolis where 7 million migrants form half the population. There is anger and frustration with the hukou, China's "internal passport." Meanwhile, the city is now also home to communities from around the world, with 100,000 Africans adding to the already sensitive ethnic mix. How will the city change under the pressure of migration, and will its economic success survive the social tensions?

Tales of discontent and reform from Guangzhou, China's mega-city of migrants.

China's World Cup Dreams2018051020180514 (R4)

How a small rural school could help China achieve its World Cup dream.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

China's football-loving President Xi Jinping says he wants his country to qualify for, to host and to win the football World Cup by 2050. The men's national team has recently been defeated 6-0 by Wales, so there's some way to go yet. But they're spending billions trying to boost football in the country. Chinese entrepreneurs have also spent vast sums investing in local and foreign clubs, partly to help create a passion for playing football in the Chinese and to bring the latest training techniques back home.
Another official target for the Chinese government is to eradicate poverty within three years.
For Crossing Continents, Celia Hatton visits a special primary school in Gansu, in China's far west, which is setting out to turn those World Cup dreams into reality. Made up of children whose parents have migrated to the cities for work, the school drills the young pupils in football skills each day, to give them direction and purpose, but also in the hope that some of them will use football as route out of poverty and to garner Chinese success on the pitch.

Producer: John Murphy.

China's World Cup Dreams2018051020180514 (R4)

How a small rural school could help China achieve its World Cup dream.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

China's football-loving President Xi Jinping says he wants his country to qualify for, to host and to win the football World Cup by 2050. The men's national team has recently been defeated 6-0 by Wales, so there's some way to go yet. But they're spending billions trying to boost football in the country. Chinese entrepreneurs have also spent vast sums investing in local and foreign clubs, partly to help create a passion for playing football in the Chinese and to bring the latest training techniques back home.
Another official target for the Chinese government is to eradicate poverty within three years.
For Crossing Continents, Celia Hatton visits a special primary school in Gansu, in China's far west, which is setting out to turn those World Cup dreams into reality. Made up of children whose parents have migrated to the cities for work, the school drills the young pupils in football skills each day, to give them direction and purpose, but also in the hope that some of them will use football as route out of poverty and to garner Chinese success on the pitch.

Producer: John Murphy.

China's World Cup Dreams20180510

How a small rural school could help China achieve its World Cup dream.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

China's football-loving President Xi Jinping says he wants his country to qualify for, to host and to win the football World Cup by 2050. The men's national team has recently been defeated 6-0 by Wales, so there's some way to go yet. But they're spending billions trying to boost football in the country. Chinese entrepreneurs have also spent vast sums investing in local and foreign clubs, partly to help create a passion for playing football in the Chinese and to bring the latest training techniques back home.
Another official target for the Chinese government is to eradicate poverty within three years.
For Crossing Continents, Celia Hatton visits a special primary school in Gansu, in China's far west, which is setting out to turn those World Cup dreams into reality. Made up of children whose parents have migrated to the cities for work, the school drills the young pupils in football skills each day, to give them direction and purpose, but also in the hope that some of them will use football as route out of poverty and to garner Chinese success on the pitch.

Producer: John Murphy.

Civil War In Sudan2004031120040315

As many as two million people have been killed in the brutal civil war that has dominated Sudan for over forty years.

Now the two dominant sides in the conflict - the Khartoum government, and the rebel, southern-based SPLM - have agreed a ceasefire.

Peace negotiations are on-going.

Hopes are high for this potentially oil-rich state.

At this crucial juncture in Sudan's modern history, the writer Michael Griffin returns to a country he came to know and love a quarter of a century ago.

In 1979 he was a teacher in the southern Sudan town of Rumbek - now the administrative base of the SPLM.

When Michael left to return to the UK, he stole a nineteenth century travel book from the school's library.

"The Opening of the Nile Basin" tells the stories of the Verona Fathers - the first Europeans to journey to the upper reaches of the Nile in the mid 1840s.

In Crossing Continents, Michael Griffin makes his way back to Rumbek to return that same library book.

He travels to Khartoum to meet the politicians, oil men and refugees who are now counting on peace, and where those intrepid nineteenth century priests from the book began their journeys.

In the south - a region with practically no infrastructure as a result of the war - Michael attempts to track down his former students How has the war encroached on their lives? Were they press-ganged into the military as child soldiers? And with the conflict potentially near an end, what are their hopes for their own children? Along the way, Michael meets rebel commanders, aid workers, traders and chiefs.

And he encounters today's Verona Fathers - still preaching harmony in a nation scarred by ethnic and religious difference.

What will peace mean for Sudan?

Cleansing Turkey2016111720161121 (R4)

Thousands of public employees in Turkey have been 'purged' by the government for being associated with the Gulen movement and the recent coup attempt. Tim Whewell travels across the country to meet some of those struggling to regain their jobs who say the government's just used the coup as an excuse to get rid of opponents - and others who insist President Erdogan's only aim is to make Turkey safe for democracy.

Shabnam Grewal producing.

Thousands of public employees in Turkey have been 'purged' by the government for being associated by the Gulen movement and the recent coup attempt. Tim Whewell travels across the country to meet some of those struggling to regain their jobs who say the government's just used the coup as an excuse to get rid of opponents - and others who insist President Erdogan's only aim is to make Turkey safe for democracy.

Cold Turkey In Karachi2012080920120813

Mobeen Azhar finds out how a charity is helping heroin addicts in Karachi.

Karachi is facing a drugs epidemic. Pakistan's sprawling port city has an estimated half a million chronic heroin addicts. The drug is cheap and easily available as it comes across the Pakistan/Afghanistan border, before being shipped to Europe and the US. Mobeen Azhar finds out how a charity is trying to help addicts and their families.

An NGO called the Edhi Foundation operates what is thought to be the world's largest drug rehabilitation centre. It's here that Mobeen meets brothers Yusaf and Husein who have checked themselves in. Patients who volunteer for treatment like this can leave whenever they feel ready. But the majority of patients, like 24-year-old Saqandar, are brought in by their desperate relatives, and according to Edhi rules, only the family can decide when they will be released.

The centre offers heroin users food and painkillers to ease the physical symptoms of withdrawal - but conventional treatment like methadone is not available. So does enforced cold turkey really work?

Mobeen follows the stories of three heroin addicts and finds out how the stress of their addiction takes its toll on them and their families.

Presenter: Mobeen Azhar

Producer: Ben Crighton.

Colombia2011051920110523

Early-onset Alzheimer's has stalked a poor extended family in Medellin, Colombia.

The family carries a dominant gene that means that half are at risk.

The disease strikes family members as young as 25 and by their 40s sufferers are in the grip of full-blown dementia.

Alzheimer's is by and large a disease of the developed world, if for no other reason than that people in the developing world don't live long enough to suffer from it.

Now by using the Colombian family to trial new drugs, researchers say they may be on the road to a global cure for Alzheimer's.

Bill Law asks if this represents an unfair exploitation of desperate people - many of them barely literate - to benefit those in the West? Or is it a case of bringing hope to those in a hopeless situation?

Producer: Natalie Morton.

Does the key to curing Alzheimer's lie with a poor extended family in Medellin, Colombia?

Early-onset Alzheimer's has stalked a poor extended family in Medellin, Colombia. The family carries a dominant gene that means that half are at risk. The disease strikes family members as young as 25 and by their 40s sufferers are in the grip of full-blown dementia. Alzheimer's is by and large a disease of the developed world, if for no other reason than that people in the developing world don't live long enough to suffer from it. Now by using the Colombian family to trial new drugs, researchers say they may be on the road to a global cure for Alzheimer's. Bill Law asks if this represents an unfair exploitation of desperate people - many of them barely literate - to benefit those in the West? Or is it a case of bringing hope to those in a hopeless situation?

Colombia20110523

Does the key to curing Alzheimer's lie with a poor extended family in Medellin, Colombia?

Colombia - Where The Truth Lies Buried2015010120150105 (R4)

In Comuna 13, one of Medellin's poorest and most violent districts, there is a giant rubbish dump - la escombrera. Local people say it's where the truth lies buried. They're talking about the disappeared - dozens of victims of Colombia's bloody, civil conflict concealed beneath the mountains of junk.

La escombrera stands in contrast to the 'Medellin Miracle' - the city's transformation over two decades from the darkest days of Pablo Escobar and his drug trafficking cartel, to its triumph in being voted the world's most innovative.

For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly reports on the move to begin digging for human remains.

Colombia's Forgotten Exodus2016081820160822 (R4)

In the Colombian capital of Bogota, Lucy Ash meets two people who fear they will never be able to return to their homes. They both come from Choco, which is one of the poorest provinces and most violent parts of the country. Maria, an Afro-Colombian mother of four, fled her town after she was abducted and brutally attacked by paramilitaries. Plinio was trying to help members of his indigenous community go back to their farms when he received death threats from a splinter group of left wing guerrilla (the ELN) and his friend was assassinated.

Their stories illustrate a nationwide trauma - the government may be on the brink of a historic peace deal with the FARC rebels, but Colombia has even more internally displaced people than Syria. More than 200,000 have been killed and seven million driven off their land during half a century of war. Lucy travels down the River Baudo to meet people uprooted from their jungle villages in violent clashes earlier this year and finds that Latin America's longest insurgency is far from over.

Reported and produced by Lucy Ash.

Coming Out Of The Shadows In Kenya2017041320170417 (R4)

For generations those who, for biological reasons, don't fit the usual male/female categories have faced violence and stigma in Kenya. Intersex people - as they are commonly known in Kenya - were traditionally seen as a bad omen bringing a curse upon their family and neighbours. Most were kept in hiding and many were killed at birth. But now a new generation of home-grown activists and medical experts are helping intersex people to come out into the open. They're rejecting the old idea that intersex people must choose a gender in infancy and stick to it and are calling on the government to instead grant them legal recognition. BBC Africa's Health Correspondent Anne Soy meets some of the rural families struggling to find acceptance for their intersex children and witnesses the efforts health workers and activists are making to promote understanding of the condition. She also meets a successful gospel singer who recently came out as intersex and hears from those who see the campaign for inter-sex recognition as part of a wider attack on the traditional Kenyan family.

Helen Grady producing.

For generations those who, for biological reasons, don't fit the usual male/female categories have faced violence and stigma in Kenya. Intersex people - as they are commonly known in Kenya - were traditionally seen as a bad omen bringing a curse upon their family and neighbours. Most were kept in hiding and many were killed at birth. But now a new generation of home-grown activists and medical experts are helping intersex people to come out into the open. They're rejecting the old idea that intersex people must choose a gender and stick to it and are calling on the government to instead grant them legal recognition. The BBC's Africa Health Correspondent Anne Soy meets some of the rural families struggling to find acceptance for their intersex children and witnesses the efforts health workers and village elders are making to promote understanding of the condition. She also meets a successful gospel singer who recently came out as intersex and hears from those who see the campaign for inter-sex recognition as part of a wider attack on the traditional Kenyan family.

Coming Out Of The Shadows In Kenya20170417

In Kenya home-grown activists are helping intersex people come out into the open.

For generations those who, for biological reasons, don't fit the usual male/female categories have faced violence and stigma in Kenya. Intersex people - as they are commonly known in Kenya - were traditionally seen as a bad omen bringing a curse upon their family and neighbours. Most were kept in hiding and many were killed at birth. But now a new generation of home-grown activists and medical experts are helping intersex people to come out into the open. They're rejecting the old idea that intersex people must choose a gender in infancy and stick to it and are calling on the government to instead grant them legal recognition. BBC Africa's Health Correspondent Anne Soy meets some of the rural families struggling to find acceptance for their intersex children and witnesses the efforts health workers and activists are making to promote understanding of the condition. She also meets a successful gospel singer who recently came out as intersex and hears from those who see the campaign for inter-sex recognition as part of a wider attack on the traditional Kenyan family.

Helen Grady producing.

Confessions Of An La Gangster2008091120090126

Michael Montgomery explores some extraordinary recordings made by Rene Enriquez.

A former leader in one of America's most violent gangs, the Mexican Mafia, Enriquez is serving 20 years to life in California for murder.

Since being incarcerated, however, he has become a police informant.

Michael Montgomery tells the story of a former gang leader turned police informant.

Confessions of an LA Gangster

Michael Montgomery explores some extraordinary recordings made by Rene Enriquez. A former leader in one of America's most violent gangs, the Mexican Mafia, Enriquez is serving 20 years to life in California for murder. Since being incarcerated, however, he has become a police informant.

Confessions Of An La Gangster *20090126
Conversion Wars

Conversion Wars2010080520100809

In the Arab World converting from Islam to Christianity is one of the biggest taboos.

Omar Abdel Razek explores the hidden world of converts, from Egypt to Morocco to the USA.

Crossing Continents encounters converts in Egypt who live in constant fear.

We meet 'Mariam', a convert to Christianity who is secretly married to a Christian and who lives in hiding as her family have threatened to kill her.

She is now pregnant, and says that she will never be allowed to officially marry her husband and that her child will have to be raised without official papers.

But there is also a group of Christian TV channels, mostly based in the USA and run by converts, who are targeting the region's Muslims.

The programme gains rare access to one of these channels, where they discover converts using shocking language to attack Islam.

The largest of these channels, called Al-Hayat, claims to have millions of viewers in the Arab World.

Its most prominent preacher, Father Zakaria Boutros, is famous for his incendiary attacks on Islam and the Prophet Muhammad.

Father Boutros lives in hiding after receiving numerous death threats.

He has inspired a new generation of preachers who are deliberately attacking Islam as a method to convert Muslims to Christianity.

His brand of 'shock' preaching has spread across the airwaves and the internet.

We track down the Al-Hayat channel to the USA, and find that it is a 'vital partner' of one the USA's most prominent TV evangelists.

Joyce Meyer Ministries (JMM) receives tens of millions of dollars a year in donations, and much of it is spent on 'Christian outreach.' While JMM deny any editorial control over the station, the BBC finds they helped to launch it and they buy airtime.

A spokesman for JMM eventually sends an email saying that Father Boutros will no longer be hosting a show on Al Hayat.

The programme is written and reported by Omar Abdel-Razak of the BBC Arabic Service and narrated by Hugh Levinson.

The controversy around Muslims converting to Christianity in the Arab World.

In the Arab World converting from Islam to Christianity is one of the biggest taboos. Omar Abdel Razek explores the hidden world of converts, from Egypt to Morocco to the USA.

Conversion Wars20100809

Crossing Continents encounters converts in Egypt who live in constant fear. We meet 'Mariam', a convert to Christianity who is secretly married to a Christian and who lives in hiding as her family have threatened to kill her. She is now pregnant, and says that she will never be allowed to officially marry her husband and that her child will have to be raised without official papers.

But there is also a group of Christian TV channels, mostly based in the USA and run by converts, who are targeting the region's Muslims. The programme gains rare access to one of these channels, where they discover converts using shocking language to attack Islam. The largest of these channels, called Al-Hayat, claims to have millions of viewers in the Arab World. Its most prominent preacher, Father Zakaria Boutros, is famous for his incendiary attacks on Islam and the Prophet Muhammad. Father Boutros lives in hiding after receiving numerous death threats. He has inspired a new generation of preachers who are deliberately attacking Islam as a method to convert Muslims to Christianity. His brand of 'shock' preaching has spread across the airwaves and the internet.

We track down the Al-Hayat channel to the USA, and find that it is a 'vital partner' of one the USA's most prominent TV evangelists. Joyce Meyer Ministries (JMM) receives tens of millions of dollars a year in donations, and much of it is spent on 'Christian outreach.' While JMM deny any editorial control over the station, the BBC finds they helped to launch it and they buy airtime. A spokesman for JMM eventually sends an email saying that Father Boutros will no longer be hosting a show on Al Hayat.

The programme is written and reported by Omar Abdel-Razak of the BBC Arabic Service and narrated by Hugh Levinson.

The controversy around Muslims converting to Christianity in the Arab World.

Corruption Incorporated: The Odebrecht Story2018042620180430 (R4)

The rise and fall of one of Brazil's top companies - built on a policy of bribery.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

Corruption Incorporated - the Odebrecht Story
Odebrecht was one of Brazil's premier companies - the largest construction firm in Latin America. But some of its success in securing multi-million dollar contracts across the region was built on a policy of colossal bribery. This edifice of graft began to crumble when the Brazilian authorities started to investigate the state-owned oil company, Petrobras. As a result, CEO Marcelo Odebrecht was convicted of paying millions of dollars in bribes to Petrobras executives in cash-for-contracts. The testimony of Odebrecht executives in plea-bargain agreements with prosecutors continues to have fall-out in an election year, especially with former President, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva now in jail on charges related to Brazil's wider corruption scandal.

Linda Pressly explores the organisation at the heart of the Odebrecht scandal - a whole corporate department set up to administer bribes. And she meets the company's new CEO, Luciano Guidolin, who tells her the company will be compliant. It will not tolerate corruption. Meanwhile, the Federal Police of Brazil continue to attempt to crack the codes that prevent them from fully accessing Odebrecht's encrypted computer system.

Presenter: Linda Pressly
Producer in Brazil: Jessica Cruz.

Corruption Incorporated: The Odebrecht Story2018042620180430 (R4)

The rise and fall of one of Brazil's top companies - built on a policy of bribery.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

Corruption Incorporated - the Odebrecht Story
Odebrecht was one of Brazil's premier companies - the largest construction firm in Latin America. But some of its success in securing multi-million dollar contracts across the region was built on a policy of colossal bribery. This edifice of graft began to crumble when the Brazilian authorities started to investigate the state-owned oil company, Petrobras. As a result, CEO Marcelo Odebrecht was convicted of paying millions of dollars in bribes to Petrobras executives in cash-for-contracts. The testimony of Odebrecht executives in plea-bargain agreements with prosecutors continues to have fall-out in an election year, especially with former President, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva now in jail on charges related to Brazil's wider corruption scandal.

Linda Pressly explores the organisation at the heart of the Odebrecht scandal - a whole corporate department set up to administer bribes. And she meets the company's new CEO, Luciano Guidolin, who tells her the company will be compliant. It will not tolerate corruption. Meanwhile, the Federal Police of Brazil continue to attempt to crack the codes that prevent them from fully accessing Odebrecht's encrypted computer system.

Presenter: Linda Pressly
Producer in Brazil: Jessica Cruz.

Cricket, Colour And Quotas In South Africa2016120820161212 (R4)

Black sporting talent is still struggling to break through into South Africa's top teams.

Alex Capstick follows the stories of two young black cricketers in South Africa as they struggle to break through into the professional game. Since the end of apartheid sport has played a major role in easing racial tensions in South Africa, particularly in football and rugby. But across the piece black representation remains well below target in many sports at the national level. The South African sports minister is calling for quota systems to be more rigorously enforced. But critics argue that the government has not addressed the root cause of the problem which is chronic under investment in the townships where young black talent is found.

David Lockwood producing.

Image: Tebogo Faas (fifth from left) with team mates. BBC copyright.

Crimea20170824
Crimea: Paradise Regained2014080720140811

Lucy Ash meets the Russian holidaymakers who are reclaiming their bit of paradise.

Europe and the US have imposed the toughest sanctions on Russia since the Cold War amid anger over the Kremlin's support for east Ukrainian separatists who stand accused of shooting down a Malaysia Airlines passenger jet. But the crisis began further south with Russia's annexation of Crimea in March.

Crimea's idyllic scenery drew Soviet visitors for years - some called it the Communist Cote d'Azur. The collapse of communism did little to dent Russia's appetite for their bit of paradise on the Black Sea along with the thousands of Ukrainian holidaymakers who flocked there each year. But now the Ukrainians are staying away and the Russian government is trying to fill the gap by urging employers in Russia to send staff on subsidised breaks in Crimea. A holiday in the newly annexed peninsula has become every Russian's patriotic duty. For Crossing Continents, Lucy Ash visits Crimean tourist resorts and explores the motives behind Vladimir Putin's fateful decision to reclaim Russia's paradise.

Croatia20090416
Croatia20090420

Matt Prodger examines the effects of organised crime and corruption in Croatia.

Croatia *2009041620090420

Matt Prodger examines the effects of organised crime and corruption in Croatia, as the country stands on the brink of EU membership.

The execution-style assassination of a young woman, a car bomb explosion killing the country's most famous newspaper editor and journalists and businessmen being beaten in the streets are just some of the events that have rocked Croatia in recent months.

Crossing Europe2007083020070903

Julian Pettifer explores the Mediterranean tourist industry.

From the ravaged concrete shores of the Costa Brava to Montenegro, the newly fashionable jewel of the Adriatic, he finds that not all is as he expected.

How can the Mediterranean survive our infatuation with sun, sand and sea?

Crossing Europe

Julian Pettifer explores the Mediterranean tourist industry. From the ravaged concrete shores of the Costa Brava to Montenegro, the newly fashionable jewel of the Adriatic, he finds that not all is as he expected. How can the Mediterranean survive our infatuation with sun, sand and sea?

Crossing Europe: Pills For Profit20070906

Melanie Abbott explores the European drug industry, a business worth billions of pounds but increasingly targeted by counterfeiters.

A parallel trade in medicines is emerging, whereby cheap drugs are bought in countries like Greece and sold on to UK pharmacies and the NHS.

Is this jeopardising our safe supply of vital medicines and are patients being put at risk?

Crossing Europe: Pills for Profit

Melanie Abbott explores the European drug industry, a business worth billions of pounds but increasingly targeted by counterfeiters. A parallel trade in medicines is emerging, whereby cheap drugs are bought in countries like Greece and sold on to UK pharmacies and the NHS. Is this jeopardising our safe supply of vital medicines and are patients being put at risk?

Cuba20090511

Linda Pressly investigates the housing crisis in Cuba.

Even before the recent hurricanes that damaged over half a million homes, perhaps the most common cause of complaint on the island was accommodation.

The black market in property and building materials is thought to be huge.

Linda finds out about some of the unique ways that Cubans have been finding to get around regulations to secure a new home, in a nation where it is illegal to buy and sell property.

Cuba On The Move2015081320150817 (R4)

Will Grant takes a ride in Cuba to discover how people get around and whether the thaw in relations with the United States will make any difference to their lives. The country is known the world over for its classic cars, a consequence of the American trade embargo imposed after the revolution in 1959, when, as one motoring journalist quipped, 'the tail fin was still a recent innovation in automotive design'. There are a few collectibles but spare parts are almost impossible to come by and most vehicles are held together with sticky tape and glue. It is almost as if Cuba has been stuck in a time warp for half a century with around 60 thousand vintage cars now attempting to navigate the country's notoriously bad roads. Car ownership is still the dream for most people but the reality is a chaotic bus service, a bone shaking ride in a horse and cart or hitching a lift. How do people cope and will things change?

Produced by Mark Savage.

Cuba's Cancer Revolution2017042020170424 (R4)

Lung cancer is America's biggest cancer killer. But there is hope: the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has sanctioned trials of CimaVax - a treatment created in Cuba that has extended the lives of hundreds of patients on the island. This is the first time a Cuban drug has been tested in the US.

American cancer patients got wind of CimaVax five years ago. Patients like Judy Ingels - an American with a stage 4 lung cancer diagnosis - arrive regularly in Havana, hoping for a miracle. It's traffic that's increased since the US / Cuba thaw.

The creation of Cuba's biotech industry was Fidel Castro's idea back in the 1980s. Today it employs 22,000 people, and sells drugs all over the world - excluding the US. When Presidents Obama and Castro made their momentous move to end hostilities, doctors and patients on both sides of the Florida Straits hoped everyone might benefit from an exchange of life-saving treatments. Now there's deep anxiety. Will President Trump re-freeze the thaw, and jeopardise a revolutionary collaboration?

For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly explores Cuba's bio-tech industry. How has this small Caribbean nation been able to develop world-class drugs with its limited resources?

In a revolutionary first, one of Cuba's cancer treatments gets a US drug trial.

Lung cancer is America's biggest cancer killer. But there is hope: the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has sanctioned trials of CimaVax - a treatment created in Cuba that has extended the lives of hundreds of patients on the island. This is the first time a Cuban drug has been tested in the US.

American cancer patients got wind of CimaVax five years ago. Patients like Judy Ingels - an American with a stage 4 lung cancer diagnosis - arrive regularly in Havana, hoping for a miracle. It's traffic that's increased since the US / Cuba thaw.

The creation of Cuba's biotech industry was Fidel Castro's idea back in the 1980s. Today it employs 22,000 people, and sells drugs all over the world - excluding the US. When Presidents Obama and Castro made their momentous move to end hostilities, doctors and patients on both sides of the Florida Straits hoped everyone might benefit from an exchange of life-saving treatments. Now there's deep anxiety. Will President Trump re-freeze the thaw, and jeopardise a revolutionary collaboration?

For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly explores Cuba's bio-tech industry. How has this small Caribbean nation been able to develop world-class drugs with its limited resources?

Czech Republic20080731

Across Europe, Roma children are often educated in special schools for children with mental disabilities. Last year, a group of Roma children defeated the Czech government at the European Court of Justice. The court ruled that the children had been the victims of systematic discrimination and ordered that they should be paid compensation. How has the court ruling affected their lives? Ray Furlong reports.

Czech Republic *2008082820080901

Across Europe, Roma children are often educated in special schools for children with mental disabilities.

Last year, a group of Roma children defeated the Czech government at the European Court of Justice.

The court ruled that the children had been the victims of systematic discrimination and ordered that they should be paid compensation.

How has the court ruling affected their lives? Ray Furlong reports.

Daphne And The Two Maltas20171214

A brutal killing, an unsolved murder and the divided island of Malta.

The brutal, unsolved murder of Malta's most outspoken blogger has blackened the image of the Mediterranean holiday island. Since Daphne Caruana Galizia was blown up by a car bomb in October, her son has denounced his country as a mafia state. European leaders say they're deeply concerned about the rule of law there. But on Malta, Daphne was a divisive figure - admired by some as a fearless investigative journalist, detested by others as a snobbish "queen of bile." She herself said there were "two Maltas" - and the reaction to her murder has proved that. So was Daphne's death a political assassination - as one Malta says - or a criminal killing without wider implications, as the other Malta insists? Tim Whewell goes looking for answers on an island where everyone knows everyone, but belongs firmly to one camp or the other. Producer: Estelle Doyle.

Daphne and the Two Maltas2017121420171218 (R4)

A brutal killing, an unsolved murder and the divided island of Malta.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

The brutal, unsolved murder of Malta's most outspoken blogger has blackened the image of the Mediterranean holiday island. Since Daphne Caruana Galizia was blown up by a car bomb in October, her son has denounced his country as a mafia state. European leaders say they're deeply concerned about the rule of law there. But on Malta, Daphne was a divisive figure - admired by some as a fearless investigative journalist, detested by others as a snobbish "queen of bile." She herself said there were "two Maltas" - and the reaction to her murder has proved that. So was Daphne's death a political assassination - as one Malta says - or a criminal killing without wider implications, as the other Malta insists? Tim Whewell goes looking for answers on an island where everyone knows everyone, but belongs firmly to one camp or the other. Producer: Estelle Doyle.

Delhi2010090920100913

This year's Commonwealth Games will be held in October in the Indian capital Delhi, the largest sporting event ever to be held there.

No expense is being spared to build the appropriate facilities and infrastructure.

But many are questioning whether spending billions of dollars hosting a two-week sporting event is the best use of resources in a city where poverty is entrenched.

As the budget for the games spirals, the organisers are being accused of hiding the true cost, and of diverting funds intended for the very poorest.

They're also accused of condoning the displacement of thousands of poor families and a blatant disregard of the rights of the workers building the stadiums.

Rupa Jha asks who are the winners and who the losers in Delhi's attempt to turn itself into a "world-class" city.

Producer: Tim Mansel.

Who are the winners and the losers as Delhi rebuilds itself for the Commonwealth Games?

This year's Commonwealth Games will be held in October in the Indian capital Delhi, the largest sporting event ever to be held there. No expense is being spared to build the appropriate facilities and infrastructure. But many are questioning whether spending billions of dollars hosting a two-week sporting event is the best use of resources in a city where poverty is entrenched.

As the budget for the games spirals, the organisers are being accused of hiding the true cost, and of diverting funds intended for the very poorest. They're also accused of condoning the displacement of thousands of poor families and a blatant disregard of the rights of the workers building the stadiums.

Delhi20100913

This year's Commonwealth Games will be held in October in the Indian capital Delhi, the largest sporting event ever to be held there. No expense is being spared to build the appropriate facilities and infrastructure. But many are questioning whether spending billions of dollars hosting a two-week sporting event is the best use of resources in a city where poverty is entrenched.

As the budget for the games spirals, the organisers are being accused of hiding the true cost, and of diverting funds intended for the very poorest. They're also accused of condoning the displacement of thousands of poor families and a blatant disregard of the rights of the workers building the stadiums.

Rupa Jha asks who are the winners and who the losers in Delhi's attempt to turn itself into a "world-class" city.

Producer: Tim Mansel.

Who are the winners and the losers as Delhi rebuilds itself for the Commonwealth Games?

Denmark2002032120020325

`Denmark'.

Paul Henley finds out how Tvind, an educational, revolutionary movement started in Denmark in the 1970s, has become a multi-million-pound international organisation.

Digging Up the Past in Catalonia2018032920180402 (R4)

Why is troubled Catalonia now opening up civil war mass graves?

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

Why is troubled Catalonia now opening up civil war mass graves?

Spain has the second largest amount of mass graves in the world after Cambodia. Over 100,000 people disappeared during the 1930s civil war and the ensuing Franco dictatorship. Decades later, the vast majority are still unaccounted for.

Forgetting Spain's painful past and the disappeared is what allowed democracy and peace to flourish, the argument has long gone.

But many have not forgotten - including in the region of Catalonia, where bitter memories of Franco's rule are just beneath the surface. Before Madrid imposed direct rule last October, the pro-independence Catalan government began an unprecedented plan to excavate civil war mass graves and collect DNA from families looking for their lost relatives.

Estelle Doyle travels to the politically troubled region and finds out how, despite direct rule, those seeking answers are more determined than ever to recover the past and to confront Spain's painful history. Others worry that their actions will only but reopen old wounds and further divide the country.

Presenter: Estelle Doyle
Producer: John Murphy.

Digging Up The Past In Catalonia2018032920180402 (R4)

Why is troubled Catalonia now opening up civil war mass graves?

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

Why is troubled Catalonia now opening up civil war mass graves?

Spain has the second largest amount of mass graves in the world after Cambodia. Over 100,000 people disappeared during the 1930s civil war and the ensuing Franco dictatorship. Decades later, the vast majority are still unaccounted for.

Forgetting Spain's painful past and the disappeared is what allowed democracy and peace to flourish, the argument has long gone.

But many have not forgotten - including in the region of Catalonia, where bitter memories of Franco's rule are just beneath the surface. Before Madrid imposed direct rule last October, the pro-independence Catalan government began an unprecedented plan to excavate civil war mass graves and collect DNA from families looking for their lost relatives.

Estelle Doyle travels to the politically troubled region and finds out how, despite direct rule, those seeking answers are more determined than ever to recover the past and to confront Spain's painful history. Others worry that their actions will only but reopen old wounds and further divide the country.

Presenter: Estelle Doyle
Producer: John Murphy.

Ecuador2011040720110411

The Ecuadorian Amazon region is one of the most bio-diverse on the planet.

In one area, nearly 600 bird species, 80 kinds of bat and 150 varieties of amphibian have been recorded.

And it's possible that the density of one of the rarest wild cats, the jaguar, is twice as high as anywhere else in the world.

This is also home to two of the last uncontacted groups of indigenous people in the world, who choose to live undisturbed in voluntary isolation.

But beneath the rich tropical soil lies another treasure - nearly a billion barrels of untapped oil, 20% of this Latin American nation's reserves.

Ecuador has calculated that if it were to exploit this petroleum, it would make over $7 billion.

That is a significant sum of money for a relatively poor nation.

But instead, the government has a radical plan: if the international community will compensate Ecuador for half of the loss of revenue, the government will pledge to protect this unique environment and keep the drillers out.

With the funds raised, Ecuador will invest in social projects and non-carbon forms of energy, and aims to create a global template for other poor equatorial countries with oil.

This is what's known as Plan A in Ecuador, and President Correa has set a deadline of the end of 2011 to collect the first US $100 million.

If donors don't materialise, he has always said he will implement Plan B - to begin the process of extracting crude from this particular oil block, known as Yasuni-ITT.

For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly travels deep into the rainforest to find out what is at stake.

She visits a community of Haorani indigenous people who have a history of resisting - often violently - the encroachment of oil companies in the Amazon.

And with the recent court judgement against the US oil giant Chevron - who took over Texaco - and a resulting hefty fine of over US$8 billion for pollution, she traces the often dirty history of oil exploitation in Ecuador.

But how realistic is the Yasuni-ITT initiative? Ecuador's economy is dependent on oil exports.

Technology too has moved on, and an oil investor and analyst tells Crossing Continents that not only has the industry learnt some lessons, but also that it is now possible to extract oil from the pristine forest with minimal damage to the ecosystems.

So far it seems the Ecuadorean people support Plan A.

But although international donors have shown moral backing for the government's idea to save the rainforest, this hasn't been matched by contributions to the fund.

And with less than half the $100 million pledged, the clock is ticking for one of the world's most unique and precious habitats.

Producer: Emil Petrie.

Ecuador's radical plan to keep oil reserves in the ground, and save the rainforest.

The Ecuadorian Amazon region is one of the most bio-diverse on the planet. In one area, nearly 600 bird species, 80 kinds of bat and 150 varieties of amphibian have been recorded. And it's possible that the density of one of the rarest wild cats, the jaguar, is twice as high as anywhere else in the world. This is also home to two of the last uncontacted groups of indigenous people in the world, who choose to live undisturbed in voluntary isolation.

But beneath the rich tropical soil lies another treasure - nearly a billion barrels of untapped oil, 20% of this Latin American nation's reserves. Ecuador has calculated that if it were to exploit this petroleum, it would make over $7 billion. That is a significant sum of money for a relatively poor nation. But instead, the government has a radical plan: if the international community will compensate Ecuador for half of the loss of revenue, the government will pledge to protect this unique environment and keep the drillers out. With the funds raised, Ecuador will invest in social projects and non-carbon forms of energy, and aims to create a global template for other poor equatorial countries with oil.

This is what's known as Plan A in Ecuador, and President Correa has set a deadline of the end of 2011 to collect the first US $100 million. If donors don't materialise, he has always said he will implement Plan B - to begin the process of extracting crude from this particular oil block, known as Yasuni-ITT.

For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly travels deep into the rainforest to find out what is at stake. She visits a community of Haorani indigenous people who have a history of resisting - often violently - the encroachment of oil companies in the Amazon. And with the recent court judgement against the US oil giant Chevron - who took over Texaco - and a resulting hefty fine of over US$8 billion for pollution, she traces the often dirty history of oil exploitation in Ecuador.

But how realistic is the Yasuni-ITT initiative? Ecuador's economy is dependent on oil exports. Technology too has moved on, and an oil investor and analyst tells Crossing Continents that not only has the industry learnt some lessons, but also that it is now possible to extract oil from the pristine forest with minimal damage to the ecosystems.

So far it seems the Ecuadorean people support Plan A. But although international donors have shown moral backing for the government's idea to save the rainforest, this hasn't been matched by contributions to the fund. And with less than half the $100 million pledged, the clock is ticking for one of the world's most unique and precious habitats.

Ecuador20110411

The Ecuadorian Amazon region is one of the most bio-diverse on the planet. In one area, nearly 600 bird species, 80 kinds of bat and 150 varieties of amphibian have been recorded. And it's possible that the density of one of the rarest wild cats, the jaguar, is twice as high as anywhere else in the world. This is also home to two of the last uncontacted groups of indigenous people in the world, who choose to live undisturbed in voluntary isolation.

But beneath the rich tropical soil lies another treasure - nearly a billion barrels of untapped oil, 20% of this Latin American nation's reserves. Ecuador has calculated that if it were to exploit this petroleum, it would make over $7 billion. That is a significant sum of money for a relatively poor nation. But instead, the government has a radical plan: if the international community will compensate Ecuador for half of the loss of revenue, the government will pledge to protect this unique environment and keep the drillers out. With the funds raised, Ecuador will invest in social projects and non-carbon forms of energy, and aims to create a global template for other poor equatorial countries with oil.

This is what's known as Plan A in Ecuador, and President Correa has set a deadline of the end of 2011 to collect the first US $100 million. If donors don't materialise, he has always said he will implement Plan B - to begin the process of extracting crude from this particular oil block, known as Yasuni-ITT.

For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly travels deep into the rainforest to find out what is at stake. She visits a community of Haorani indigenous people who have a history of resisting - often violently - the encroachment of oil companies in the Amazon. And with the recent court judgement against the US oil giant Chevron - who took over Texaco - and a resulting hefty fine of over US$8 billion for pollution, she traces the often dirty history of oil exploitation in Ecuador.

But how realistic is the Yasuni-ITT initiative? Ecuador's economy is dependent on oil exports. Technology too has moved on, and an oil investor and analyst tells Crossing Continents that not only has the industry learnt some lessons, but also that it is now possible to extract oil from the pristine forest with minimal damage to the ecosystems.

So far it seems the Ecuadorean people support Plan A. But although international donors have shown moral backing for the government's idea to save the rainforest, this hasn't been matched by contributions to the fund. And with less than half the $100 million pledged, the clock is ticking for one of the world's most unique and precious habitats.

Producer: Emil Petrie.

Ecuador's radical plan to keep oil reserves in the ground, and save the rainforest.

Egypt

Egypt2008032020080324

A UN report in 2005 threatened that unless the gender equality issue was dealt with it would be impossible to create viable civil societies in the Arab world.

Bill Law follows the female bloggers, strikers and political prisoners to see how much progress has been made.

Egypt

A UN report in 2005 threatened that unless the gender equality issue was dealt with it would be impossible to create viable civil societies in the Arab world. Bill Law follows the female bloggers, strikers and political prisoners to see how much progress has been made.

Egypt20090910
Egypt20090914
Egypt *2009091020090914

Magdi Abdelhadi explores what kind of society Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak, who has no obvious successor in place, will leave behind when he dies.

Egypt is the most populous country in the Middle East and is pivotal for stability in the region and beyond, but after nearly three decades in power, the absence of a potential successor to the 81-year-old President Mubarak, has raised fears of a succession crisis.

Magdi finds, to his surprise, that nearly 60 years after the military seized power and abolished the monarchy, Egyptians still look to the army for a saviour.

Magdi Abdelhadi explores what kind of Egypt President Mubarak will leave when he dies.

El Salvador's Gang Truce2012112220121126

In one of the most violent countries on earth, peace has broken out. In March, a truce was brokered between El Salvador's two most violent street gangs; they agreed to stop killing each other.

The Mara Salvatrucha and Barrio 18 are criminal outfits that trace their origins to Los Angeles. In the 1990s, older members were deported from the US and forged local 'branches' on the streets of El Salvador. Since the truce - brokered in prisons with the gangs' leaders - the murder rate of this small Central American nation (with the highest homicide rate in the world after Honduras) has been cut by more than half.

In Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly visits the imprisoned leaders of both gangs to find out how the deal was done. And she finds many Salvadorans are relieved. Now they can go out at night, and their children can play again on the streets. But the truce has not been without its critics. Should the state sponsor a non-aggression treaty between criminal organisations? And is there more to the agreement than Salvadorans are being told?

Many are asking if this is a sustainable peace. Some question whether the murder rate is really falling, alleging that actually the gangs are continuing to kill and hiding the corpses. Claudia thinks this is what happened to her son - a teenager associated with the Barrio 18 who disappeared last month after a local shooting. She says she knows he's dead. All she wants is the return of his body.

But for all the uncertainty, the gains are dramatic. Not only has the murder rate plummeted, but the number of public hospital emergency admissions in San Salvador for people injured by guns or knives has fallen by nearly two-thirds. Can the truce last? El Salvador is holding its breath.

Elephants, Politics And Sri Lanka20170511

Reports from around the world.

Every year elephants kill dozens of people in Sri Lanka. Hundreds of these huge mammals are slaughtered too - often by farmers attempting to protect their land. For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly travels to the east of the island - one of the regions devastated by over two decades of civil war. Thousands of people fled their homes during the fighting, and in their absence, the elephants moved in. With peace came resettlement, but many villages are now forced to negotiate a precarious existence with the wild herds, and death-by-elephant is not uncommon. Meanwhile, the government is attempting to take action against the illegal ownership of elephants, and prosecutions are in train. In Sri Lanka, elephants are a status symbol for the rich and powerful, and they are also highly revered in Buddhist culture - no pageant is complete without a slow-moving procession of elephants. But there are claims the confiscation of illegally-kept animals has created a shortage for religious rituals, and criticisms that the government is over-responding to the animal rights lobby. In a fractured nation, elephants are becoming increasingly politicised. Linda Pressly reporting.

Elephants, Politics And Sri Lanka20170515

Religiously and politically potent, Sri Lankan elephants are killing more and more humans.

Every year elephants kill dozens of people in Sri Lanka. Hundreds of these huge mammals are slaughtered too - often by farmers attempting to protect their land. For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly travels to the east of the island - one of the regions devastated by over two decades of civil war. Thousands of people fled their homes during the fighting, and in their absence, the elephants moved in. With peace came resettlement, but many villages are now forced to negotiate a precarious existence with the wild herds, and death-by-elephant is not uncommon. Meanwhile, the government is attempting to take action against the illegal ownership of elephants, and prosecutions are in train. In Sri Lanka, elephants are a status symbol for the rich and powerful, and they are also highly revered in Buddhist culture - no pageant is complete without a slow-moving procession of elephants. But there are claims the confiscation of illegally-kept animals has created a shortage for religious rituals, and criticisms that the government is over-responding to the animal rights lobby. In a fractured nation, elephants are becoming increasingly politicised. Linda Pressly reporting.

Escape From North Korea2011072820110801

Lucy Williamson reports from Seoul on the dangerous trade of the people brokers, smuggling desperate people out of North Korea to the safety of the South.

She investigates the way the South Korean government tries to integrate refugees from the North into their own modern, open society - and the challenges this creates for people who have only known poverty and extreme political repression.

Reporting the desperate and dangerous efforts of North Koreans to flee to the South.

Lucy Williamson reports from Seoul on the dangerous trade of the people brokers, smuggling desperate people out of North Korea to the safety of the South. She investigates the way the South Korean government tries to integrate refugees from the North into their own modern, open society - and the challenges this creates for people who have only known poverty and extreme political repression.

Escape From North Korea20110801

Lucy Williamson reports from Seoul on the dangerous trade of the people brokers, smuggling desperate people out of North Korea to the safety of the South. She investigates the way the South Korean government tries to integrate refugees from the North into their own modern, open society - and the challenges this creates for people who have only known poverty and extreme political repression.

Reporting the desperate and dangerous efforts of North Koreans to flee to the South.

Escaping Tanzania's Cutting Season2015040220150406 (R4)

In northern Tanzania there is a tradition of FGM - female genital mutilation. The 'cutting season' lasts for six weeks. Afterwards, the adolescent victims are often expected to marry. But girls in Serengeti District are saying 'no' to FGM. And dozens of them have fled to a new safe house in the town of Mugumu to escape this bloody, life-threatening rite of passage. For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly travels to Mugumu to meet the girls - and the woman who has given them refuge, Rhobi Samwelly. She listens in as Rhobi engages in delicate and often emotional negotiations with parents intent on mutilating their daughters. Will the girls ever feel safe enough to return home?

Ethiopia - Troubles Downstream2009032620090330

Peter Greste journeys down the Omo River from Ethiopia's central highlands to Northern Kenya where the lives of nearly half a million of the world's most remote tribespeople are threatened by a massive hydro-electricity project.

The tribes, already fighting over increasingly scarce water and land, have warned that the dam could plunge them into an all-out struggle for survival

Ethiopia - Troubles Downstream20090330

Peter Greste visits the Kenyan tribespeople under threat from a hydro-electricity project.

Euthanasia - Aurelia's Story2018080920180813 (R4)

Aurelia Brouwers had mental illness - when she died from euthanasia in Holland she was 29.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

In January, Aurelia Brouwers - a 29 year old Dutch woman, with a history of severe mental illness - lay down on her bed to die. She had been declared eligible for euthanasia a month earlier - Dutch law permits the ending of a life where there is, 'unbearable suffering' without hope of relief. Aurelia's death provoked an outpouring on social media, and widespread discussion within the Netherlands... What if a death wish is part of someone's illness? And does someone with serious mental health challenges have the capacity to make a decision about their own demise? These are questions now being debated in the Netherlands as a result of Aurelia's death. Crossing Continents features recordings of Aurelia made in the two weeks before she died, hears from some of the friends closest to her, and explores the complex terrain of euthanasia for people with psychiatric problems in Holland. Reported and produced by Linda Pressly.

(Image: Aurelia Brouwers. Credit: RTL Nieuws, Sander Paulus).

Euthanasia - Aurelia's Story20180809

Aurelia Brouwers had mental illness - when she died from euthanasia in Holland she was 29.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

In January, Aurelia Brouwers - a 29 year old Dutch woman, with a history of severe mental illness - lay down on her bed to die. She had been declared eligible for euthanasia a month earlier - Dutch law permits the ending of a life where there is, 'unbearable suffering' without hope of relief. Aurelia's death provoked an outpouring on social media, and widespread discussion within the Netherlands... What if a death wish is part of someone's illness? And does someone with serious mental health challenges have the capacity to make a decision about their own demise? These are questions now being debated in the Netherlands as a result of Aurelia's death. Crossing Continents features recordings of Aurelia made in the two weeks before she died, hears from some of the friends closest to her, and explores the complex terrain of euthanasia for people with psychiatric problems in Holland. Reported and produced by Linda Pressly.

(Image: Aurelia Brouwers. Credit: RTL Nieuws, Sander Paulus).

Exposing Bali's Orphanages2011120820111212

Ed Butler reports on a cycle of abuse in the orphanages of Bali.

Some seventy orphanages now populate the island, housing thousands of children, many recruited from poor families, on the promise of a decent diet, education, and healthcare.

But in some cases the promises are empty, as unscrupulous owners abuse and exploit the children - using them for free labour over long hours, and forcing them to beg.

The most lucrative profits come from well-meaning tourists, who are often convinced by the tough living conditions to give generously - the hope being the money will benefit the children, not the owner.

Is such charity actually intensifying the misery of Bali's most vulnerable children?

Ed Butler investigates abuse of children and scamming of volunteers by Bali's orphanages.

Ed Butler reports on a cycle of abuse in the orphanages of Bali. Some seventy orphanages now populate the island, housing thousands of children, many recruited from poor families, on the promise of a decent diet, education, and healthcare. But in some cases the promises are empty, as unscrupulous owners abuse and exploit the children - using them for free labour over long hours, and forcing them to beg. The most lucrative profits come from well-meaning tourists, who are often convinced by the tough living conditions to give generously - the hope being the money will benefit the children, not the owner. Is such charity actually intensifying the misery of Bali's most vulnerable children?

Exposing Bali's Orphanages20111212

Ed Butler reports on a cycle of abuse in the orphanages of Bali. Some seventy orphanages now populate the island, housing thousands of children, many recruited from poor families, on the promise of a decent diet, education, and healthcare. But in some cases the promises are empty, as unscrupulous owners abuse and exploit the children - using them for free labour over long hours, and forcing them to beg. The most lucrative profits come from well-meaning tourists, who are often convinced by the tough living conditions to give generously - the hope being the money will benefit the children, not the owner. Is such charity actually intensifying the misery of Bali's most vulnerable children?

Ed Butler investigates abuse of children and scamming of volunteers by Bali's orphanages.

Farming Zimbabwe2011120120111205

In 2000, President Robert Mugabe introduced "fast-track land reform" to Zimbabwe in a wave of often violent takeovers of mainly white-owned farms.

Led by veterans of the second Chimurenga - the Zimbabwe War of Liberation of the 1960s and 1970s - the takeover was seen internationally as a disaster.

It was widely reported that cronyism and corruption meant only the country's politically-connected elite were benefiting from the land reform programme, and in the process were leading Zimbabwe's lucrative agricultural export industry into freefall.

But what is the situation a decade on?

Martin Plaut travels across Zimbabwe to investigate new research which suggests that farm production levels are recovering.

He meets some of Zimbabwe's new black farmers - some of whom took part in the land seizures - who reveal how land reform has transformed their lives.

He also examines the fortunes of Zimbabwe's remaining white farmers and the black farm workers they employed and asks if country's wider economy has recovered from the massive disruption caused by land reform.

Reporter: Martin Plaut

Producer: Richard Fenton-Smith.

Martin Plaut investigates Zimbabwe's agriculture ten years after the farm invasions.

Led by veterans of the second Chimurenga - the Zimbabwe War of Liberation of the 1960s and 1970s - the takeover was seen internationally as a disaster. It was widely reported that cronyism and corruption meant only the country's politically-connected elite were benefiting from the land reform programme, and in the process were leading Zimbabwe's lucrative agricultural export industry into freefall. But what is the situation a decade on?

Martin Plaut travels across Zimbabwe to investigate new research which suggests that farm production levels are recovering. He meets some of Zimbabwe's new black farmers - some of whom took part in the land seizures - who reveal how land reform has transformed their lives.

Farming Zimbabwe20111205

In 2000, President Robert Mugabe introduced "fast-track land reform" to Zimbabwe in a wave of often violent takeovers of mainly white-owned farms.

Led by veterans of the second Chimurenga - the Zimbabwe War of Liberation of the 1960s and 1970s - the takeover was seen internationally as a disaster. It was widely reported that cronyism and corruption meant only the country's politically-connected elite were benefiting from the land reform programme, and in the process were leading Zimbabwe's lucrative agricultural export industry into freefall. But what is the situation a decade on?

Martin Plaut travels across Zimbabwe to investigate new research which suggests that farm production levels are recovering. He meets some of Zimbabwe's new black farmers - some of whom took part in the land seizures - who reveal how land reform has transformed their lives.

He also examines the fortunes of Zimbabwe's remaining white farmers and the black farm workers they employed and asks if country's wider economy has recovered from the massive disruption caused by land reform.

Reporter: Martin Plaut

Producer: Richard Fenton-Smith.

Martin Plaut investigates Zimbabwe's agriculture ten years after the farm invasions.

Fearless Women In Turkish Kurdistan2014073120140804

Tim Whewell meets the dynamic women in Turkish Kurdistan who are defining the future.

For decades, Turkey's Kurds have been struggling against a state that used to deny their very existence as a separate people. In the low level war between the Turkish military and the militant Kurdish group, the PKK, both side have been accused of atrocities. In the 29 years of fighting up to last year's ceasefire, at least 40,000 people died and hundreds of villages were destroyed. But now, just when Kurds in neighbouring Iraq are considering establishing an independent state, and many believe the chaos in Syria will change borders across the region, Kurds in Turkey are increasingly reconciled to remaining within existing frontiers. As Turkey pursues peace talks with the PKK, the militant movement's supporters talk of changing society, not borders. And already, they've initiated some radical experiments.

Pro-PKK towns and villages across eastern Turkey are now each governed by two co-mayors, male and female, and the new system has propelled many dynamic young women into power in regions that were once socially conservative. One is a survivor of domestic violence determined to use her position to encourage other women to speak up about what until now has been a taboo subject. She's not just the first woman mayor of her town, but also the first woman ever to get a divorce there. Tim Whewell travels to the region to meet her and other social reformers, and discover why so many of Turkey's Kurds say they have turned their back on nationalism, and want to express their identity in ways they say are more modern.

Producers: Charlotte Pritchard and Guney Yildiz.

Fixing India's Car Crash Capital2016091520160919 (R4)

The people who are trying to stop the relentless road deaths in India's biggest city.

India has some of the world's most dangerous roads. The government says almost 150,000 people died on them last year. Nowhere saw more crashes than the booming city of Mumbai. The carnage is relentless, affecting people at every level of society. Neal Razzell meets the Mumbaikers who are saying, enough: a vegetable seller who fills potholes in his spare time after his son died in one; a neurosurgeon whose experience treating victims has led him to try to build trauma centres along one of the worst roads; and an unlikely combination of engineers, activists and police officers with an ambitious plan to bring the number of deaths on a notorious expressway down to zero. It's hoped there will be lessons in Mumbai for all of India. The country is in the midst of an historic road-building push. By 2020, Prime Minister Modi wants to pave a distance greater than the circumference of the earth.

Produced by Michael Gallagher.

Forced Confessions In Japan2013010320130107

Investigating forced confessions of suspects in the Japanese criminal justice system.

Mariko Oi investigates forced confessions of suspects in the Japanese criminal justice system. She asks if the use of prolonged questioning and other dubious tactics by police and prosecutors might be one reason for Japan's astonishingly high conviction rate.

Producer: Nina Robinson.

Forced Sterilisation In Uzbekistan2012041220120416

Natalia Antelava reports on Uzbekistan where women have become the new target of one of the most repressive regimes on earth. She uncovers evidence that women are being sterilised,often without their knowledge, in an effort by the government to control the population.

The programme speaks to victims and doctors and highlights the fear and paranoia that have made this such a difficult story to tell. Women have fled the country in order to escape the practice. Only a few brave Uzbeks have been willing to speak, often telling horrific stories the government don't want told.

Producer: Wesley Stephenson.

Natalia Antelava uncovers evidence of the involuntary sterilisation of women in Uzbekistan

Forced Sterilisation In Uzbekistan20120416

Natalia Antelava uncovers evidence of the involuntary sterilisation of women in Uzbekistan

Forgetting Igbo2016042820160502 (R4)

Nkem Ifejika cant speak the language of his forefathers. Nkem is British of Nigerian descent and comes from one of Nigeria's biggest ethnic groups the Igbo. He's one of the millions of Nigerians, who live in the diaspora - almost two hundred thousand of them living here in Britain. Nkem wants to know why he was never taught Igbo as a child and why the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation, UNESCO, has warned that Igbo faces extinction in the next fifty years.

In this week's Crossing Continents, Nkem travels to the Igbo heartland in the southeast of Nigeria to explore the demise of a once proud language. He discovers that recent history has had profound effects on Igbo culture and identity. He discovers too that some Igbos are seeking to reassert their language and culture. Part of this is a resurgence of Igbo identity under a new 'Biafran' movement. Is this likely to find traction or will it ignite painful divisions from the past and lead to renewed tensions across Nigeria. From Nkem's own London-based family - where his wife is teaching both him and their son to speak Igbo - to the ancestral villages of Anambra State, 'Forgetting Igbo' reveals shifting perspectives on Nigeria's colonial past, emerging new ambitions for its future - and deep fault lines at the heart of its society.

Produced by Michael Gallagher.

Nkem Ifejika cannot speak Igbo, the language of his forefathers, and he wants to know why.

Frank Wild's Last Journey20120102

Sir Ernest Shackleton has a heroic place in the annals of Antarctic exploration, famously for his expedition on the aptly-named Endurance in 1914. He intended to cross over the Antarctic landmass. Instead, his ship became stuck in ice which eventually crushed it. Shackleton and his crew made a desperate voyage in three small boats to Elephant Island, where they split up. The men on the island were left under the command of Shackleton's Number 2, Frank Wild. Shackleton and a small team sailed 800 miles to South Georgia, from where they mounted a rescue mission for Wild's group.

Nearly a century on, reporter Karen Bowerman joins a group of Wild's relatives retracing his extraordinary journey to the southern seas. They are bearing Wild's ashes, which they bury next to Shackleton, on South Georgia.

Producer: John Murphy.

Retracing the route of Antarctic explorer Frank Wild, Shackleton's second-in-command.

Gangland In Paradise

Gangland In Paradise20090903
Gangland In Paradise20090907
Gangland In Paradise *2009090320090907

With a spectacular natural setting and a prosperous but laid-back lifestyle, Vancouver is routinely named one of the best communities in the world in which to live.

But this west coast Canadian city, host to the 2010 Winter Olympics, is quickly developing another reputation.

Bill Law tells the story of the young gangsters who are exploiting legal loopholes to build a multi-billion dollar illicit drugs industry using a combination of business savvy and bullets.

Generation Identity20180920

Simon Cox investigates a new far right youth organisation in Europe, Generation Identity.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

Simon Cox is in Austria where the authorities have launched an unprecedented operation against a new far right youth organisation, Generation Identity. They prosecuted members of the group including its leader, Martin Sellner, for being an alleged criminal organisation. They are currently appealing the judge's not guilty verdict. The Austrian group is at the heart of a new pan European movement that is vehemently opposed to Muslims and immigration. GI says it is not racist or violent. In Germany more than 100 offences have been committed by its members in just over a year. And the group's co leader in Britain stepped down after he was revealed to have a Neo Nazi past.

Simon Cox reporting. Anna Meisel producing.

Generation Identity2018092020180924 (R4)

Simon Cox investigates a new far right youth organisation in Europe, Generation Identity.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

Simon Cox is in Austria where the authorities have launched an unprecedented operation against a new far right youth organisation, Generation Identity. They prosecuted members of the group including its leader, Martin Sellner, for being an alleged criminal organisation. They are currently appealing the judge's not guilty verdict. The Austrian group is at the heart of a new pan European movement that is vehemently opposed to Muslims and immigration. GI says it is not racist or violent. In Germany more than 100 offences have been committed by its members in just over a year. And the group's co leader in Britain stepped down after he was revealed to have a Neo Nazi past.

Simon Cox reporting. Anna Meisel producing.

Genome: [r4 Bd=19981203]

Women fighters played a crucial role in Eritrea's 30-year struggle for independence, but now that the war is over, is girl power still alive and kicking? Julian Pettifer travels to the capital, Asmara, to investigate. Producer Emma Rippon

Genome: [r4 Bd=19981203]

Unknown: Julian Pettifer

Producer: Emma Rippon

Genome: [r4 Bd=19981210]

Child labour is part of a pattern of poverty in Sicily that has enabled the Mafia to thrive. Now ordinary people are trying to stop to it. With Meriel Beattie. Producer Carlo de Blasio

Genome: [r4 Bd=19981210]

Unknown: Meriel Beattie.

Producer: Carlo de Blasio

Genome: [r4 Bd=19981217]

Reports on the stories that matter to

People around the world. Israeli forces may finally pull out of southern

Lebanon after occupying it for over a decade. Meriel Beattie investigates the repercussions of such a withdrawal. Producer Hugh Levinson

Genome: [r4 Bd=19981217]

Unknown: Meriel Beattie

Producer: Hugh Levinson

Georgia Corruption Busting2004040820040412

After leading Georgia's November revolution, Mikhail Saakashvili won a crushing victory in Presidential elections on a ticket of beating corruption.

It's a daunting task, transforming this corrupted state into a legitimate one.

The man he's asked to lead the attack is young lawyer Irakli Okruashvili.

Tim Whewell spent a week with the new Prosecutor General.

He's already making high profile arrests but the culture of corruption is so all embracing that Okruashvili is having to introduce some novel tricks to bring perpetrators to justice.

Georgia: Orthodoxy In The Classroom2015050720150511 (R4)

Natalia Antelava asks if the creeping influence of the Orthodox Church in Georgia's schools is turning them into a breeding ground for radical Christianity. Georgia's liberal politicians say only alignment with Europe and US will allow Georgia to overcome its post-Soviet past and survive as an independent nation. But in the way of Georgia's pro-Western course stands its Orthodox neighbour Russia and, increasingly, the country's own Orthodox Church. Natalia Antelava visits her old school in Tbilisi to see how the country's most conservative, anti-Western institution is influencing the next generation. Wesley Stephenson producing.

A report on Georgia's schools and the radical priests who want to influence them.

Georgian Fir Cones2010120220101206

The Christmas tree industry is worth almost a billion pounds a year in Europe alone.

Most of the ones around us now, covered in baubles and tinsel didn't start life in the UK or even Scandinavia, but in one small village, in the mountains of Georgia close to the border with Russia.

Angus Crawford travels to the small town of Ambrolauri in the shadow of the Caucasus mountains.

There men risk their lives climbing the big firs to harvest the seeds of Abies Nordmanniana, the Nordman pine.

More than forty million are sold in Europe every year.

The harvesters are paid little and many are given no safety equipment.

If they fall they may be injured or killed.

The pine cones they gather are sold abroad and it's foreign companies that make profits from growing and selling the crop.

Meanwhile Georgia's villages are dying.

Families can't make enough money from farming and move away.

Most of those who remain have to live on less than three pounds a day.

But things are changing.

One Danish firm is working with local people to put more of the profits from the business back into their hands.

They pay their workers above the market rate, process the seed locally and for every tree sold abroad money is sent back for development projects.

There's talk of starting nurseries near Ambrolauri to feed growing markets in Eastern Europe and bring more foreign capital into the country.

Money that Georgia desperately needs.

Its economy is still only 60% of what it was in Soviet times, and it now imports eighty per cent of its food.

The rusting hulks of abandoned factories litter the countryside.

But now some Georgians are asking if the pine cone trade can provide a model of how to breathe new life into their country's crumbling economy.

Angus Crawford travels to Georgia to find poverty at the heart of the Christmas tree trade

The Christmas tree industry is worth almost a billion pounds a year in Europe alone. Most of the ones around us now, covered in baubles and tinsel didn't start life in the UK or even Scandinavia, but in one small village, in the mountains of Georgia close to the border with Russia. Angus Crawford travels to the small town of Ambrolauri in the shadow of the Caucasus mountains. There men risk their lives climbing the big firs to harvest the seeds of Abies Nordmanniana, the Nordman pine. More than forty million are sold in Europe every year. The harvesters are paid little and many are given no safety equipment. If they fall they may be injured or killed. The pine cones they gather are sold abroad and it's foreign companies that make profits from growing and selling the crop. Meanwhile Georgia's villages are dying. Families can't make enough money from farming and move away. Most of those who remain have to live on less than three pounds a day. But things are changing. One Danish firm is working with local people to put more of the profits from the business back into their hands. They pay their workers above the market rate, process the seed locally and for every tree sold abroad money is sent back for development projects. There's talk of starting nurseries near Ambrolauri to feed growing markets in Eastern Europe and bring more foreign capital into the country. Money that Georgia desperately needs. Its economy is still only 60% of what it was in Soviet times, and it now imports eighty per cent of its food. The rusting hulks of abandoned factories litter the countryside. But now some Georgians are asking if the pine cone trade can provide a model of how to breathe new life into their country's crumbling economy.

Georgian Fir Cones20101206

The Christmas tree industry is worth almost a billion pounds a year in Europe alone. Most of the ones around us now, covered in baubles and tinsel didn't start life in the UK or even Scandinavia, but in one small village, in the mountains of Georgia close to the border with Russia. Angus Crawford travels to the small town of Ambrolauri in the shadow of the Caucasus mountains. There men risk their lives climbing the big firs to harvest the seeds of Abies Nordmanniana, the Nordman pine. More than forty million are sold in Europe every year. The harvesters are paid little and many are given no safety equipment. If they fall they may be injured or killed. The pine cones they gather are sold abroad and it's foreign companies that make profits from growing and selling the crop. Meanwhile Georgia's villages are dying. Families can't make enough money from farming and move away. Most of those who remain have to live on less than three pounds a day. But things are changing. One Danish firm is working with local people to put more of the profits from the business back into their hands. They pay their workers above the market rate, process the seed locally and for every tree sold abroad money is sent back for development projects. There's talk of starting nurseries near Ambrolauri to feed growing markets in Eastern Europe and bring more foreign capital into the country. Money that Georgia desperately needs. Its economy is still only 60% of what it was in Soviet times, and it now imports eighty per cent of its food. The rusting hulks of abandoned factories litter the countryside. But now some Georgians are asking if the pine cone trade can provide a model of how to breathe new life into their country's crumbling economy.

Angus Crawford travels to Georgia to find poverty at the heart of the Christmas tree trade

Germany2011042120110425

David Goldblatt looks at whether Berlin's alternative culture is under threat from commercial pressures.

Or do developers and artists need each other to exist?

Berlin has long been a magnet for artists from within Germany and abroad.

After the wall fell in 1989 they flooded into the vast deserted buildings left in the Mitte area of the former East of the city.

But over the last few years developers have been moving into this increasingly fashionable area, increasing rents and evicting squatted buildings.

Today the right and left banks of the Spree river, the district of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, has become home to underground clubs and artists studios.

But developers are increasing their grip on this area too.

A few years ago they joined together to create an consortium called "MediaSpree" with the aim of turning the East bank of the Spree into a media hub.

Universal Studios and MTV were two of the first companies to locate themselves in the converted warehouses of a deserted port in 'no man's land' where the border wall once ran.

They were attracted, in part, by the alternative vibe of the area.

But now increasing rents in this area are pushing artists and original residents out - and with them the clubs and galleries that attracted the media businesses in the first place.

Will developers and the alternative culture find a way to co-exist?

Producer: Jane Beresford.

David Goldblatt looks at whether Berlin's alternative culture is under threat.

David Goldblatt looks at whether Berlin's alternative culture is under threat from commercial pressures. Or do developers and artists need each other to exist?

Berlin has long been a magnet for artists from within Germany and abroad. After the wall fell in 1989 they flooded into the vast deserted buildings left in the Mitte area of the former East of the city. But over the last few years developers have been moving into this increasingly fashionable area, increasing rents and evicting squatted buildings.

Today the right and left banks of the Spree river, the district of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, has become home to underground clubs and artists studios. But developers are increasing their grip on this area too. A few years ago they joined together to create an consortium called "MediaSpree" with the aim of turning the East bank of the Spree into a media hub. Universal Studios and MTV were two of the first companies to locate themselves in the converted warehouses of a deserted port in 'no man's land' where the border wall once ran. They were attracted, in part, by the alternative vibe of the area.

But now increasing rents in this area are pushing artists and original residents out - and with them the clubs and galleries that attracted the media businesses in the first place. Will developers and the alternative culture find a way to co-exist?

Germany20110425

David Goldblatt looks at whether Berlin's alternative culture is under threat from commercial pressures. Or do developers and artists need each other to exist?

Berlin has long been a magnet for artists from within Germany and abroad. After the wall fell in 1989 they flooded into the vast deserted buildings left in the Mitte area of the former East of the city. But over the last few years developers have been moving into this increasingly fashionable area, increasing rents and evicting squatted buildings.

Today the right and left banks of the Spree river, the district of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, has become home to underground clubs and artists studios. But developers are increasing their grip on this area too. A few years ago they joined together to create an consortium called "MediaSpree" with the aim of turning the East bank of the Spree into a media hub. Universal Studios and MTV were two of the first companies to locate themselves in the converted warehouses of a deserted port in 'no man's land' where the border wall once ran. They were attracted, in part, by the alternative vibe of the area.

But now increasing rents in this area are pushing artists and original residents out - and with them the clubs and galleries that attracted the media businesses in the first place. Will developers and the alternative culture find a way to co-exist?

Producer: Jane Beresford.

David Goldblatt looks at whether Berlin's alternative culture is under threat.

Going Hungry In Venezuela2016080420160808 (R4)

Vladimir Hernandez reports from Venezuela, which is struggling to feed its own people.

Gold And Governance In Romania2012083020120903

Tessa Dunlop travels to Romania to investigate why a proposed open-cast gold mine has caused the longest-lasting political storm in the country since the end of Communism.

The mine, in the rural community of Rosia Montana in the Transylvanian mountains in western Romania, would be Europe's largest. Its supporters, including most locals, say it would bring much-needed jobs to the area, which has suffered very high unemployment since the last mine closed there a few years ago, after two millennia of gold mining.

But opponents, ranging from local shopkeepers to NGOs in Bucharest and abroad, argue that the project would destroy what they see as the area's only chance for more sustainable development: turning the 2000-year old Roman mines located in those same mountains into tourist attractions, perhaps as a UNESCO World Heritage site.

The mining company admits that many of the Roman galleries would be destroyed by the open-cast mine, but they are largely inaccessible anyway. As a quid pro quo, the company is already restoring those galleries that will be protected, to make them accessible and a tourism destination.

Is the destruction of the majority of the Roman mines a price worth paying for the restoration of a few? Or is the conflict about something else entirely?

Some campaigners admit that their real fight is not with the company, but with the government, because they suspect official corruption. Meanwhile politicians say it is easier to cut public salaries than to give the go-ahead to a big project like this, precisely because of the ensuing suspicion of sleaze.

The project is seen as a test case for prosperity, transparency and good governance for Romania.

Producer: Arlene Gregorius.

Tessa Dunlop investigates why a plan for a massive gold mine is dividing Romania.

Some campaigners admit that their real fight is not with the company, but with the state, because they suspect it of corruption. Meanwhile politicians say it is easier to cut public salaries than to give the go-ahead to a big project like this, precisely because of the ensuing suspicion of sleaze.

'Gone to Foreign' from Jamaica2018082320180827 (R4)

A life in limbo for two Britons. Not wanted in the UK and not wanted in Jamaica.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

When someone in Jamaica emigrates to the UK, it is said they have 'gone to foreign'. Over the past 70 years several hundred thousand Jamaicans have done this, following in the footsteps of the so-called 'Windrush generation' who first arrived in Britain in the late 1940s. But the spirit of adventure and optimism those early pioneers bought with them has changed over the years and a recent political scandal now finds some of them unwanted and rejected by Britain. Following changes to immigration law and failing to comply with citizenship requirements, they have been designated illegal immigrants. On returning from holiday in the Caribbean, some of the children of the Windrush generation (now in their 50s and 60s) have been refused entry back to Britain, and others have been deported from Britain back to the Caribbean. For Crossing Continents, Colin Grant travels to Jamaica to meet two men who, despite having lived in the UK for decades, working and paying taxes, find themselves in limbo, trapped and unable to return to the place they call home. What happens when you are stranded in a place you were never really familiar with, an island which you have little memory of, and may not have returned to for half a century? Grant hears of their endeavour to return to the UK and how they have struggled to keep up hope in the face of a very painful and public rejection.

Colin Grant reporting and producing.

'Gone to Foreign' from Jamaica20180823

A life in limbo for two Britons. Not wanted in the UK and not wanted in Jamaica.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

When someone in Jamaica emigrates to the UK, it is said they have 'gone to foreign'. Over the past 70 years several hundred thousand Jamaicans have done this, following in the footsteps of the so-called 'Windrush generation' who first arrived in Britain in the late 1940s. But the spirit of adventure and optimism those early pioneers bought with them has changed over the years and a recent political scandal now finds some of them unwanted and rejected by Britain. Following changes to immigration law and failing to comply with citizenship requirements, they have been designated illegal immigrants. On returning from holiday in the Caribbean, some of the children of the Windrush generation (now in their 50s and 60s) have been refused entry back to Britain, and others have been deported from Britain back to the Caribbean. For Crossing Continents, Colin Grant travels to Jamaica to meet two men who, despite having lived in the UK for decades, working and paying taxes, find themselves in limbo, trapped and unable to return to the place they call home. What happens when you are stranded in a place you were never really familiar with, an island which you have little memory of, and may not have returned to for half a century? Grant hears of their endeavour to return to the UK and how they have struggled to keep up hope in the face of a very painful and public rejection.

Colin Grant reporting and producing.

Goodbye Ireland; Goodbye Gaelic Football2014082120140825

Gaelic Football is Ireland's most popular sport - there are clubs in every parish of the country. The game is very much part of the Irish identity. But it is losing its lifeblood. And all because of emigration. John Murphy goes to the far west of Ireland, to learn about this uniquely Irish game and hear how clubs are struggling to keep going as more and more young people leave the country, to find jobs abroad.

Helen Grady producing.

Reports from around the world.

Greece2001050320010507

Rosie Goldsmith explores the role of the Greek Orthodox Church in modern Greece.

Fired by an imminent visit from the Pope and an ongoing debate about whether religious affiliation should appear on Greek identity cards, the Church is going on the offensive, seeking to defend its position at the heart of society.

Greece And Ireland

Greece And Ireland20100415

were shining examples, it seemed, of what Europe could do for struggling economies.

From the moment the Greeks entered the eurozone in 2001 the economy appeared to take off.

Growth was initially fuelled by low interest rates and a burst of foreign investment.

The triumphant return of the Olympics to Athens in 2004 crowned a dizzying period of success.

Behind the façade a bloated public sector, tax avoidance on a grand scale and dishonest bookkeeping that misled Europe about the true state of the Greek economy told a very different story.

Greece has had to go cap in hand to the European powerhouses to beg for a bailout.

In Ireland the road that was taken to economic ruin was a different one but the result the same.

An economy that seemed to be the pride of Europe - the so-called Celtic Tiger" - was in reality a house of cards.

It came tumbling down under the weight of unsustainable public debt and a wildly overheated property market.

Travelling to both countries, Chris Bowlby meets the ordinary people who were caught up in the Euroland dream.

They are the middle class who bought in to Europe, who believed that the way forward was secure and certain.

Now many are facing tough choices that affect their homes, their families, their jobs.

Their governments are implementing tough austerity programmes and raising taxes.

Jobless rates are soaring and disaffected youth feel angry, ignored and alienated.

Both Greece and Ireland were diaspora countries.

The brightest and the best often left in search of better lives.

For a brief time at the turn of this century that picture changed.

Greece and Ireland were no longer exporting their people.

But with many of the benefits of European unity now at least temporarily taken away, many are thinking again about leaving.

In the streets of Athens and Dublin, in pubs and music halls, in family homes and businesses, Chris Bowlby listens to the stories of people who are facing an uncertain time.

Tough new austerity measures, with massive cuts in public spending and services, cuts in their own salaries, job losses, inflation - it is altogether a far different future than the one they believed they were moving towards.

And he asks whether they still believe in the European dream.

Presenter: Chris Bowlby

Producer: Bill Law.

Chris Bowlby asks if the economic crisis has killed the Euro dream for Ireland and Greece."

Greece: No Place To Die2015112620151130 (R4)

They say you can't take it with you but if you live in Greece how much money you have at the end of your life makes a big difference. Permanent plots in the country's packed cemeteries can cost as much as a small flat so most graves are rented for a three year period and once that time is up the dead are exhumed and their bones collapsed into a small box to be kept at the cemetery. Those relatives who can't afford the cost of the exhumation or the storage charge for the box of bones will have their loved one's remains thrown in a so called 'digestion' pit with countless others' where they are dissolved with chemicals. In the current economic climate and with continued capital controls, Greeks are struggling to pay for the burial costs and unclaimed bodies are piling up at mortuaries. But there are few cost effective alternatives because Greece happens to be the only EU country without a crematorium - each time plans have been made to build one it has been blocked by the Greek Orthodox Church. Instead Greeks are forced to send their relatives' bodies to Bulgaria for cremation. For Crossing Continents, Chloe Hadjimatheou reports on the business of dying in Greece.

Producer: David Edmonds.

The complex business of dying in Greece. With Chloe Hadjimatheou.

Greece: The Rubber Glove Rebellion2015011520150119 (R4)

The cleaners whose protest has captured the imagination of those opposed to the harsh austerity programme in Greece. Mostly middle-aged or nearing retirement, they have refused to go quietly. The women have kept up a day and night vigil outside the Finance Ministry in Athens, taken the government to court and resisted attempts by the riot police to remove them by force. They've challenged representatives from the International Monetary Fund and raised their red rubber gloves in a clenched fist at the European Parliament. Some say they represent the plight of many women and the poorly paid, others that they are being manipulated by the left. Maria Margaronis hears the women's stories and asks what makes them so determined.

Producer: Mark Savage.

The cleaners who have raised their rubber gloves in defiance of Greek public sector cuts.

Greece's Haven Hotel2018040520180409 (R4)

How is the city of Athens finding homes for the thousands of refugees who live there?

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

In a rundown neighbourhood in Athens there is a hotel with 4,000 people on its waiting list for rooms. But the roof leaks and the lifts are permanently out of action. None of the guests pay a penny, but everyone's supposed to help with the cooking and cleaning.
City Plaza is a seven-storey super squat housing 400 refugees from 16 different countries and the volunteers who support them.
The hotel went bankrupt during the financial crisis. It remained locked and empty until 2015, when Europe closed its borders leaving tens of thousands of refugees trapped in Greece. Then a group of activists broke in, reconnected the electricity and water and invited hundreds of migrants from the streets to take up residence with them.
The leftist Greek government has so far turned a blind eye and now mainstream NGOs like MSF and even the UNHCR have started co-operating in this illegal project. For Crossing Continents, Maria Margaronis finds out how the hotel operates and get to know the people inside.

Producer: Chloe Hadjimatheou.

Greece's Haven Hotel20180405

How is the city of Athens finding homes for the thousands of refugees who live there?

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

In a rundown neighbourhood in Athens there is a hotel with 4,000 people on its waiting list for rooms. But the roof leaks and the lifts are permanently out of action. None of the guests pay a penny, but everyone's supposed to help with the cooking and cleaning.
City Plaza is a seven-storey super squat housing 400 refugees from 16 different countries and the volunteers who support them.
The hotel went bankrupt during the financial crisis. It remained locked and empty until 2015, when Europe closed its borders leaving tens of thousands of refugees trapped in Greece. Then a group of activists broke in, reconnected the electricity and water and invited hundreds of migrants from the streets to take up residence with them.
The leftist Greek government has so far turned a blind eye and now mainstream NGOs like MSF and even the UNHCR have started cooperating this illegal project. For Crossing Continents, Maria Margaronis finds out how the hotel operates and get to know the people inside.

Producer: Chloe Hadjimatheou.

Greenland: To Dig Or Not To Dig?2014010220140106

Will mining harm Greenland's environment, or lead the country to independence?

Could Greenland become the world's next resource hotspot? The government there hopes so - they've been travelling the world touting the country's vast reserves of oil and gas, and huge deposits of iron ore, gold and rare-earth elements. As melting icecaps make all these resources more accessible, mining promises riches for Greenland and the ultimate prize of full independence from Denmark. But there's a catch - many of the rare earth minerals are surrounded by uranium, pitching Greenland into the world of nuclear politics and environmental hazard. Nowhere is this clearer than in the small town of Narsaq in the country's south. Two proposed rare-earth mines could reverse the town's economic decline, but one just miles away will mine uranium too. James Fletcher travels to Narsaq to ask whether mining will be a blessing or a curse.

Guatemala And Canada Gold Rush2008082120080825

Bill Law reports on a controversial mining project by Vancouver-based Goldcorp in Guatemala.

Local Mayan Indians claim that the open pit mine is damaging their health and community cohesion.

Goldcorp denies this, insisting it brings benefits to local communities and that it takes its social responsibilities seriously.

Guatemala and Canada Gold Rush

Bill Law reports on a controversial mining project by Vancouver-based Goldcorp in Guatemala. Local Mayan Indians claim that the open pit mine is damaging their health and community cohesion. Goldcorp denies this, insisting it brings benefits to local communities and that it takes its social responsibilities seriously.

Guatemala's Addicts Behind Bars2014082820140901

The last decade has seen a dramatic increase in cocaine trafficking through Guatemala en route north, to the United States. Part of the fallout locally, has been a rise in addiction. As a result, more than 200 drug rehabilitation centres have been set up in the capital alone. Many of these are run by Pentecostal churches, with little oversight or regulation. Often addicts are swept up from the streets by 'hunting parties', and forced to attend such a centre. Linda Pressly travels to Guatemala City to investigate compulsory drug rehabilitation.

Guns In The Usa2007070520070709

The Virginia Tech massacre in April rekindled the debate in America about guns.

But rather than arguing for tighter gun control, some states are now debating the rights of individuals to carry weapons in more and more places, including college campuses.

Kati Whitaker examines the American commitment to the gun and visits an extraordinary project in Chicago which invites gang members to lay down their weapons.

Guns in the USA

The Virginia Tech massacre in April rekindled the debate in America about guns. But rather than arguing for tighter gun control, some states are now debating the rights of individuals to carry weapons in more and more places, including college campuses.

Haiti

Haiti2010071520100719

January's earthquake in Haiti left more than 200,000 dead and over a million homeless.

Six months on there are still one and a quarter million people living in camps.

As yet, there is still no resettlement plan.

Progress appears to be painfully slow.

The BBC's International Development Correspondent, Mark Doyle, who reported from Haiti in the immediate aftermath of the disaster, returns to ask if millions of dollars raised and the billions more pledged will help Haiti in the long run.

Despite the devastation and tragedy wrought by the earthquake on the poorest nation in the Americas, some believed that it could signal a new beginning for Haiti, a country plagued for many years by poverty, corruption, political instability and violence.

However, questions are being asked about who is in charge, who is deciding things and for whose benefit.

There are also significant concerns that the flood of money and the international organisations providing aid are distorting the local economy and making it impossible to build a self-sustaining economy.

While the government talks of the need to decentralize the economy, to encourage people to leave the crowded capital Port au Prince and return to the countryside, so far there are few signs of how that is going to be achieved.

And with the rainy season now begun, life for many of those living in camps, under tarpaulin, is deteriorating.

History is not on Haiti's side.

All past interventions by outsiders have been either disastrous for the Haitians or have failed to live up to their promise.

No surprise, then, that there is growing cynicism that all the promises of help with materialise and bring about a better country.

Producer: John Murphy.

Six months after the earthquake is life in Haiti improving?

January's earthquake in Haiti left more than 200,000 dead and over a million homeless. Six months on there are still one and a quarter million people living in camps. As yet, there is still no resettlement plan. Progress appears to be painfully slow. The BBC's International Development Correspondent, Mark Doyle, who reported from Haiti in the immediate aftermath of the disaster, returns to ask if millions of dollars raised and the billions more pledged will help Haiti in the long run.

Despite the devastation and tragedy wrought by the earthquake on the poorest nation in the Americas, some believed that it could signal a new beginning for Haiti, a country plagued for many years by poverty, corruption, political instability and violence. However, questions are being asked about who is in charge, who is deciding things and for whose benefit. There are also significant concerns that the flood of money and the international organisations providing aid are distorting the local economy and making it impossible to build a self-sustaining economy.

While the government talks of the need to decentralize the economy, to encourage people to leave the crowded capital Port au Prince and return to the countryside, so far there are few signs of how that is going to be achieved. And with the rainy season now begun, life for many of those living in camps, under tarpaulin, is deteriorating.

History is not on Haiti's side. All past interventions by outsiders have been either disastrous for the Haitians or have failed to live up to their promise. No surprise, then, that there is growing cynicism that all the promises of help with materialise and bring about a better country.

Haiti *2008072420080728

The Caribbean state is one of the poorest countries in the world.

Malnutrition, already a widespread problem, has increased in the current climate of soaring food prices.

In April, riots led to the sacking of the prime minister.

Orin Gordon looks at the ongoing struggle for Haitians to feed themselves.

He also investigates the country's growing problem of kidnappings.

Haiti

The Caribbean state is one of the poorest countries in the world. Malnutrition, already a widespread problem, has increased in the current climate of soaring food prices. In April, riots led to the sacking of the prime minister. Orin Gordon looks at the ongoing struggle for Haitians to feed themselves.

Hard Times In Middletown, Usa2009043020090504

Stephen Smith finds out how the city of Muncie in Indiana reflects the impact of the economic crisis on the American middle class.

In 1929, the Rockefeller Institute published Middletown: A Study in Modern American Culture, a scientific study of a 'typical American city' which examined church, school, family and work in Muncie.

The book was an instant hit and is still in print.

It launched Muncie's reputation as the most widely studied small town in the world.

Today it is a rust-belt city grappling with de-industrialisation and deepening recession.

A co-production with American RadioWorks for BBC Radio 4.

How Muncie in Indiana reflects the impact of the economic crisis on the US middle class.

Hard Times In Middletown, Usa20090504
Hodei - The Man Who Vanished2015090320150907 (R4)

The last time anyone saw Hodei Egiluz, a 23-year-old computer engineer from Spain, was on a night out in the Belgian port of Antwerp in October 2013. Hodei is one of roughly 10,000 people who disappear in Europe every year. But his case has sparked a remarkable response. Practically his entire home town in Spain got behind the Belgian police search in one way or another. The search for Hodei triggered a campaign which eventually drew in figures such as footballer Ronaldo and the prime minister of Spain. But two years on Hodei is still missing. For Crossing Continents, Neal Razzell retraces Hodei's last hours in Antwerp and tries to unravel the mystery surrounding his disappearance. Producer: Charlotte McDonald.

A young man disappears on a night out in Antwerp. Where did he go and how can he vanish?

Homeland2000120720001211

Reports from around the world.

Andy Kershaw investigates the plight of American residents being deported to Haiti, the POVERTY-stricken `homeland' they have never seen, as part of the war on drugs and crime.

He also explores the life and times of the Haitian hotel, as immortalised by Graham Greene in `The Comedians'.

Hong Kong's Secret Dwellings2017040620170410 (R4)

Reports from around the world.

Last summer the emergency services rescued two children from an out-of-control fire in an old industrial building in the commercial area of Hong Kong. It was discovered that a number of people were living in the building. For Assignment, Charlotte McDonald explores the reasons which would drive a family in one of the wealthiest cities in the world to live illegally in a place not fit for human habitation. It's estimated that around 10,000 people live in industrial buildings - although the true number is not known due to the very fact it is not legal. Hong Kong consistently ranks as one of the most expensive places to rent or buy in the world. Already around 200,000 have been forced to rent in what are known as subdivided flats. But now attention has turned to those in even more dire conditions in industrial blocks. From poor government planning, the loss of industry to mainland China and exploitative landlords, we uncover why people are choosing to live in secrecy in neglected buildings.

Charlotte McDonald reporting

Alex Burton producing

Photo credit: SCMP.

Hunting The Taliban2014112020141124 (R4)

Mobeen Azhar reports from Karachi, Pakistan's biggest city, where police are at war with the Taliban. Given rare access to the work of the police by a Senior Superintendent in Karachi's Criminal Investigation Department, Mobeen joins officers on a night time raid in search of the men who train suicide bombers. He meets a suspect in custody who brags about planting bombs and describes how he urges teenage boys to sacrifice their lives in violent jihad. Mobeen also talks to a businessman who was kidnapped for ransom and meets the families of police officers who have been killed by the militants.

Assassinations linked to political parties have blighted the city for over a decade but today, more than 70 groups representing the militant Taliban are also fighting for control. This guerrilla war, once confined to the tribal belt of Waziristan has moved into Karachi with devastating results.

In Pakistan's port city, Karachi, police are fighting a desperate war against the Taliban.

Hurricanes And Housing In Cuba2008122920090101

Linda Pressly investigates the housing crisis in Cuba.

Even before the recent hurricanes that damaged over half a million homes, perhaps the most common cause of complaint on the island was accommodation.

Linda finds out about some of the unique ways that Cubans have been finding to get around regulations to secure a new home, in a nation where it is illegal to buy and sell property.

Hurricanes And Housing In Cuba20090101
Iceland2008112020081124

Paul Henley investigates the human impact of the economic crisis in Iceland.

He hears from Icelanders who have lost their jobs and life savings and asks what is next for them and their country.

Paul Henley investigates the human impact of the economic crisis in Iceland. He hears from Icelanders who have lost their jobs and life savings and asks what is next for them and their country.

Illegal Logging In The Siberian Taiga2008041020080414

Lucy Ash visits the Chita Oblast, an area in Siberia where the vast forests are being cut down, frequently illegally, to meet China's surging demand for wood.

She explores the illegal logging issue with local police and meets ordinary people who log forests and hears why they sometimes break the law.

She then follows the timber across the border to Manzhouli in China, a new metropolis built on the wealth generated by the Siberian forests.

Illegal Logging in the Siberian Taiga

Lucy Ash visits the Chita Oblast, an area in Siberia where the vast forests are being cut down, frequently illegally, to meet China's surging demand for wood. She explores the illegal logging issue with local police and meets ordinary people who log forests and hears why they sometimes break the law. She then follows the timber across the border to Manzhouli in China, a new metropolis built on the wealth generated by the Siberian forests.

Immigration To Israel2004112520041129

has slumped - with only the numbers from FRANCE going up.

Lucy Ash traveks to Israel to find out why people are leaving, and why some are still arriving in the Promised Land.

Because the Arab population of Israel and the Palestinian Territories is growing much faster than the Jewish population, immigration is a top priority for the Israeli government.

What effect will this demographic time bomb have on politics in the country.

In The Shadow Of The Cartel2008080720080811

Emilio San Pedro visits Tijuana to find a community under the influence of one of Mexico's most powerful drug cartels.

Nearly fifteen hundred people have been killed so far this year in Mexico in drug-related violence, and the government has sent thousands of troops into the worst hit states in an effort to break up these criminal organisations and stem the flow of drugs into the United States.

How does the cartel shape the lives of Tijuana's inhabitants?

In the Shadow of the Cartel

Emilio San Pedro visits Tijuana to find a community under the influence of one of Mexico's most powerful drug cartels. Nearly fifteen hundred people have been killed so far this year in Mexico in drug-related violence, and the government has sent thousands of troops into the worst hit states in an effort to break up these criminal organisations and stem the flow of drugs into the United States. How does the cartel shape the lives of Tijuana's inhabitants?

India20011231

`INDIA'.

Rosie Goldsmith goes to the Rajasthan desert to meet the activists who are taking on - and beating - corrupt public officials.

India - The Real Slumdog Story20090220
India - The Real Slumdog Story *20090220

Mukul Devichand reports from Mumbai on a controversial scheme that may be able to provide the answer to the developing world's slum problem.

Asia's largest slum, Dharavi, has gained greater exposure thanks to the film Slumdog Millionaire.

The scheme to raze it to the ground is said by its backers to be the template for slum re-development across the developing world.

Private companies are being asked to re-house the poor in tower blocks in return for prime real estate.

But is this audacious scheme an innovative solution or simply masking a land-grab from the poor?

Mukul Devichand reports on a scheme that may solve the developing world's slum problem.

India: A Model Slum Clearance In Mumbai? *2008081420080818

Mukul Devichand reports from Mumbai on a controversial scheme that may be able to provide the answer to the developing world's slum problem.

India: A Model Slum Clearance in Mumbai?

India: Press For Sale2014041720140421

Shilpa Kannan investigates the phenomenon of paid news in India.

India's election campaign is under way with more than 800 million voters going to the polls. But questions are being asked about the news media which will inform their choices. For several years, Indian newspapers have been dogged by the scandal of "paid news" in which apparently genuine news articles turn out to be paid-for content, aimed at manipulating public opinion. In this edition of Crossing Continents, the BBC's Shilpa Kannan - herself an Indian citizen - investigates the phenomenon, it's origins, growth and implications. As she discovers, the Indian newspaper industry in particular may be uniquely susceptible to this kind of problem. However, tackling it is likely to be difficult. Some argue that it is now impossible to believe anything is printed in good faith. As one veteran journalist despairs: "When there's so much money to be made by doing fake journalism, why do real journalism?".

India: Resisting Rape2013120520131209

One year on from the attack in Delhi, the experience of women who've chosen to report rape

One year on from the horrific attack in Delhi, Joanna Jolly hears from three women who've chosen to report a rape in a country that is at last waking up to the problem. The authorities have introduced tougher laws since the young student was raped on a bus last December but is the experience of women who choose to prosecute their attackers getting any better? Three women talk about their struggle: reporting rape to a not always sympathetic police, being examined in the government's often overcrowded hospitals and finally standing up in court.

Joanna Jolly talks to the senior policewoman running the Delhi's Women and Children's Unit, a leading gynaecologist who has treated rape victims in the city and to those who've worked in the Indian legal system.

Will the public outcry over the attack over a year ago make it easier for women to report rape and will their experience of India's overburdened courts be any better?

Producer: Mark Savage.

India's Dangerous Secret Sex Lives2007041920070423

India's dangerous secret sex lives

Linda Pressly reports from India, where gay sex is a crime.

When the son of a Maharajah came out publicly in the conservative state of Gujarat, he was shunned by his family and the local community.

But Manvendra Singh Gohil is unfazed.

He is breaking new ground by working with the wives of men who have sex with men, to protect them and their husbands from the HIV/Aids virus.

Linda Pressly reports from India, where gay sex is a crime. When the son of a Maharajah came out publicly in the conservative state of Gujarat, he was shunned by his family and the local community.

But Manvendra Singh Gohil is unfazed. His aim is to break new ground by working with the wives of men who have sex with men, to protect them and their husbands from the HIV/Aids virus.

But Manvendra Singh Gohil is unfazed. He is breaking new ground by working with the wives of men who have sex with men, to protect them and their husbands from the HIV/Aids virus.

India's Red Belt

India's Red Belt20100506

After 20 years of fighting, the Indian government has launched its biggest ever offensive against Maoist rebels.

The government has sent thousands of troops into remote jungle areas in an attempt to wipe out the top leadership" of the insurgents and end the fighting which has killed more than 6,000 people.

British anthropologist Alpa Shah has gained access to a Maoist-controlled region of Jharkand in eastern India.

She's been given a rare interview with a Maoist leader and she reports on day-to-day life in some of the country's poorest villages in areas under Maoist influence.

The fields are still tilled by oxen.there are few roads and 85% of the population have no electricity.

Yet Jharkhand has vast forest and mineral resources.

It produces 48% of India's coal, 40% of the country's iron, 48% of its bauxite and 100% of its kyanite.

Multi-national companies are looking to set up here.

But the Maoists say the local people are seeing little of this new-found wealth.

The Maoists are seen as terrorists by the Indian authorities.

But in these villages, Alpa discovers that they are responsible for the running of almost every aspect of day-to-day life.

They organise local festivals, make-shift courts, food markets and their own schools.

Described by many as "the family", it's a complex social landscape where the Maoists are firmly embedded.

Against this backdrop, Alpa questions Maoist fighters about why they're prepared to use brutal means to achieve their aim of overthrowing the state.

She visits a military training camp where poorly armed recruits are preparing to take on the might of the Indian paramilitary troops.

A child soldier, who's 15, tells her he's fighting to liberate the people against poverty.

Presenter: Alpa Shah

Producer: Adele Armstrong.

Alpa Shah gains rare access to an Indian community controlled by the Maoist movement."

India's Silent Terror2016121520161219 (R4)

Less than three years after India's Hindu nationalist government came to office, the country is gripped by a rising tide of extremism - from a stifling of free speech to brutal attacks on religious minorities, all in the name of radical Hinduism. Jill McGivering meets the people subjected to the extremism and goes out with one of the notorious "cow protection" patrols - armed Hindu vigilante groups who spread terror and assault those rumoured to eat beef or kill the cows which for Hindus are sacred.

Caroline Finnigan producing.

Image: An Indian sadhu (Hindu holy man) holds onto a cow at a protest against their killing. Photo credit: Sajjad Hussain/Getty

India's Whistleblowers2011111720111121

Rupa Jha investigates how local-level campaigners against corruption in India face threats and violence - despite promises that the government will stamp out graft.

She tells the stories of two whistleblowers in two different states who faced ferocious intimidation after they tried to challenge powerful individuals on the take.

Producer: Ed Butler.

How local level campaigners against corruption in India face threats and violence.

Rupa Jha investigates how local-level campaigners against corruption in India face threats and violence - despite promises that the government will stamp out graft. She tells the stories of two whistleblowers in two different states who faced ferocious intimidation after they tried to challenge powerful individuals on the take.

India's Whistleblowers20111121

How local level campaigners against corruption in India face threats and violence.

Indonesia2001080220010806

Olenka Frankiel finds out why child slavery exists in Indonesia, meeting the children who spend months far out at sea doing backbreaking work on fishing platforms the size of tennis courts.

She then visits their home villages.

Indonesia's Humungous Healthcare Plan2013121220131216

Can Indonesia successfully introduce the world's largest public health insurance scheme?

On 1 January 2014 Indonesia will launch the largest public health insurance scheme in the world. It will unite a bewildering array of current schemes to cover the entire population, with the poor getting their health care free. Former BBC Jakarta Correspondent Claire Bolderson asks whether the world's fourth most populous country has the resources and organisational skills to make such an ambitious scheme work?

Producer: Mike Gallagher.

Inside Gay Pakistan2013082920130902

Mobeen Azhar investigates life in gay, urban Pakistan. Despite Pakistan's religious conservatism and homosexuality being a crime, he finds a vibrant gay scene, all aided by social media. He meets gay people at underground parties, shrines and hotels and finds out what it's really like to be gay in Pakistan. As one man tells him, "The best thing about being gay in Pakistan is you can easily hook up with guys over here. You just need to know the right moves and with a click you can get any guy you want." At a gay party he meets an NGO worker who then takes him to one of Karachi's prime cruising locations - a shrine to a 9th-century Muslim saint. Mobeen meets a "masseur", who works on the street advertising his services. The masseur's real job is selling sexual services to men - with the full knowledge of his wife. And with great difficulty, Mobeen speaks to a lesbian couple, who conceal their relationship from their own parents. One of them argues that it is too soon for gay Pakistanis to fight openly for political rights and that they must find happiness in the personal sphere. Mobeen discovers that while urban Pakistanis may easily be able to find sex, being in a relationship is far more difficult.

Producer: Helena Merriman.

Inside Trans Pakistan20170727

Pakistan's Hijra, or third gender, community shun a new emerging transgender identity.

Pakistan is at a crossroads when it comes to gender identity. Kami calls herself Pakistan's first transgender supermodel. She's championing a new transgender identity in a country where there's a strict cultural code for people like her. It's the long established culture of the 'the third gender', also known as Khwaja Sira or Hijra. The community are celebrated as 'Gods chosen people' by many Pakistanis. But the reality is that many Hijras experience discrimination in daily life and complain that basic access to jobs, welfare and familial support is denied. For Kami and others like her this is no longer acceptable. Yet many Hijra's shun the new transgender identity and believe it is alien to the established culture of the region. In their view, the very notion of a 'transgender woman' is wrong and could threaten the systems and structures that have provided support for Khwaja Siras for centuries. For Crossing Continents Mobeen Azhar meets Kami and Mani, one of the few openly transgender men in the country, and talks to Khwaja Sira sex workers, dancers and even aspiring politicians. Inside Trans Pakistan explores the tension between the emerging transgender identity in Pakistan and the established 'third gender' culture.

Inside Transgender Pakistan20170731

Pakistan's Hijra, or third gender, community shun a new emerging transgender identity.

Pakistan is at a crossroads when it comes to gender identity. Kami calls herself Pakistan's first transgender supermodel. She's championing a new transgender identity in a country where there's a strict cultural code for people like her. It's the long established culture of the 'the third gender', also known as Khwaja Sira or Hijra. The community are celebrated as 'Gods chosen people' by many Pakistanis. But the reality is that many Hijras experience discrimination in daily life and complain that basic access to jobs, welfare and familial support is denied. For Kami and others like her this is no longer acceptable. Yet many Hijras shun the new transgender identity and believe it is alien to the established culture of the region. In their view, the very notion of a 'transgender woman' is wrong and could threaten the systems and structures that have provided support for Khwaja Siras for centuries. For Crossing Continents Mobeen Azhar meets Kami and Mani, one of the few openly transgender men in the country, and talks to Khwaja Sira sex workers, dancers and even aspiring politicians. Inside Trans Pakistan explores the tension between the emerging transgender identity in Pakistan and the established 'third gender' culture.

Islam And Canada20081218

Bill Law investigates the extent of Islamist extremism in Canada.

Islam And Canada20081222
Islam And Canada - Canada's Jihadists * *2008121820081222

Bill Law investigates the extent of Islamist extremism in Canada.

Bill Law investigates the extent of Islamist extremism in Canada, after the foiling of a plot by a gang of young Islamists, born and raised in Canada, to blow up the country's parliament.

In a country which prides itself on equality and fairness and where many Muslims have prospered while maintaining their cultural and religious identity, how deep are the twin threats of Islamist extremism and of official over-reaction?

'islamic State's' Most Wanted2016042120160425 (R4)

The astonishing story of a group of young men in Syria resisting so-called Islamic State.

Chloe Hadjimatheou tells the astonishing story of a group of young men from Raqqa in Syria who chose to resist the so-called Islamic State, which occupied their city in 2014 and made it the capital of their "Caliphate". These extraordinary activists have risked everything to oppose IS; several have been killed, or had family members murdered. IS has put a bounty on the resistance leaders' heads. But the group continues its work, under the banner 'Raqqa Is Being Slaughtered Silently'. Chloe meets the group's founders, some of whom are now organising activists in Raqqa from the relative safety of other countries.

Israel Football *2008042420080730

David Goldblatt reports from Jerusalem, where the fortunes of local football club Beitar Jerusalem have changed following a takeover by Russian billionaire Arkadi Gaydamak.

The club is top of the Israeli league, but the behaviour of its hardcore fans continues to cause trouble.

Israel-palestine2001121320011217

`Israel-Palestine'.

Lucy Ash meets a Palestinian doctor who delivers Israeli babies and a Jewish war widow who organises medical treatment for children from the Gaza Strip.

Israel's Goodness Gracious Me20090319
Israel's Goodness Gracious Me20090323

Examining an Israeli TV comedy that sees the funny side of Arab lives in the Jewish state.

Israel's Goodness Gracious Me *2009031920090323

Mukul Devichand meets the creators and cast of Arab Labour, a prime-time Israeli TV comedy that sees the humorous side of Arab lives in the Jewish state.

Israel's elections and its military operation in Gaza have polarised relations between Jewish Israelis and the 20 per cent Arab minority.

Mukul examines the dark humour and moral dilemmas of an Arab population caught between feelings of Palestinian brotherhood and a determination to remain Israeli citizens.

Israel's New Front Line2012090620120910

When Israel was established, its tiny community of ultra-Orthodox Jews were, uniquely, exempted from the normal requirement of service in the Israeli Defence Force. They were seen as keepers of the spiritual soul of the nation, and their vital duty of studying religion and Jewish law was more important than wielding guns. 70 years on, and the community's numbers have grown massively - and there are increasing demands for the ultra-Orthodox to play their part in the defence of the nation. A Supreme Court decision which has cleared the way for the drafting of all Jewish citizens reaching the age of eighteen has divided the coalition government and led to furious rows.

Linda Pressly investigates how conscription is exposing deep faultlines among Israeli Jews. Secular and mainstream religious Jews increasingly see the ultra-Orthodox as a drain on the Israeli state, and resent this community ruthlessly exploiting their political power. Meanwhile the ultra-Orthodox see themselves as fulfilling a sacred duty which lies above the day-to-day considerations of politics or defence. Can the rifts be healed - or will Israeli society become irrevocably split?

Producer: Mark Savage.

How exemption from conscription for ultra-Orthodox Jews is exposing Israel's faultlines.

Israel's Ultra-orthodox20120906

When Israel was established, its tiny community of ultra-Orthodox Jews were, uniquely, exempted from the normal requirement of service in the Israeli Defence Force. They were seen as keepers of the spiritual soul of the nation, and their vital duty of studying religion and Jewish law was more important than wielding guns. 70 years on, and the community's numbers have grown massively - and there are increasing demands for the ultra-Orthodox to play their part in the defence of the nation. A Supreme Court decision which has cleared the way for the drafting of all Jewish citizens reaching the age of eighteen has divided the coalition government and led to furious rows.

Linda Pressly investigates how conscription is exposing deep faultlines among Israeli Jews. Secular and mainstream religious Jews increasingly see the ultra-Orthodox as a drain on the Israeli state, and resent this community ruthlessly exploiting their political power. Meanwhile the ultra-Orthodox see themselves as fulfilling a sacred duty which lies above the day-to-day considerations of politics or defence. Can the rifts be healed - or will Israeli society become irrevocably split?

Producer: Mark Savage.

Ivory Coast's School For Husbands2014091820140922

In one remote district in Ivory Coast, men are going back to school. Lucy Ash reports.

In one remote district in Ivory Coast, men are going back to school. Their studies are part of a UN-backed project dubbed 'the school for husbands' and designed to save the lives of women and children.

The idea is to teach decision makers - the men - about the importance of family planning, check-ups, and pre-natal care for their wives. The aim is to help women and also improve general welfare in farming villages where food is scarce and incomes are dependent on the weather and good fortune.

Lucy Ash hears stories from the schools for husbands and finds out why Ivory Coast's health system is struggling to recover from the post-election crisis three years ago, even as the country's economy roars ahead.

Producer: Michael Wendling.

Jam And Jerusalem On The Steppes2000072020000731

`Jam and Jerusalem on the Steppes'.

Tim Whewell travels to Mongolia to meet the women who have created a dynamic new democracy from the ruins of Communism, and to investigate attempts to persuade the meat-loving descendants of Genghis Khan to eat fruit and vegetables.

Kazakhstan's Living Gulags2013081520130819
20130819 (R4)

The Kazakh steppe was once home to the infamous Soviet forced labour camps which formed part of the Gulag. Today, the Gulag system is said to live on in Kazakhstan's jails where a growing prison population faces daily torture, humiliation and lawlessness. Despite its poor human rights record, many developed nations, including Britain, are rapidly strengthening relations with Kazakhstan. BBC Central Asia Correspondent Rayhan Demeytrie investigates why the Gulag violence persists and asks why the international community stays silent.

Producer: Nina Robinson.

Kenya's Floral Revolution2001040520010409

Rosie Goldsmith visits Lake Naivasha, where fields and greenhouses full of roses destined for European supermarkets represent an economic success vital to the ailing KENYAn economy.

However, the amount of water drawn from the lake to irrigate the flowers and the quantity of pesticide that is seeping into the ecosystem are threatening the lake's fragile freshwater ecology.

Kenya's National Rainbow Coalition2003050820030512

KENYA's new government wants to show it's serious about clamping down on corruption, it has introduced compulsory free education and released prisoners from death row.

But schools are bursting at the seams.

There are not enough teachers and average class sizes are now up to 120.

So can KENYA's National Rainbow Coalition government really overturn decades of misrule and corruption? Esther Armah travels to NAIROBI to find out.

Kermit Gosnell: Doctor And Murderer20130805

Dr Kermit Gosnell had a reputation as the 'abortion doctor of last resort' along the East Coast of the United States - until his arrest in 2010. He regularly performed abortions well past the legal limit of 24 weeks with the help of untrained staff. At least two women died because of the treatment they received at his Philadelphia clinic. He has now been sentenced to three life sentences for the murder of three babies born alive.

But authorities only acted against Gosnell when they suspected him of selling prescription medicines. Warnings about the dangers to women and children were ignored. The gruesome story has renewed the abortion debate across the United States. Neal Razzell travels to Philadelphia to find out what went wrong and how his case is being used to change public policy - in ways, some say, will make women less safe.

This programme contains some extremely disturbing content.

Produced by Smita Patel.

Kidnapping Is Big Business In Mexico2004041520040419

Mexico Kidnapping is big business in Mexico.

More money is paid in kidnap ransoms here than anywhere else in the world.

With very little trust in the police, many people turn to a private kidnap negotiator.

In Crossing Continents, Charlotte Davis is given a rare chance to witness a kidnap negotiation as it's happening.

But will the kidnappers accept a lower ransom and return the victim unharmed?

Mexico

Kidnapping is big business in Mexico. More money is paid in kidnap ransoms here than anywhere else in the world. With very little trust in the police, many people turn to a private kidnap negotiator.

In Crossing Continents, Charlotte Davis is given a rare chance to witness a kidnap negotiation as it's happening. But will the kidnappers accept a lower ransom and return the victim unharmed?

Korea2001031520010319

Julian Pettifer examines Korean views of the 37,000 US troops who have been keeping the peace there for decades.

Now, after 50 years, relations between the two Koreas appear to be thawing, and the troops are increasingly seen as more of a hindrance than a help.

Korea Host Bars2012081620120820

The host bars revealing the cracks in South Korea's conservative social structures.

South Korean women, tradition says, are hard-working, respectful to family, and know their place in Korea's Confucian hierarchies. But the country's rapid economic development has meant some startling changes below the surface of that conservative social structure. Perhaps the most controversial is the advent of Host Bars - all night drinking rooms where female customers can select and pay for male companions, sometimes at a cost of thousands of dollars a night. Originally set up to cater to off-duty 'hostesses' and female escorts, they're now proving popular with many other women too. The growth of the industry is throwing up new questions for South Korea's sociologists and politicians as they struggle to reconcile the country's traditional values with the effects of its rapid development. The BBC's Seoul correspondent Lucy Williamson reports.

Korean Missionaries2008032720080331

Ulli Schauen visits Korea to find out why Koreans are such fervent evangelists.

16,000 work abroad as Christian missionaries, a total surpassed only by the United States.

He meets young recruits undergoing missionary training and accompanies them as they take their message to Cambodia.

Korean Missionaries

Ulli Schauen visits Korea to find out why Koreans are such fervent evangelists. 16,000 work abroad as Christian missionaries, a total surpassed only by the United States. He meets young recruits undergoing missionary training and accompanies them as they take their message to Cambodia.

Kosovo2009040920090413

Michael Montgomery reports on alleged atrocities in Kosovo which have remained hidden for 10 years.

To mark the 10th anniversary of the war in Kosovo, and using documents and interviews he has gathered over more than five years, Michael reveals detailed evidence of another side to the conflict which the world was not meant to see.

Michael Montgomery reports on hidden alleged atrocities in Kosovo.

Kosovo20090413
Laos2003121120031215

Julian Pettifer returns to Laos, from where he reported during the Vietnam War, to see how this secretive country is trying to balance the need to open up to the world while keeping a tight grip on its people and politics.

During the Vietnam War, Laos became the most bombed country in history.

More explosives fell on the tiny mountain kingdom than the whole of Germany during the Second World War.

But as communists took over, Laos became a forgotten corner of Asia.

Three decades later it is still governed by an authoritarian regime, wary of Western interference.

But it is now reaching out to its South East Asian neighbours, hoping to cash in on their economic growth.

Last Call From Aleppo20170803
Last Call From Aleppo20170807

In besieged East Aleppo, a terrified mother of three makes one last desperate phone call.

On December the 14th last year the BBC's Mike Thomson awoke to a desperate voicemail message. It came from a frightened mother of three in besieged East Aleppo. Head teacher, Om Modar, who had been in regular contact with Mike, was pleading for help. Syrian government forces were closing in on the rebel-held area and bombs were falling around the shelter she shared with dozens of petrified children. Her voice, crackling with fear, said: "Please, please help us get out of Aleppo by safe corridor....we are terrified....please help us." That was the last Mike heard from Om. Months of silence followed. Finally, he became convinced she was dead. Then out of the blue came a two-line text. It revealed the fate of Om Modar and led Mike to near the Syrian border.

Liberia: Children For Sale20090119

Nadene Ghouri goes undercover to expose the trade in children by some charities registered in the United States and operating as businesses in Liberia.

With the country still reeling from the devastation of a vicious civil war and with unemployment and hunger rampant, she reveals how desperate parents in Liberia are giving their children up to unscrupulous operators who arrange fast-track adoptions with American families.

The parents do not realise that they are unlikely ever to see their children again.

Nadene Ghouri goes undercover to expose the trade in Liberian children.

Liberia: Children For Sale2008111320081117

Nadene Ghouri goes undercover to expose the trade in children by some charities registered in the United States and operating as businesses in Liberia.

With the country still reeling from the devastation of a vicious civil war and with unemployment and hunger rampant, she reveals how desperate parents in Liberia are giving their children up to unscrupulous operators who arrange fast-track adoptions with American families.

The parents do not realise that they are unlikely ever to see their children again.

Liberia: Children for Sale

With the country still reeling from the devastation of a vicious civil war and with unemployment and hunger rampant, she reveals how desperate parents in Liberia are giving their children up to unscrupulous operators who arrange fast-track adoptions with American families. The parents do not realise that they are unlikely ever to see their children again.

Libya2003050120030505

This weeks Crossing Continents offers a rare insight into life inside the secretive rogue state of Libya.

For many years Libya has been outcast for supporting terrorist groups.

Inside the country, ordinary Libyans have been left to the whims of Colonel Gadaffis personal brand of revolutionary socialism everything is run by the government and no one feels safe to talk politics.

However, there are signs that this closely controlled society is opening up both to the West and domestically.

So can we really believe that Colonel Gadaffi is about to change? Rosie Goldsmith finds out what life is like in this North African pariah state.

Libya20121213

The city of Misrata arguably suffered the most during the Libyan conflict as missiles rained on it for months on end. By the end of the revolution though, fighters from Misrata had exacted their revenge on neighbouring towns and had been responsible for the capture of Colonel Gaddafi, as well as Gaddafi strongholds. More recently Misratan fighters have been in action against the city of Bani Walid. Many residents of Bani Walid, accused of being Gaddafi supporters, have been expelled from their homes. Misrata has, effectively, set itself up as a city state, outside the control of Libya's new government.

Writer and journalist Justin Marozzi, who has been visiting Libya over the last twenty years, including during the revolution, returns to examine if this fragmented country can rebuild itself and come together. Is reconciliation possible while different armed groups continue to fight each other?

Producer: John Murphy.

Libya: Life After The Revolution2012121320121217

The city of Misrata arguably suffered the most during the Libyan conflict as missiles rained on it for months on end. By the end of the revolution though, fighters from Misrata had exacted their revenge on neighbouring towns and had been responsible for the capture of Colonel Gaddafi, as well as Gaddafi strongholds. More recently Misratan fighters have been in action against the city of Bani Walid. Many residents of Bani Walid, accused of being Gaddafi supporters, have been expelled from their homes. Misrata has, effectively, set itself up as a city state, outside the control of Libya's new government.

Writer and journalist Justin Marozzi, who has been visiting Libya over the last twenty years, including during the revolution, returns to examine if this fragmented country can rebuild itself and come together. Is reconciliation possible while different armed groups continue to fight each other?

Producer: John Murphy

Libyan Refugees2011072120110725

Crossing Continents joins a British doctor volunteering to help women and children stranded in Tunisian refugee camps while the men fight Gaddafi's forces in the mountains south of Tripoli.

Producer: Bill Law.

The mountain Berbers of Libya fighting for their culture and their lives against Gaddafi.

Libyan Refugees20110725
Lithuania: The Battle For Memory *2008071720080721

The Lithuanian general prosecutor is currently seeking to question a number of Jewish survivors of the Second World War over war crimes allegations.

Tim Whewell examines why competing memories of the war are being used as political ammunition in Lithuania and other East European countries.

Lithuania: The Battle for Memory

The Lithuanian general prosecutor is currently seeking to question a number of Jewish survivors of the Second World War over war crimes allegations. Tim Whewell examines why competing memories of the war are being used as political ammunition in Lithuania and other East European countries.

Living With The Dead20170504

Reports from around the world.

Since the beginning of time, man has lived in awe and fear of death, and every culture has faced its mystery through intricate and often ancient rituals. Few, however, are as extreme as those of the Torajan people on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. Here, the dead are a constant presence, with corpses often kept in family homes for many years. When funerals are eventually held, they don't mean goodbye. Once every couple of years, the dead are dug back out for a big family reunion. Is this a morbid obsession? Or could it be a positive way of dealing with the grief of losing a loved one? For Crossing Continents, Sahar Zand enters these remarkable communities where the dividing line between this world and the next is like a thin veil - a place with lessons for all of us. Exploring these traditions, Sahar seeks to understand the Torajan way of death and finds it changing her own thinking towards the loss of her own father.
Producers Rebecca Henschke and Bob Howard.

Living With The Dead20170508

Some Indonesians live alongside dead family members for years.

Since the beginning of time, man has lived in awe and fear of death, and every culture has faced its mystery through intricate and often ancient rituals. Few, however, are as extreme as those of the Torajan people on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. Here, the dead are a constant presence, with corpses often kept in family homes for many years. When funerals are eventually held, they don't mean goodbye. Once every couple of years, the dead are dug back out for a big family reunion. Is this a morbid obsession? Or could it be a positive way of dealing with the grief of losing a loved one? For Crossing Continents, Sahar Zand enters these remarkable communities where the dividing line between this world and the next is like a thin veil - a place with lessons for all of us. Exploring these traditions, Sahar seeks to understand the Torajan way of death and finds it changing her own thinking towards the loss of her own father.
Producers Rebecca Henschke and Bob Howard.

Losing Louisiana2015082720150831 (R4)

Ten years ago Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans, leaving over 1800 people dead and causing billions of dollars of damage. It was dramatic and destructive - but Katrina has been described as 'like a cold suffered by a cancer patient'. The cancer is the erosion of the coastal wetlands of Southern Louisiana, a slow motion environmental disaster that has continued almost unabated since Katrina. Caused by the taming of the Mississippi and oil and gas exploration, a football field of coastal land washes away every hour, and with it the homes, places and livelihoods that have sustained the storied Cajun culture. James Fletcher travels to Bayou Lafourche and the town of Leeville to get to know one community facing the reality of losing their past and their future.

Lost Boy Of Sudan Returns2007071920070723

Jane Little presents the story of John Majok, a refugee from the brutal civil war which ravaged Sudan during the 1980s.

He was one of the lucky few given the chance to resettle in America, but has decided to travel to the Kakuma refugee camp in Northern Kenya to be reunited with his mother and to marry a girl from his own Dinka tribe.

Can there be a happy ending for John and his new wife?

Lost Boy of Sudan Returns

Jane Little presents the story of John Majok, a refugee from the brutal civil war which ravaged Sudan during the 1980s. He was one of the lucky few given the chance to resettle in America, but has decided to travel to the Kakuma refugee camp in Northern Kenya to be reunited with his mother and to marry a girl from his own Dinka tribe. Can there be a happy ending for John and his new wife?

Luol Deng Revisits South Sudan

Madagascar

Madagascar2005110320051107

What happens when one of the world's biggest mining companies starts digging in one of the world's most precious, and vulnerable, natural environments, located in one of the world's poorest countries?

Olenka Frenkiel travels to Madagascar to investigate whether a major project by mining giant Rio Tinto can live up to its billing of creating jobs without harming the environment in the long term.

She also examines the fears that the mine might speed up the destruction of indigenous forests, in which rare species of plants and animals live.

Madagascar

Olenka Frenkiel travels to Madagascar to investigate whether a major project by mining giant Rio Tinto can live up to its billing of creating jobs without harming the environment in the long term. She also examines the fears that the mine might speed up the destruction of indigenous forests, in which rare species of plants and animals live.

Madagascar2010072920100802

is in crisis.

Since a coup last year that brought a DJ in his mid-thirties to power as president, this huge island nation has become a pariah state.

For the most part, the international community has refused to recognise the new government.

Most seriously for Madagascar, in an effort to persuade the new regime to restore democracy, most aid has been withdrawn.

This has created a huge dent in the state's coffers because donor assistance accounted for a staggering half of Madagascar's income.

The fallout for an already poor nation has been profound.

Thousands have lost their jobs in garment factories as a result of the United States' decision to suspend favourable trade tariffs for Madagascar.

Others eke out a living on the streets, or have headed for the countryside to subsist on what rice they can grow.

Hospitals and schools are under serious pressure.

Over half of all children are malnourished, and family breakdown is an everyday event.

Now there is evidence that Madagascar's unique and spectacular wildlife - ancient hardwoods, baobabs, and lemurs - is especially endangered by corruption, poverty and a breakdown in the rule of law.

The forests are being plundered.

Loggers have illegally sought out and exported rare rosewood, and there is anecdotal evidence that hunting for bush meat, and the smuggling of rare wildlife are both on the increase.

As Madagascar celebrates fifty years of independence from French rule, Linda Pressly visits the capital of Antananorivo and travels out to one of the National Parks to find out how people are surviving in this island nation seemingly in freefall.

How is Madagascar coping with an economic crisis following the 2009 coup?

Madagascar is in crisis. Since a coup last year that brought a DJ in his mid-thirties to power as president, this huge island nation has become a pariah state. For the most part, the international community has refused to recognise the new government. Most seriously for Madagascar, in an effort to persuade the new regime to restore democracy, most aid has been withdrawn. This has created a huge dent in the state's coffers because donor assistance accounted for a staggering half of Madagascar's income.

The fallout for an already poor nation has been profound. Thousands have lost their jobs in garment factories as a result of the United States' decision to suspend favourable trade tariffs for Madagascar. Others eke out a living on the streets, or have headed for the countryside to subsist on what rice they can grow. Hospitals and schools are under serious pressure. Over half of all children are malnourished, and family breakdown is an everyday event.

Now there is evidence that Madagascar's unique and spectacular wildlife - ancient hardwoods, baobabs, and lemurs - is especially endangered by corruption, poverty and a breakdown in the rule of law. The forests are being plundered. Loggers have illegally sought out and exported rare rosewood, and there is anecdotal evidence that hunting for bush meat, and the smuggling of rare wildlife are both on the increase.

Madagascar20100802

is in crisis. Since a coup last year that brought a DJ in his mid-thirties to power as president, this huge island nation has become a pariah state. For the most part, the international community has refused to recognise the new government. Most seriously for Madagascar, in an effort to persuade the new regime to restore democracy, most aid has been withdrawn. This has created a huge dent in the state's coffers because donor assistance accounted for a staggering half of Madagascar's income.

The fallout for an already poor nation has been profound. Thousands have lost their jobs in garment factories as a result of the United States' decision to suspend favourable trade tariffs for Madagascar. Others eke out a living on the streets, or have headed for the countryside to subsist on what rice they can grow. Hospitals and schools are under serious pressure. Over half of all children are malnourished, and family breakdown is an everyday event.

Now there is evidence that Madagascar's unique and spectacular wildlife - ancient hardwoods, baobabs, and lemurs - is especially endangered by corruption, poverty and a breakdown in the rule of law. The forests are being plundered. Loggers have illegally sought out and exported rare rosewood, and there is anecdotal evidence that hunting for bush meat, and the smuggling of rare wildlife are both on the increase.

As Madagascar celebrates fifty years of independence from French rule, Linda Pressly visits the capital of Antananorivo and travels out to one of the National Parks to find out how people are surviving in this island nation seemingly in freefall.

How is Madagascar coping with an economic crisis following the 2009 coup?

Malaysia: Racial Supremacy No More?20090518

For nearly four decades, ethnic Malays have benefited from positive discrimination over Malaysians of ethnic Chinese and Indian origin - which make up nearly 40 percent of the population.

But in 2008, the country's unique racial compact began to be strongly challenged from within.

Mukul Devichand reports on the tensions and meets Malay, Indian and Chinese young people on the front lines of the struggle between ingrained racism and the possibility of a more equal future.

Mukul Devichand reports on tensions building up between Malaysian ethnic groups.

Malaysia: Racial Supremacy No More?2009010820090112

Tensions between ethnic Malays and Malaysians of ethnic Chinese and Indian origin.

For nearly four decades, ethnic Malays have benefited from positive discrimination over the nearly 40 percent of Malaysians of ethnic Chinese and Indian origin.

But in 2008, the country's unique racial compact began to be strongly challenged from within.

Mukul Devichand reports on the tensions and meets Malay, Indian and Chinese young people on the front lines of the struggle between ingrained racism and the possibility of a more equal future.

Malaysia: Racial Supremacy No More?2009010820090518

Tensions between ethnic Malays and Malaysians of ethnic Chinese and Indian origin.

For nearly four decades, ethnic Malays have benefited from positive discrimination over Malaysians of ethnic Chinese and Indian origin - which make up nearly 40 percent of the population.

But in 2008, the country's unique racial compact began to be strongly challenged from within.

Mukul Devichand reports on the tensions and meets Malay, Indian and Chinese young people on the front lines of the struggle between ingrained racism and the possibility of a more equal future.

Mukul Devichand reports on tensions building up between Malaysian ethnic groups.

Malaysia: Racial Supremacy No More?20090112

Tensions between ethnic Malays and Malaysians of ethnic Chinese and Indian origin.

Malaysia's Indigenous Underclass20151210

The deaths of five school children in Malaysia have provoked an anguished debate about education and what it means to be Malay. The children ran away from their boarding school in Kelantan State and died of starvation in the jungle. They were afraid of harsh punishment from their teachers. Two girls survived eating grass and wild fruits but were found emaciated and close to death 47 days later. The children came from the Orang Asli community, one of the poorest and most marginalised in the country. For Crossing Continents, Lucy Ash travels to the remote region where the children came from and talks to their bereaved parents. Many families are now refusing to send their children to school and campaigners accuse the government of not doing enough to protect rights of the Orang Asli community. Jane Beresford producing.

Malaysia's Runaway Children2015121020151214 (R4)

The deaths of five school children in Malaysia have provoked an anguished debate about education and what it means to be Malay. The children ran away from their boarding school in Kelantan State and died of starvation in the jungle. They were afraid of harsh punishment from their teachers. Two girls survived eating grass and wild fruits but were found emaciated and close to death 47 days later. The children came from the Orang Asli community, one of the poorest and most marginalised in the country. For Crossing Continents, Lucy Ash travels to the remote region where the children came from and talks to their bereaved parents. Many families are now refusing to send their children to school and campaigners accuse the government of not doing enough to protect rights of the Orang Asli community. Jane Beresford producing.

Maori In New Zealand2004102820041101

New Zealand's image of political and social harmony disintegrated in 2004 when 40 000 Maori marched on the capital, Wellington, accusing the government of a colonial-style land-grab.

The Labour government has lost ground not only to a nascent Maori Party, but to an increasingly popular conservative opposition who feel the Maori have ridden the compensation gravy-train for too long.

Rosie Goldsmith travels to New Zealand to report on the social changes which have led to this political upheaval.

New Zealand's image of political and social harmony disintegrated in 2004 when 40 000 Maori marched on the capital, Wellington, accusing the government of a colonial-style land-grab. The Labour government has lost ground not only to a nascent Maori Party, but to an increasingly popular conservative opposition who feel the Maori have ridden the compensation gravy-train for too long. Rosie Goldsmith travels to New Zealand to report on the social changes which have led to this political upheaval.

Matchmaking In Modern China20130912

According to a recent study by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 24 million Chinese men will be unable to find wives by 2020 because of the country's gender imbalance. Before the mass migration from the villages to the cities, young men could rely on their parents to find them a wife. Now many of those single women live in the cities, working in factories. They only see their parents during the spring festival so the chances of finding a wife are limited. It's a particular challenge for men with low income, who don't own their own apartment or who don't have a good job. In some parts of rural China there are several communities with so many single men they've been labelled 'bachelor villages'

The trend has led to a growth in internet dating while at the high end, rich men join 'single entrepreneur' clubs that run competitions to find them that someone special.

Lucy Ash reports from China on the ways in which both parents and the single men are attempting to make the perfect catch.

Producer: Julie Ball.

Medjugorje

Medjugorje2010081920100823

In Medjugorje the age of miracles isn't over: it is alive and well and is big business.

The Catholic boom town in the Bosnian hills now rivals the better known Fatima or Lourdes.

There were eight appearances of the Virgin Mary at Lourdes, yet since 1981 there have been 33,000 at Medjugorje, where she appears practically every day.

The Vatican is currently investigating the validity of the claims.

Meanwhile the pilgrims keep rolling in and spending their money.

The town is also a hotbed of Croat ultra-nationalists, who some say are using the religious fervour to boost their own political influence in the region.

Allan Little investigates the political sensitivities around Medjugorje.

Producer: Paul Vickers.

Allan Little investigates the sensitivities around Medjugorje, the Lourdes of Bosnia.

In Medjugorje the age of miracles isn't over: it is alive and well and is big business. The Catholic boom town in the Bosnian hills now rivals the better known Fatima or Lourdes. There were eight appearances of the Virgin Mary at Lourdes, yet since 1981 there have been 33,000 at Medjugorje, where she appears practically every day. The Vatican is currently investigating the validity of the claims.

Meanwhile the pilgrims keep rolling in and spending their money. The town is also a hotbed of Croat ultra-nationalists, who some say are using the religious fervour to boost their own political influence in the region. Allan Little investigates the political sensitivities around Medjugorje.

Medjugorje20100823

In Medjugorje the age of miracles isn't over: it is alive and well and is big business. The Catholic boom town in the Bosnian hills now rivals the better known Fatima or Lourdes. There were eight appearances of the Virgin Mary at Lourdes, yet since 1981 there have been 33,000 at Medjugorje, where she appears practically every day. The Vatican is currently investigating the validity of the claims.

Meanwhile the pilgrims keep rolling in and spending their money. The town is also a hotbed of Croat ultra-nationalists, who some say are using the religious fervour to boost their own political influence in the region. Allan Little investigates the political sensitivities around Medjugorje.

Producer: Paul Vickers.

Allan Little investigates the sensitivities around Medjugorje, the Lourdes of Bosnia.

Mexico2002031420020318

`Mexico'.

Nick Caistor reports from southern Mexico, where the discovery of genetically modified maize has raised fears that the area's rich biodiversity may be threatened.

Mexico - The Town That Said, 'no!'2016122920170102 (R4)

The story of Cheran, a Mexican town that rose up against organised crime.

The Mexican state of Michoacan was the birth place of the Mexican drug war. The town of Cheran is much like other mainly indigenous communities, but it is unique - Cheran has no mayor, no police, and political parties are banned. There are no elections here. Cheran governs itself, after it fought and won a legal battle for political autonomy. The people of Cheran used to suffer as much as their neighbours - extortion, kidnap and murder. But by 2011 they'd had enough. That's when the community - led by women - rose up. They threw out the paramilitary loggers and organised criminal groups who had devastated their forests, then chased away the mayor and the municipal police who were colluding with them. Five years later, the town still runs itself, and the forces of law and order have been replaced by an armed, community militia. Serious crime has plummeted, and the town is re-planting its devastated forest. So how has Cheran survived - and thrived -in such a harsh environment?

Reporter: Linda Pressly

Producers: Tim Mansel and Ulises Escamilla.

Mexico: Exorcising Evil2013112820131202

Why Catholic priests in Mexico believe they can fight drug trafficking through exorcism.

Vladimir Hernandez follows the Mexican priests who believe they can fight the evil of drug trafficking through the ancient Catholic practice of exorcism.

It is estimated that 60,000 people have died in Mexico in the "drug wars" linked to the narco-traffickers, who are among the most vicious criminals in the world. To some Catholic priests and believers, this is clear evidence that the Devil has taken hold among much of the population. They also point to the popularity of cults like that of "Santa Muerte", the saint of death, who is a figure of popular veneration among some of the narco-gangs. The priests are responding by practising exorcisms, both in private and public, as they seek to expunge this evil. Vladimir watches dramatic individual and mass exorcisms, hears from those who have been through the rite and talks to critics and supporters of the practice.

Producers: Keith Morris and Mark Savage.

Mexico's Village Vigilantes2013041820130422

Linda Pressly meets the vigilantes fighting Mexico's criminal gangs in Guerrerro State.

Moldova - Sour Grapes2013112120131125

Wine making in Moldova is a source of national pride - they have been growing vines for centuries. During Soviet times the country was encouraged to become one of the USSR's major wine suppliers and it has remained so ever since. But recently Russia banned the importation of Moldovan wine for the second time in a decade.

Tessa Dunlop visits the prestigious Cricova winery - whose cellars have 120km of underground roads and holds bottles for the likes of Angela Merkel and President Putin - to see how the ban is affecting the poorest country in Europe.

Moldova fears that a continuing embargo will devastate its fragile economy. The Moldovan president has condemned it as an aggressive move by Russia to bully Moldova into reconsidering its comittment to forging closer relations with the European Union. Many Moldovans believe Russia wants to make their country reconsider ratifying an agreement with the EU at the end of November.

The result is that growers have vats maturing wine that may have no market. Enterprising younger wine producers, many of whom bought out former state enterprises, fear their investment may have been a mistake. Workers are concerned they may lose their jobs with little chance of alternative employment in the poorest country in Europe.

For Moldova this is symbolic of a bigger problem - it wants to join the EU party and become part of Europe but its economy remains heavily dependent on Russia for gas and cash. Meanwhile the 14th Russian army is based just miles from their capital in the disputed territory of Transnistria.

Moldova faces difficult choices

Producer: Jane Beresford.

Will Russian politics crush the thriving wine industry of tiny Moldova?

Molenbeek, Through The Looking Glass2016011420160118 (R4)

After the terror attacks in Paris, the world's attention turned to an inner-city district of the Belgian capital, Brussels, where several of the attackers came from. Molenbeek has been notorious for many years as a breeding-ground for Islamist extremism - and the Belgian government vowed to "clean it up". But do the authorities really have any plan to prevent the radicalisation of young Belgians? Tim Whewell has been travelling back and forth to Brussels since the Paris attacks to talk to local people as they hold up a mirror to themselves and search for explanations - and attempt to have a dialogue with a sometimes dysfunctional state.

Lode Desmet producing.

Mongolia's Mining Boom2013032820130401

How will the world's fastest-growing economy manage its dramatic transformation?

The Oyu Tolgoi mine in Mongolia's freezing Gobi Desert is one of the the world's biggest - extracting a vast seam of copper, gold and silver the size of Manhattan. It's turned this country of camel and yak herders into the world's fastest growing economy. Fancy boutiques, top-end car dealerships and coffee shops are springing up across the capital. But, as Justin Rowlatt discovers, riding the boom is not easy. He meets a rapper who says the government is simply selling the country's assets to its old rival, China. And there are fears from foreign investors about attempts by the government to increase its income from the Oyu Tolgoi mine. Can Mongolia become prosperous while sharing its new-found wealth - or will it kill the goose before it has laid any gold (or copper) eggs?

Producer: Kent DePinto.

Murder, Migration And Mexico2011081120110815

Every year, hundreds of thousands of Central Americans leave home and travel north overland, hoping to make a new life in the United States.

This has always been a difficult journey.

Now it is perilous.

Mexican drug cartels have seen a business opportunity in the migrants: they are being systematically kidnapped en route, and held to ransom.

Often they have been killed, and Mexico is currently investigating a number of mass graves.

With the Mexican government's hardline military campaign against the cartels, these criminal organisations are moving south.

The northern Guatemalan department of Peten - an area through which many migrants cross to Mexico - is vulnerable.

On May, 27 farmworkers were killed at a remote farm in Peten.

This was apparently revenge for a drug debt, and the killers are believed to be Zetas - the bloodiest Mexican cartel.

The Zetas are battling other organised crime groups to take control of Peten.

There's a fear that if they succeed, not only will they terrorise the local population, but they will begin to kidnap, extort and murder some of the thousands of migrants moving through - as they do routinely in Mexico.

Crossing Continents follows part of the migrants' route - from Peten in Guatemala, to the southern Mexican town of Tenosique.

Linda Pressly meets two Hondurans who were lucky to escape with their lives after an encounter with the Zetas.

She hears from a Franciscan monk dedicated to protecting migrants.

But the story of migration is complex.

Not only do the cartels abuse the migrants, they also recruit them.

And alongside the hopeful, innocent travellers travelling north, come criminals.

In Tenosique, she speaks to a local businessman whose son was kidnapped and killed.

Linda Pressly joins migrants on their perilous journey north through Guatemala and Mexico.

This has always been a difficult journey. Now it is perilous. Mexican drug cartels have seen a business opportunity in the migrants: they are being systematically kidnapped en route, and held to ransom. Often they have been killed, and Mexico is currently investigating a number of mass graves.

With the Mexican government's hardline military campaign against the cartels, these criminal organisations are moving south. The northern Guatemalan department of Peten - an area through which many migrants cross to Mexico - is vulnerable. On May, 27 farmworkers were killed at a remote farm in Peten. This was apparently revenge for a drug debt, and the killers are believed to be Zetas - the bloodiest Mexican cartel. The Zetas are battling other organised crime groups to take control of Peten. There's a fear that if they succeed, not only will they terrorise the local population, but they will begin to kidnap, extort and murder some of the thousands of migrants moving through - as they do routinely in Mexico.

Crossing Continents follows part of the migrants' route - from Peten in Guatemala, to the southern Mexican town of Tenosique. Linda Pressly meets two Hondurans who were lucky to escape with their lives after an encounter with the Zetas. She hears from a Franciscan monk dedicated to protecting migrants. But the story of migration is complex. Not only do the cartels abuse the migrants, they also recruit them. And alongside the hopeful, innocent travellers travelling north, come criminals. In Tenosique, she speaks to a local businessman whose son was kidnapped and killed.

Murder, Migration And Mexico20110815

Every year, hundreds of thousands of Central Americans leave home and travel north overland, hoping to make a new life in the United States.

This has always been a difficult journey. Now it is perilous. Mexican drug cartels have seen a business opportunity in the migrants: they are being systematically kidnapped en route, and held to ransom. Often they have been killed, and Mexico is currently investigating a number of mass graves.

With the Mexican government's hardline military campaign against the cartels, these criminal organisations are moving south. The northern Guatemalan department of Peten - an area through which many migrants cross to Mexico - is vulnerable. On May, 27 farmworkers were killed at a remote farm in Peten. This was apparently revenge for a drug debt, and the killers are believed to be Zetas - the bloodiest Mexican cartel. The Zetas are battling other organised crime groups to take control of Peten. There's a fear that if they succeed, not only will they terrorise the local population, but they will begin to kidnap, extort and murder some of the thousands of migrants moving through - as they do routinely in Mexico.

Crossing Continents follows part of the migrants' route - from Peten in Guatemala, to the southern Mexican town of Tenosique. Linda Pressly meets two Hondurans who were lucky to escape with their lives after an encounter with the Zetas. She hears from a Franciscan monk dedicated to protecting migrants. But the story of migration is complex. Not only do the cartels abuse the migrants, they also recruit them. And alongside the hopeful, innocent travellers travelling north, come criminals. In Tenosique, she speaks to a local businessman whose son was kidnapped and killed.

Linda Pressly joins migrants on their perilous journey north through Guatemala and Mexico.

Nablus

Nablus20091210
Nablus20091214
Nablus *2009121020091214

For years the West Bank town of Nablus was a community at war with Israel following the second Palestinian Intifada, or uprising, that began in 2000.

Now Israeli checkpoints have been dismantled, Palestinian police officers patrol their own streets, and Nablus has become a shopping hub with an economy that is on the up.

These kinds of changes are touted by Palestinians and the international community as evidence that the Palestinian Authority is running what could be a viable state if a peace deal were to be brokered with Israel.

But how profound and durable is this transformation of the still-occupied West Bank? Crossing Continents takes the temperature in the homes and on the streets of Nablus.

Taking the temperature on the streets of the West Bank town of Nablus.

Nepal: Getting Away With Murder2013040420130408

The fate of hundreds of people who went missing during Nepal's brutal civil war is threatening to undermine the country's fragile democracy. Around 100,000 people were displaced during the bloody insurgency and an estimated 17 thousand were killed. A peace agreement was signed six years ago in which both sides promised that war crimes would not go unpunished. But relatives are still waiting for justice. Joanna Jolly finds out why the scars from the conflict are still raw despite attempts by both sides to bury the past.

Producer: Mark Savage.

Netherlands2001030820010312

Olenka Frankiel investigates how the turmoil in Indonesia is impacting upon the Netherlands' large Moluccan community.

Since the civil war in the old spice islands began, most Dutch-Moluccans have lost friends or family there, and a small group has begun a bombing campaign to pressurise the Dutch government, which once ruled the islands, into bringing the war to an end.

Nevada's Brothels Face the Axe2018090620180910 (R4)

Nevada's legal sex trade faces a campaign for reform.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

In parts of Nevada, prostitution is legal - the only such state in the US. The 'live and let live mentality' is a hangover from the gold rush days and in certain counties, brothels have been officially licensed since 1971. Today no fewer than seven of them are owned by one man, Dennis Hof, a gun-toting restaurateur, entrepreneur and reality TV star. He calls himself the "Trump from Pahrump," - after a town where he recently won the Republican primaries for the Nevada State Legislature. Now though, there is a backlash from religious and social activists who have managed to get a referendum on the ballot during this November's mid-term elections. Voters in Lyon County will be asked if the legal brothels there should be allowed to continue to operate - and ultimately, the campaigners aim to end legal sex work across the whole state. They say it is an exploitative, abusive trade and prevents other businesses from investing in the area. But some sex workers are worried that a ban could push them onto the streets where they would face potential danger. Lucy Ash talks to Dennis Hof, the women who work for him, and those who are pushing for change.

Producer Mike Gallagher.

Nevada's Brothels Face the Axe20180906

Nevada's legal sex trade faces a campaign for reform.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

In parts of Nevada, prostitution is legal - the only such state in the US. The 'live and let live mentality' is a hangover from the gold rush days and in certain counties, brothels have been officially licensed since 1971. Today no fewer than seven of them are owned by one man, Dennis Hof, a gun-toting restaurateur, entrepreneur and reality TV star. He calls himself the "Trump from Pahrump," - after a town where he recently won the Republican primaries for the Nevada State Legislature. Now though, there is a backlash from religious and social activists who have managed to get a referendum on the ballot during this November's mid-term elections. Voters in Lyon County will be asked if the legal brothels there should be allowed to continue to operate - and ultimately, the campaigners aim to end legal sex work across the whole state. They say it is an exploitative, abusive trade and prevents other businesses from investing in the area. But some sex workers are worried that a ban could push them onto the streets where they would face potential danger. Lucy Ash talks to Dennis Hof, the women who work for him, and those who are pushing for change.

Producer Mike Gallagher.

New Orleans2005112420051128

Before Hurricane Katrina the New Orleans Police Dept were amongst the lowest paid in the country and many had second jobs to help pay their way.

The force had a reputation for corruption and brutality.

Then Katrina happened.

Of the 1400 strong police force, 250 are said to have deserted immediately.

Two officers took their own lives and about 80% lost their homes.

Many are now living on a cruise ship, two to a room, their families scattered across the Southern United States.

How does such a shattered force rebuild its morale and reputation?

John Murphy tells their stories.

New Orleans

Before Hurricane Katrina the New Orleans Police Dept were amongst the lowest paid in the country and many had second jobs to help pay their way. The force had a reputation for corruption and brutality.

Then Katrina happened. Of the 1400 strong police force, 250 are said to have deserted immediately. Two officers took their own lives and about 80% lost their homes. Many are now living on a cruise ship, two to a room, their families scattered across the Southern United States.

New Serbia?2001111520011119

`New Serbia?' Olenka Frenkiel travels to Belgrade to ask what has changed in the lives of ordinary Serbians in the year since they overthrew Slobodan Milosevic.

Nichi Vendola2010120920101213

Rosie Goldsmith profiles Nichi Vendola, the governor of Puglia and the hope for the Italian left.

Can this gay, Catholic poet and environmentalist challenge Silvio Berlusconi?

Producer: Helen Grady.

A profile of Nichi Vendola, the new hope of the left in Italy - and across Europe.

A profile of Nichi Vendola, the new hope of the left in Italy.

Rosie Goldsmith profiles Nichi Vendola, the governor of Puglia and the hope for the Italian left. Can this gay, Catholic poet and environmentalist challenge Silvio Berlusconi?

Nichi Vendola20101213

Rosie Goldsmith profiles Nichi Vendola, the governor of Puglia and the hope for the Italian left. Can this gay, Catholic poet and environmentalist challenge Silvio Berlusconi?

Producer: Helen Grady.

A profile of Nichi Vendola, the new hope of the left in Italy.

Northern Uganda *2008091820080922

Callum Macrae reports from a devastated region.

The conflict in northern Uganda is one of Africa's longest running and most brutal civil wars.

Now, after more than 20 years, a delicate peace reigns, but could this be under threat? The International Criminal Court has issued warrants of arrest against rebel leader Joseph Kony and some of his commanders, but many Ugandans fear that intervention may actually prolong the conflict.

On the other hand, international pressure is growing for a military solution to the war, which is now seen to threaten the strategic interests of the west in the region.

Callum investigates the risks of the West's new interest in this war and to examine claims that traditional processes of reconciliation, focusing on forgiveness rather than punishment, may hold the key to bringing a lasting peace to this unhappy land.

Norway2001120620011210

Julian Pettifer reports from Norway, where the blonde-haired, blue-eyed children of German soldiers and Norwegian women are fighting back against years of discrimination.

Norway And Russia: An Arctic Friendship Under Threat2015111220151116 (R4)

In Norway, the sacking of a newspaper editor, allegedly after pressure from Russia, has caused a political storm over media freedom, and raised questions over what price the country should pay for good relations with its powerful eastern neighbour. Thomas Nilsen is a veteran environmental activist who edited a paper in the far north of Norway, in a region which has enjoyed a unique cross-border relationship with Russia. Now that's threatened by rising tension between Russia and NATO. And relations have been further strained by the flow of refugees, now coming through Russia into the far north of Norway. Tim Whewell reports on what it means for the Norwegian outpost of Kirkenes, where Norwegians and Russians work closely together in the oil and fishing business and where cooperation and friendship go back decades.

Norway, Russia And The Silencing Of Thomas Nilsen2015111220151116 (R4)

The sacking of a newspaper editor strains an old friendship between Norway and Russia.

In Norway, the sacking of a newspaper editor, allegedly after pressure from Russia, has caused a political storm over media freedom, and raised questions over what price the country should pay for good relations with its powerful eastern neighbour. Thomas Nilsen is a veteran environmental activist who edited a paper in the far north of Norway, in a region which has enjoyed a unique cross-border relationship with Russia. Now that's threatened by rising tension between Russia and NATO. And relations have been further strained by the flow of refugees, now coming through Russia into the far north of Norway. Tim Whewell reports on what it means for the Norwegian outpost of Kirkenes, where Norwegians and Russians work closely together in the oil and fishing business and where cooperation and friendship go back decades.

Norway: Parents Against The State2016041420160418 (R4)

Norway's widely regarded as one of the world's most progressive societies, yet it's at the centre of an international storm over its child protection policies. Campaigners accuse its social workers of removing children - some from immigrant backgrounds - from their parents without justification, and permanently erasing family bonds. Tim Whewell meets parents who say they've lost their children because of misunderstood remarks or "insufficient eye contact" - and Norwegian professionals who call the system monstrous and dysfunctional. Is a service designed to put children first now out of control?

Norway's Silent Scandal2018080220180806 (R4)

Norway's child protection system under scrutiny once again after expert's conviction.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

The conviction of a prominent expert in Norway's troubled child protection system - for downloading images of child sex abuse - has put the organisation under scrutiny once again. In April this year a child psychiatrist was convicted of downloading thousands of the images on his computer. Up until his arrest he played a key role in decisions about whether children should be separated from their parents for their own good. But there has been no public discussion in Norway about the implications of his conviction, no outrage in the newspapers, no plans to review cases he was involved in - even though the country's child protection agency, Barnevernet, has been much criticised in recent years for removing children from their families without justification. In April 2016 Tim Whewell reported on the story for Crossing Continents after Barnevernet attracted an international storm of protest over its child protection policies. Tim now returns to Norway to report on this extraordinary twist in the story and to find out why child protection in one of the world's wealthiest countries appears to be in crisis.
Produced and Reported by Tim Whewell.

(Image: A row of family shoes. Credit: BBC)

Norway's Silent Scandal20180802

Norway's child protection system under scrutiny once again after expert's conviction.

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

The conviction of a prominent expert in Norway's troubled child protection system - for downloading images of child sex abuse - has put the organisation under scrutiny once again. In April this year a child psychiatrist was convicted of downloading thousands of the images on his computer. Up until his arrest he played a key role in decisions about whether children should be separated from their parents for their own good. But there has been no public discussion in Norway about the implications of his conviction, no outrage in the newspapers, no plans to review cases he was involved in - even though the country's child protection agency, Barnevernet, has been much criticised in recent years for removing children from their families without justification. In April 2016 Tim Whewell reported on the story for Crossing Continents after Barnevernet attracted an international storm of protest over its child protection policies. Tim now returns to Norway to report on this extraordinary twist in the story and to find out why child protection in one of the world's wealthiest countries appears to be in crisis.
Produced and Reported by Tim Whewell.

(Image: A row of family shoes. Credit: BBC)

Not Making Babies In South Korea2018072620180730 (R4)

Why does South Korea have the lowest fertility rate in the world?

Series focusing on foreign affairs issues

Why does South Korea have the lowest fertility rate in the world?
The average South Korean woman is expected to have 1.05 children in her life - exactly half the rate needed to maintain a population. That means a shrinking workforce paying less taxes and more elderly people who will need expensive care. South Korea's government has pumped tens of billions of pounds into dealing with the problem over the past decade, but the fertility rate is still going down. In this whodunnit, Simon Maybin finds out who's not doing it - and why.
Producer: John Murphy
Presenter: Simon Maybin.

On The Road With Hillary Clinton2011071420110718

The BBC's Kim Ghattas has gained exclusive, behind the scenes access to the U.S.

Secretary of State Hillary Clinton during one of her recent overseas visits.

Code named "Special Air Mission 883", the trip took eight days, covered thirty thousand miles and touched down in four countries in the Middle East and Africa.

Kim joins what is affectionately known as "the bubble", the travelling band of diplomatic staffers, special security detail, international press and handlers that accompany the Secretary, or "S" as she is known, on the trip.

We share their thoughts and hopes, priorities and frustrations as Hillary Clinton pursues United States foreign policy goals.

There are meetings of high diplomacy with kings and rulers as well as more grass roots events like the promotion of democracy and good governance at an African womens collective.

A surprisingly intimate portrait of the Secretary and her closest aides.

Producer: Jane Beresford.

An on-the-road behind-the-scenes profile of US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.

The BBC's Kim Ghattas has gained exclusive, behind the scenes access to the U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton during one of her recent overseas visits. Code named "Special Air Mission 883", the trip took eight days, covered thirty thousand miles and touched down in four countries in the Middle East and Africa.

We share their thoughts and hopes, priorities and frustrations as Hillary Clinton pursues United States foreign policy goals. There are meetings of high diplomacy with kings and rulers as well as more grass roots events like the promotion of democracy and good governance at an African womens collective.

On The Road With Hillary Clinton20110718
One Month In Molenbeek20160114

After the terror attacks in Paris, the world's attention turned to an inner-city district of the Belgian capital, Brussels, where several of the attackers came from. Molenbeek has been notorious for many years as a breeding-ground for Islamist extremism - and the Belgian government vowed to "clean it up". But do the authorities really have any plan to prevent the radicalisation of young Belgians? Tim Whewell has been travelling back and forth to Brussels since the Paris attacks to talk to local people as they hold up a mirror to themselves and search for explanations - and attempt to have a dialogue with a sometimes dysfunctional state.

Lode Desmet producing.

Operation Storm1999072919990802

Julian Pettifer travels to Croatia to examine the reality of ethnic cleansing through two forgotten groups of refugees.

He meets Serbs returning to their homes in southern Croatia, four years after they were expelled during Croatia's notorious `Operation Storm' - believed to be the model for Slobodan Milosevic's tactics in Kosovo.

Pakistan

Pakistan20090716
Pakistan20090723
Pakistan20090727
Pakistan2011051220110516

Following the discovery that Osama Bin Laden was living close to the heart of Pakistan's military establishment in Abbotabad, Owen Bennett-Jones investigates the ties between elements of Pakistan's army, intelligence and government with jihadi and Taleban forces.

Producer: Rebecca Kesby.

Owen Bennett-Jones explores Pakistan's connections to jihadi groups.

Pakistan20110516

Owen Bennett-Jones explores Pakistan's connections to jihadi groups.

Pakistan *20090716

Bill Law investigates if Pakistani youngsters are in danger of joining the ranks of the Taliban or if they are fighting back against the extremists.

Two-thirds of the Pakistani population is under the age of 25.

In a country under siege from the forces of religious extremism, this youth bulge serves as a ticking time bomb.

Bill Law investigates if Pakistani youngsters are in danger of joining the Taliban.

Pakistan *2009072320090727

Bill Law investigates if Pakistani youngsters are in danger of joining the ranks of the Taliban or if they are fighting back against the extremists.

Two-thirds of the Pakistani population is under the age of 25.

In a country under siege from the forces of religious extremism, this youth bulge serves as a ticking time bomb.

Pakistan Drugs

Pakistan Drugs2009120320091207

Julia Rooke accompanies former heroin dealer, Urfan Azad, on a journey back to the remote mountain madrassa in north west Pakistan where he received drugs rehabilitation and spiritual healing.

But during their journey Urfan reveals how young recovering addicts were given military training and sent to Afghanistan.

An ex-heroin dealer returns to the mountain hideout where he received drugs rehabilitation

A former heroin dealer and addict, Urfan Azad, who has been clean for a decade, retraces his journey back to the remote mountain hideout in Pakistan where he received drugs rehabilitation from former Mujahedin fighters.

An unlikely venue, perhaps, but could the secret of its success better equip Urfan to meet the challenges of his job as a drugs counsellor in Britain?

Urfan also speaks to tribal chiefs and opium farmers, who talk openly about the Taliban.

Pakistan Drugs20091207

An ex-heroin dealer returns to the mountain hideout where he received drugs rehabilitation

Pakistan Special2005102720051031

George Arney accompanies one family from Luton as they travel into remote Kashmir to bring help to their relatives.

And as criticism mounts of the military-led government relief operations, he asks whether this earthquake will shake up Pakistan's political landscape.

Pakistan Special

George Arney accompanies one family from Luton as they travel into remote Kashmir to bring help to their relatives. And as criticism mounts of the military-led government relief operations, he asks whether this earthquake will shake up Pakistan's political landscape.

Palliative Care In India20110103

It's estimated that nearly one million Indians with conditions like cancer die in acute, unnecessary pain because of the lack of palliative care. Restrictions on morphine prescription are being lifted, but too slowly.

One of the most sophisticated systems of palliative care in the developing world has been established in the Indian state of Kerala. The grassroots movement to create a much-valued and effective palliative care system in Kerala has been called a silent revolution. Every week, thousands of volunteers across the state give up their time to go and tend to those who are dying. They may cook food, help with chores, or simply provide a listening ear. Hundreds of thousands more people in Kerala belong to Palliative Care Societies. They donate money regularly - even just a few rupees - to help support this kind of outreach. The hope is that people will not die alone, and in pain, without any support.

Linda Pressly travels to Kerala, which has more palliative care centres than the rest of the country put together, and ask whether this is a model to treat the dying that could be rolled out in other nations, as well as other parts of India.

Linda Pressly travels to Kerala to examine the silent revolution in palliative care.

Palliative Care In India2011010620110110

It's estimated that nearly one million Indians with conditions like cancer die in acute, unnecessary pain because of the lack of palliative care.

Restrictions on morphine prescription are being lifted, but too slowly.

One of the most sophisticated systems of palliative care in the developing world has been established in the Indian state of Kerala.

The grassroots movement to create a much-valued and effective palliative care system in Kerala has been called a silent revolution.

Every week, thousands of volunteers across the state give up their time to go and tend to those who are dying.

They may cook food, help with chores, or simply provide a listening ear.

Hundreds of thousands more people in Kerala belong to Palliative Care Societies.

They donate money regularly - even just a few rupees - to help support this kind of outreach.

The hope is that people will not die alone, and in pain, without any support.

Linda Pressly travels to Kerala, which has more palliative care centres than the rest of the country put together, and ask whether this is a model to treat the dying that could be rolled out in other nations, as well as other parts of India.

Linda Pressly travels to Kerala to examine the silent revolution in palliative care.

Palliative Care In India20110110

It's estimated that nearly one million Indians with conditions like cancer die in acute, unnecessary pain because of the lack of palliative care. Restrictions on morphine prescription are being lifted, but too slowly.

One of the most sophisticated systems of palliative care in the developing world has been established in the Indian state of Kerala. The grassroots movement to create a much-valued and effective palliative care system in Kerala has been called a silent revolution. Every week, thousands of volunteers across the state give up their time to go and tend to those who are dying. They may cook food, help with chores, or simply provide a listening ear. Hundreds of thousands more people in Kerala belong to Palliative Care Societies. They donate money regularly - even just a few rupees - to help support this kind of outreach. The hope is that people will not die alone, and in pain, without any support.

Linda Pressly travels to Kerala, which has more palliative care centres than the rest of the country put together, and ask whether this is a model to treat the dying that could be rolled out in other nations, as well as other parts of India.

Linda Pressly travels to Kerala to examine the silent revolution in palliative care.

Panama's Vanishing Islands20170921

Reports from around the world.

Panama's idyllic islands are threatened by a rising sea, but one community has a plan... The Guna Yala archipelago is made up of dozens of tiny, tropical, low-lying islands off the Caribbean coast of Panama. They are populated by the Guna people - Latin America's most fiercely independent, and many would say, most savvy, indigenous group. But the Guna are in trouble. Rising sea levels as a result of climate change, together with a growing population, threaten island life. The Guna aren't alone of course - millions of people around the globe could be displaced from coastal villages as the oceans envelop land in the coming decades. But unlike most vulnerable groups, the Guna of Gardi Sugdub island have a plan. They are intent on building a new community on the mainland, and re-locating. Could their efforts provide a model for other communities confronting climate displacement in the region, and even beyond?

Panama's Vanishing Islands20170925

Panama's idyllic islands are threatened by a rising sea, but one community has a plan.

Panama's idyllic islands are threatened by a rising sea, but one community has a plan... The Guna Yala archipelago is made up of dozens of tiny, tropical, low-lying islands off the Caribbean coast of Panama. They are populated by the Guna people - Latin America's most fiercely independent, and many would say, most savvy, indigenous group. But the Guna are in trouble. Rising sea levels as a result of climate change, together with a growing population, threaten island life. The Guna aren't alone of course - millions of people around the globe could be displaced from coastal villages as the oceans envelop land in the coming decades. But unlike most vulnerable groups, the Guna of Gardi Sugdub island have a plan. They are intent on building a new community on the mainland, and re-locating. Could their efforts provide a model for other communities confronting climate displacement in the region, and even beyond?

Photo Credit: Simon Maybin.

Paraguay's Schoolgirl Mothers2015091020150914 (R4)

Why is Paraguay facing an epidemic of schoolgirl pregnancies?

In April, the case of a 10 year old girl who became pregnant after her step-father raped her became front-page news in Paraguay, and across Latin America. Abortion is legal in this small South American nation only if the mother's life is deemed to be in danger. In this case, the authorities ruled there was no threat to the girl, and the pregnancy continued. But this isn't a one-off example of children getting pregnant: more than 700 girls aged 14 and under gave birth in 2014. That's more or less two a day.

The 10 year old's pregnancy spawned a series of demonstrations and huge debate: about abortion, sex education, and the failure of the criminal justice system to prosecute the perpetrators of the abuse of children.

For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly meets some of the schoolgirl mothers, and explores the reasons why Paraguayan girls are especially vulnerable to abuse. Why are families, the state and the law failing to protect them?

People Trafficking In India2013011020130114

In a major investigation, Natalia Antelava reports on the abduction of tens of thousands of young girls in India for forced marriages. Thousands more are sold as prostitutes and domestic servants. She follows the route of the traffickers, who take girls from destitute households in places like West Bengal to wealthier areas in Northern states, where a shortage of women is blamed by many on sex-selective abortions. It's a problem the United Nations describes as of 'genocidal proportions'. Natalia joins campaigners and police fighting the trade and hears the stories of the trafficked girls and from a trafficker himself.

Producer: Natalie Morton.

Peru2001032220010326

Nick Caistor travels to Peru ahead of the elections in April to investigate the legacy of the man at the heart of a massive corruption scandal: ex-president Fujimori's former spy chief Vladimiro Montesinos, and his meticulous videotape record of hundreds of dirty deals with the Peruvian political elite.

Peru's Wildlife For Sale2015051420150518 (R4)

The global trade in wildlife is worth an estimated US$20 billion a year. Peru is one of the most biodiverse nations on the planet. But its government estimates 400 species of fauna and flora are in danger of extinction - illicit trafficking is one of the biggest threats. The illegal wildlife trade supplies live birds and animals - macaws, parrots, monkeys, turtles - for both the local market and overseas collectors. It also commercialises body parts - the rare Andean bear, and the feathers of condors. So how is Peru attempting to protect its precious resources? For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly goes on operations with the wildlife police.

Produced by John Murphy.

Peru's wildlife is under threat from illicit trafficking. Linda Pressly investigates.

Philippine Death Penalty2004032520040329

More than a thousand prisoners have been sentenced to death in the Philippines for crimes like kidnapping, rape and murder.

There has been a suspension of executions for four years, while the parliament considers scrapping the death penalty.

But with elections coming up in May, President Gloria Aroyo has said executions will be resumed.

Julian Pettifer travels to the Philippines to visit the national prison, where emotions are at fever pitch.

Are they facing death to get Gloria Arroyo re-elected?

Poland: Behind The Black Protests2017010520170109 (R4)

Thousands of women - and men - took to the streets in Poland recently in protest against attempts to ban all abortions-and the issue seems to have crystallised a growing unease with the country's move to the right and the power of the Catholic Church. 'We are not putting our umbrellas away' went one of the slogans as women stood in the pouring rain to voice their concerns. The size of the protest surprised even the participants; organised by the feminist movement, it attracted women and men from many different backgrounds. Where did this surge of activism come from? Some argue that the revolution that began with Solidarnosc in the 1980s ignored the needs and voices of Polish women. Communism may have been defeated, they say, but it's been replaced by a different kind of repression. Maria Margaronis investigates. Mark Savage producing.

Millions of women took to the streets in Poland recently in protest against attempts to ban all abortions-and the issue seems to have crystallised a growing unease with the country's move to the right and the power of the Catholic Church. 'We are not putting our umbrellas away' went one of the slogans as women stood in the pouring rain to voice their concerns. The size of the protest surprised even the participants; organised by the feminist movement, it attracted women and men from many different backgrounds. Where did this surge of activism come from? Some argue that the revolution that began with Solidarnosc in the 1980s ignored the needs and voices of Polish women. Communism may have been defeated, they say, but it's been replaced by a different kind of repression. Maria Margaronis investigates. Mark Savage producing.

Poland's Amateur Defenders2016081120160815 (R4)

Playing war-games in the woods has become an ever-more popular pastime in Poland as thousands of young people join paramilitary groups to defend their country against possible invasion. Others - so-called "preppers" - are building bunkers and storing food supplies so their families can survive any disaster. Now the government plans to recruit such enthusiasts into a state-run volunteer defence force - to counter a possible Russian threat. But are the authorities stoking fear - and creating an amateur force that's no use in 21st Century warfare? Tim Whewell reports from the forests of north-eastern Poland, close to the Russian border.

Producer: Estelle Doyle.

Polands History And Its Jews2003111320031117

Rosie Goldsmith travels to Poland, and finds a country dealing with complex questions as it prepares to join the European Union.

Poland is a predominantly Catholic country, whose huge Jewish population was virtually wiped out by the Nazis.

But now, some Poles are re-examining their relationship with that history - not least the individuals who have discovered their hidden Jewish roots in adulthood.

Rosie Goldsmith meets a Catholic priest, who is Jewish.

She talks to a film-maker who has questioned Polish anti-semitism and made a film about individuals converting to Judaism; and she speaks with the Chief Rabbi of Warsaw about the renaissance or normalisation of Jewish life in Poland.

She examines how a country scarred by history and years of totalitarian Communist rule, is forging a more heterogeneous and inclusive identity.

And, with painful preparations for joining the European Union club next May in full swing, she asks whether Poland's relationship with the UNITED STATES is enhancing its international status.

Has Poland benefited from assuming control of multinational troops in central Iraq? Is Poland new or old Europe, or somewhere in between?

Poland's New Immigrants2012122020121224

For decades, Poland has been a country of emigrants travelling to build new lives abroad, not least in the UK. But could things be about to change? Paul Henley travels to the country at the eastern edge of the EU, where the financial crisis has, so far, been avoided. He meets the migrants already making a life in Europe's least multicultural society, and explores the conditions that suggest Poland could be on the cusp of becoming a destination; home to a new wave of migrants.

Producer: Lila Allen.

'police State' Portugal2015042320150427 (R4)

Does Portugal have a problem with police brutality and racism?

Does Portugal have a problem with police brutality and racism? In February a group of young black men from the Lisbon suburb of Cova da Moura allege they were beaten and racially abused at a police station. Police claim the men tried to invade the station. Residents of Cova da Moura are mostly from immigrant backgrounds, and they say this is just the latest of a number of serious incidents in the past few years, and claim that the neighbourhood has become a 'police state'. James Fletcher travels to Cova da Moura to investigate whether police are too heavy handed towards black and immigrant communities, and whether those communities are bearing the brunt of Portugal's austerity driven spending cuts.

Pride, Passion And Palestinian Horses20171130

A love for Arabian horses unites Israelis and Palestinians.

In the West Bank hundreds of families share a passion for breeding horses. Amid the narrow streets and cramped apartment buildings small stables can be found with owners grooming beautiful Arabian colts and fillies. These new breeders are now making their mark at Israeli horse shows where competition to produce the best in breed is intense. As Palestinian and Israeli owners mingle on the show ground, political differences are put to one side as they share a passion for the Arabian horse.
For Crossing Continents, Linda Pressly follows one Palestinian owner and his colt as they navigate their way through Israeli checkpoints to the next big event in the Israeli Kibbutz of Alonim. Winning best in show is the plan but will they even get there?

Estelle Doyle producing.

Protesting In Putin's Russia2016082520160829 (R4)

After the last elections in Russia, mass protests against vote-rigging led to clashes in the centre of Moscow. The events on Bolotnaya Square were the biggest challenge President Putin has ever faced to his rule. Four years on, several demonstrators are still serving long prison sentences, the laws on protesting have been tightened and the arrests continue. As Russia gears up for parliamentary elections in September, Sarah Rainsford talks to some of those caught up in the Bolotnaya protests, and asks what their stories tell us about Putin's Russia today.

Producer: Mark Savage.

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico2010072220100726

is a strange place.

An island and a commonwealth, it exists in an uneasy relationship with its massive neighbour, the US.

All of its political powers, and much of its government cash, come from Washington, but Puerto Ricans can't vote in US federal elections.

And now an economic crisis generated in the US has come home to roost on the island.

Puerto Rico's Republican governor has announced a wave of layoffs of public sector workers, along with deep cuts in services.

Students responded by staging the longest ever university strike in North American history.

And this dispute plays into the bitter arguments over the island's status.

Should it seek independence, and the right to make its own decisions? Or should it push for more integration into the US, so at least it has some say in its future?

Maria Hinajosa, the distinguished journalist and presenter of Latino USA, travels to the island to examine its future through the voices of young people.

She meets the students who so furiously defied the governor.

She hears from young activists who are pushing for independence.

And she seeks out one of the many young Puerto Ricans who are signing up to serve in the US military - and who see their primary loyalty on the mainland.

Producer: Bill Law.

Will the economic crisis change Puerto Rico's uneasy relationship with the US?

Maria Hinojosa, the distinguished journalist and presenter of Latino USA, travels to the island to examine its future through the voices of young people.

Puerto Rico20100726

is a strange place. An island and a commonwealth, it exists in an uneasy relationship with its massive neighbour, the US. All of its political powers, and much of its government cash, come from Washington, but Puerto Ricans can't vote in US federal elections. And now an economic crisis generated in the US has come home to roost on the island. Puerto Rico's Republican governor has announced a wave of layoffs of public sector workers, along with deep cuts in services. Students responded by staging the longest ever university strike in North American history. And this dispute plays into the bitter arguments over the island's status. Should it seek independence, and the right to make its own decisions? Or should it push for more integration into the US, so at least it has some say in its future?

Maria Hinojosa, the distinguished journalist and presenter of Latino USA, travels to the island to examine its future through the voices of young people. She meets the students who so furiously defied the governor. She hears from young activists who are pushing for independence. And she seeks out one of the many young Puerto Ricans who are signing up to serve in the US military - and who see their primary loyalty on the mainland.

Will the economic crisis change Puerto Rico's uneasy relationship with the US?

Punk Art And Protest In Malaysia2016122220161226 (R4)

Malaysia's government is mired in scandal. Billions of dollars have been looted from a state investment fund. The Prime Minister is accused of receiving $681 million into his personal bank account, although he has denied any wrongdoing.

Earlier this year, punk-inspired artist Fahmi Reza captured public dissatisfaction with an artwork caricaturing the PM as a clown. The image went viral, earning Reza comparisons to street-art provocateur Banksy. It also got him arrested and charged, one of an increasing number of Malaysians facing prison as the government ramps up its suppression of free speech and dissent.

James Fletcher travels to Malaysia on the eve of a major protest rally in Kuala Lumpur. The protest movement is known as 'Bersih', meaning 'clean', and over the past few years they've mobilised hundreds of thousands of people on the streets, dressed in yellow t-shirts, to demand transparency, fair elections, and the PM's resignation. This year they're aiming for their biggest turnout yet. Fahmi Reza is designing placards for the protesters, and plans to attend carrying a giant version of his clown carricature.

But the government is doing everything it can to stop the protest. And there's a new threat - pro-government protesters called the "redshirts", who have disrupted rallies with violence and threatened independent media and free speech advocates.

James spends time with all sides as the protest unfolds. Can art and activism bring Malaysians on to the streets and spur change? Or will the government's crackdown, and the more direct methods of the "redshirts", dampen the protests and allow the PM to ride out criticism and stay in power?

Image: The artist Fahmi Reza with his caricature of Malaysia’s Prime Minister Najib Razak at the Bersih 5 protest rally held on November 19, 2016.

Photo Credit: BBC

Rio Law

Rio Law20091217
Rio Law20091221

Lucy Ash asks if the authorities can end the rule of gangs and guns in Rio de Janeiro.

Rio Law *2009121720091221

Brazil is booming economically and growing in confidence on the world stage, but in the city of Rio de Janeiro law and order have been turned upside down.

Gangs run the prisons and ruthless militias - often made up of former police officers - control many shanty towns, killing with impunity.

Lucy Ash asks if the authorities can end the rule of gangs, guns and greed.

Lucy Ash asks if the authorities can end the rule of gangs and guns in Rio de Janeiro.

Road Kill2010111820101122

Millions of people die on our roads each year.

Hundreds of