The Future Of The Past - Early Music Today

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01Pioneers Of The Future20191103

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of classical music’s authentic revolution.

Fifty years ago a revolution began in classical music. Back then, there was little doubt how to play a Mozart symphony or a Bach passion – it meant big symphonic forces, heavy textures, slow speeds and modern instruments. But then along came period performance: a new generation of musicians researched and revived period instruments, performance styles and forgotten composers. With lighter forces, faster speeds and new tools, they declared war on the interventionist musical culture of the mid-19th century. To start with, they were largely dismissed as eccentrics - Neville Marriner called them "the open-toed-sandals and brown-bread set” – and academics unable to play in tune. But throughout the 1970s and 80s they multiplied and gathered force. Along with the advent of the CD, their newfound repertory and fascinating new-old sound gave a boost to the classical recording industry. They overturned the way classical music was listened to and performed, making household names of musicians whose scholarly credentials became almost as important as their performing flair.

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of that revolution, from the earliest pioneers to the global superstars of today. Across the series, he’ll uncover the musical detective-work which went on in universities and rehearsal rooms, reliving the incredible vitality of the times through landmark recordings which took the musical world by storm.

In today’s episode, Nicholas digs into where this historical impulse came from. Reviving the music of the past has long been part of the narrative for composers and certain connoisseurs, but the idea of ‘clothing music in its own fur and feathers’ really became public after the war. We’ll hear about the first stirrings of the movement, and the iconic soloists, ensembles and innovators that made it happen. Why did we want to reimagine the past?

Handel: Solomon (Arrival of the Queen of Sheba)
The English Concert
Trevor Pinnock, conductor

Handel, arr. Beecham: Faithful Shepherd Suite (Overture)
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
Thomas Beecham, conductor

Monteverdi: Chiome d’oro
Hugues Cuénod, tenor
Paul Derenne, tenor
Nadia Boulanger, piano

Scarlatti: Keyboard Sonata in G major, K 124
Wanda Landowska, piano

J. S. Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No 3 (3rd movement)
Busch Chamber Players
Adolf Busch, director

Gluck: Orfeo ed Euridice: Che faro
Kathleen Ferrier, alto
Orchestra of Netherlands Opera
Charles Bruck, conductor

Purcell: Music for a while
Alfred Deller, countertenor
Walter Bergman, harpsichord

Dowland: Fine knacks for ladies
Peter Pears, tenor
Julian Bream, lute

J. C. Bach: Quintet in D, Op 11 No 6 (1st movement)
Concentus Musicus Wien
Nikolaus Harnoncourt, conductor

Corelli: Sonata in B flat major, Op 5 No 11 (2nd movement)
Frans Bruggen, recorder
Anner Bylsma, cello
Gustav Leonhardt, harpsichord

Victoria: O vos omnes (Tenebrae Responsories)
Westminster Cathedral Choir
George Malcolm, conductor

Anon: The Play of Daniel (The Vessels Restored - Regis vasa referents)
Dufay Collective
Williams Lyons, director

Susato: Basse danse Bergeret sans Roch
Early Music Consort
David Munrow, director

Produced in Cardiff by Amelia Parker

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of classical music's authentic revolution.

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of the pioneers of the period instrument revival.

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of classical music’s authentic revolution

Handel
Solomon: Arrival of the Queen of Sheba
The English Concert
Trevor Pinnock, conductor

Handel, arr. Beecham
Faithful Shepherd Suite: Overture
Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
Thomas Beecham, conductor

Monteverdi
Chiome d’oro
Hugues Cuénod, tenor
Paul Derenne, tenor
Nadia Boulanger, piano

Scarlatti
Keyboard Sonata in G major, K 124
Wanda Landowska, piano

J. S. Bach
Brandenburg Concerto No 3 (3rd movement)
Busch Chamber Players
Adolf Busch, director

Gluck
Orfeo ed Euridice: Che faro
Kathleen Ferrier, alto
Orchestra of Netherlands Opera
Charles Bruck, conductor

Purcell
Music for a while (Oedipus)
Alfred Deller, countertenor
Walter Bergman, harpsichord

Dowland
Fine knacks
Peter Pears, tenor
Julian Bream, lute

J. C. Bach
Quintet in D, Op 11 No 6 (1st movement)
Concentus Musicus Wien
Nikolaus Harnoncourt, conductor

Corelli
Sonata in B flat major, Op 5 No 11 (2nd movement)
Frans Bruggen, recorder
Anner Bylsma, cello
Gustav Leonhardt, harpsichord

Victoria
O vos omnes (Tenebrae Responsories)
Westminster Cathedral Choir
George Malcolm, conductor

Anon.
The Play of Daniel: The Vessels Restored - Regis vasa referents
Dufay Collective
Williams Lyons, director

Susato
Basse danse Bergeret sans Roch
Early Music Consort
David Munrow, director

Produced by Martin Smith

02Reinventing The Past20191110

Nicholas Kenyon looks at the emergence and rapid success of early music as mainstream.

Fifty years ago a revolution began in classical music. Back then, there was little doubt how to play a Mozart symphony or a Bach passion – it meant big symphonic forces, heavy textures, slow speeds and modern instruments. But then along came period performance: a new generation of musicians researched and revived period instruments, performance styles and forgotten composers. With lighter forces, faster speeds and new tools, they declared war on the interventionist musical culture of the mid-19th century. To start with, they were largely dismissed as eccentrics - Neville Marriner called them "the open-toed-sandals and brown-bread set” – and academics unable to play in tune. But throughout the 1970s and 80s they multiplied and gathered force. Along with the advent of the CD, their newfound repertory and fascinating new-old sound gave a boost to the classical recording industry. They overturned the way classical music was listened to and performed, making household names of musicians whose scholarly credentials became almost as important as their performing flair.

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of that revolution, from the earliest pioneers to the global superstars of today. Across the series, he’ll uncover the musical detective-work which went on in universities and rehearsal rooms, reliving the incredible vitality of the times through landmark recordings which took the musical world by storm.

In today’s episode, Nicholas looks at the emergence of early music as mainstream. As the 1970s began, rebellion was in the air for music, as in so much else, and Britain saw the proliferation and extraordinarily rapid success of period-instrument ensembles. Certainly, there were over-statements of claims to authenticity, rebuttals from modern instrumentalists, and a period of polarisation. But the public loved the rediscoveries – these new interpreters delved back into the middle ages, explored rare and forgotten repertory, and made ancient music irresistible.

J. S. Bach: B minor Mass (Sanctus)
Concentus Musicus Wien
Nikolaus Harnoncourt, director

Boyce: Symphony No 4 in F major (1st movement - Allegro)
Academy of Ancient Music
Christopher Hogwood, conductor

J. S. Bach: Orchestral Suite No 3 (Air)
The English Concert
Trevor Pinnock, conductor

Perotin: Alleluya pascha nostrum
Martyn Hill, tenor
The Early Music Consort of London,
David Munrow, director

Josquin des Prez: Faulte d’argent
Musica Reservata
Andrew Parrott, conductor

Machaut: Ay mi! Dame de valour
Studio der Fruhen Musik
Thomas Binkley, conductor

Tallis: O nata lux
Clerkes of Oxenford
David Wulstan, conductor

Telemann: Psalm 6, No 8: Es müssen alle meine Feinde.
Rene Jacobs, countertenor
Kuijken Consort

Hildegard von Bingen: A feather on the breath of God
Gothic Voices
Emma Kirkby, soprano
Christopher Page, conductor

Haydn: String Quartet, Op 20 No 4 (4th movement)
Esterhazy Quartet

J. S. Bach: Cantata No 79 'Gott der Herr ist Sonn und Schild', BWV 79 (Chorus)
Leonhardt Consort
Gustav Leonhardt, director

Produced in Cardiff by Amelia Parker

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of the pioneers of the period instrument revival.

03Marketing The New20191117

Nicholas Kenyon shows how the arrival of the CD ushered in fresh ways of selling the past.

Fifty years ago a revolution began in classical music. Back then, there was little doubt how to play a Mozart symphony or a Bach passion – it meant big symphonic forces, heavy textures, slow speeds and modern instruments. But then along came period performance: a new generation of musicians researched and revived period instruments, performance styles and forgotten composers. With lighter forces, faster speeds and new tools, they declared war on the interventionist musical culture of the mid-19th century. To start with, they were largely dismissed as eccentrics - Neville Marriner called them "the open-toed-sandals and brown-bread set” – and academics unable to play in tune. But throughout the 1970s and 80s they multiplied and gathered force. Along with the advent of the CD, their newfound repertory and fascinating new-old sound gave a boost to the classical recording industry. They overturned the way classical music was listened to and performed, making household names of musicians whose scholarly credentials became almost as important as their performing flair.

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of that revolution, from the earliest pioneers to the global superstars of today. Across the series, he’ll uncover the musical detective-work which went on in universities and rehearsal rooms, reliving the incredible vitality of the times through landmark recordings which took the musical world by storm.

In today’s episode, Nicholas tells us how record companies rode the wave of the early music revival’s success, embracing the arrival of the CD and using it to sell the past in a fresh new way. At first, this new medium with all its sparkling clarity provided the perfect excuse to re-record works, but then they took the excitement of the baroque and pushed it forward into the classical period. Audiences lapped up their new versions of familiar masterpieces. Was this going to be the sound of the future? And were conventional orchestras done for?

Mozart: Symphony in A major, K 134 (1st movement)
Academy of Ancient Music
Christopher Hogwood, conductor

Beethoven: Symphony No 2 (4th movement)
London Classical Players
Roger Norrington, conductor

Anonymous: O Maria stella maris
Anonymous 4

Zelenka: Trio Sonata No 4 (2nd movement)
Accent Wind Ensemble

Bach: Prelude and Fugue in A minor, BWV 543
Ton Koopman

Handel: Water Music - Appendix, HWV 331
English Baroque Soloists
John Eliot Gardiner, conductor

Vivaldi: Four Seasons (Summer, 3rd movement)
Il giardino armonico
Giovanni Antonini, director

Palestrina: Nunc dimittis (live in Rome)
Tallis Scholars
Peter Phillips, conductor

Mozart: Symphony No 40 (1st movement)
Orchestra of the 18th Century
Frans Bruggen, conductor

Produced in Cardiff by Amelia Parker

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of the pioneers of the period instrument revival.

04Recreating the original20191124

Nicholas Kenyon explores what’s really happening when we strive for perfect historical accuracy in music performance. Is it authenticity or something else entirely?

Fifty years ago a revolution began in classical music. Back then, there was little doubt how to play a Mozart symphony or a Bach passion – it meant big symphonic forces, heavy textures, slow speeds and modern instruments. But then along came period performance: a new generation of musicians researched and revived period instruments, performance styles and forgotten composers. With lighter forces, faster speeds and new tools, they declared war on the interventionist musical culture of the mid-19th century. To start with, they were largely dismissed as eccentrics - Neville Marriner called them "the open-toed-sandals and brown-bread set” – and academics unable to play in tune. But throughout the 1970s and 80s they multiplied and gathered force. Along with the advent of the CD, their newfound repertory and fascinating new-old sound gave a boost to the classical recording industry. They overturned the way classical music was listened to and performed, making household names of musicians whose scholarly credentials became almost as important as their performing flair.

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of that revolution, from the earliest pioneers to the global superstars of today. Across the series, he’ll uncover the musical detective-work which went on in universities and rehearsal rooms, reliving the incredible vitality of the times through landmark recordings which took the musical world by storm.

In today’s episode, Nicholas asks about the issues raised by this exploration. In reviving this music of the past, were we really recreating an original performance or were we using our imagination in different ways?

J S Bach: Brandenburg Concerto No 4/3
Musica Antiqua Cologne
Reinhard Goebel, director & violinist

Monteverdi: Selva morale - Sanctus
Taverner Consort
Andrew Parrott, conductor

Mozart: Piano Concerto No. 14 In E Flat Major, K.449
Malcolm Bilson, fortepiano
The English Baroque Soloists
John Eliot Gardiner, conductor

J S Bach: Cantata 131/1 Aus der Tiefe
The Bach Ensemble
Joshua Rifkin, conductor

Berlioz: Symphonie Fantastique mvt 2
London Classical Players
Sir Roger Norrington, conductor

Rameau: Nais - overture
Les Talens Lyriques
Christophe Rousset, conductor

Carver: Missa dum sacrum - Benedictus
The Sixteen
Harry Christophers, director

Haydn: Symphony No 86 mvt 4
City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra
Simon Rattle, conductor

Beethoven: Symphony 8 mvt 4
Chamber Orchestra of Europe
Nikolaus Harnoncourt, conductor

Produced in Cardiff by Amy Wheel

Nicholas Kenyon explores the aim for perfect historical accuracy in music performance

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of the pioneers of the period instrument revival.

05Voices on and off stage20191201

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of classical music’s authentic revolution.

Fifty years ago a revolution began in classical music. Back then, there was little doubt how to play a Mozart symphony or a Bach passion – it meant big symphonic forces, heavy textures, slow speeds and modern instruments. But then along came period performance: a new generation of musicians researched and revived period instruments, performance styles and forgotten composers. With lighter forces, faster speeds and new tools, they declared war on the interventionist musical culture of the mid-19th century. To start with, they were largely dismissed as eccentrics - Neville Marriner called them "the open-toed-sandals and brown-bread set” – and academics unable to play in tune. But throughout the 1970s and 80s they multiplied and gathered force. Along with the advent of the CD, their newfound repertory and fascinating new-old sound gave a boost to the classical recording industry. They overturned the way classical music was listened to and performed, making household names of musicians whose scholarly credentials became almost as important as their performing flair.

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of that revolution, from the earliest pioneers to the global superstars of today. Across the series, he’ll uncover the musical detective-work which went on in universities and rehearsal rooms, reliving the incredible vitality of the times through landmark recordings which took the musical world by storm.

Today’s episode is all about the voice. How did the pioneers of authentic classical repertory create a vocal sound that was just right?

Handel: Ariodante - Dopo notte
Dame Janet Baker, mezzo-soprano
English Chamber Orchestra
Raymond Leppard, conductor

Monteverdi: Orfeo - Possente spirto
Nigel Rogers, tenor (Orfeo)
London Baroque, The London Cornett & Sackbut Ensemble
Charles Medlam & Theresa Caudle - directors

Handel: Messiah - But who may abide
Emma Kirkby, soprano
The Academy of Ancient Music
Christopher Hogwood, conductor

Charpentier: Le Reniement de saint Pierre
Les Arts Florissants
William Christie, conductor

Càrceres: Villancet: Soleta So Jo Ací
Monteserrat Figueras, soprano
Hesperion XX

Leonel Power: Sanctus
Gothic Voices
Christopher Page, director

Gibbons: Hosanna to the Son of David
Stile Antico

Vivaldi: Griselda - Dopo un' orrida procella
Cecilia Bartoli, mezzo soprano
Il Giardino Armonico
Giovanni Antonini

Haydn: The Creation - end of part 2 - Achieved is the glorious work
Gabrieli Consort and Players
Paul McCreesh, conductor

Mozart: Le nozze di Figaro, K492 - Act 4 end
Arleen Augér, soprano (Contessa Almaviva)
Barbara Bonney, soprano (Susanna)
Petteri Salomaa, bass-baritone (Figaro)
Håkan Hagegård, baritone (Conte Almaviva)
The Drottningholm Court Theatre Orchestra
The Drottningholm Court Theatre Chorus
Arnold Östman, conductor

Produced in Cardiff by Amy Wheel

Nicholas Kenyon looks at classical music's authentic revolution, focusing on the voice.

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of the pioneers of the period instrument revival.

06Mixing it up20191208

Nicholas Kenyon has a look at new discoveries and recent trends in classical music's authentic revolution. Where can it take us now?

Fifty years ago a revolution began in classical music. Back then, there was little doubt how to play a Mozart symphony or a Bach passion – it meant big symphonic forces, heavy textures, slow speeds and modern instruments. But then along came period performance: a new generation of musicians researched and revived period instruments, performance styles and forgotten composers. With lighter forces, faster speeds and new tools, they declared war on the interventionist musical culture of the mid-19th century. To start with, they were largely dismissed as eccentrics - Neville Marriner called them "the open-toed-sandals and brown-bread set” – and academics unable to play in tune. But throughout the 1970s and 80s they multiplied and gathered force. Along with the advent of the CD, their newfound repertory and fascinating new-old sound gave a boost to the classical recording industry. They overturned the way classical music was listened to and performed, making household names of musicians whose scholarly credentials became almost as important as their performing flair.

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of that revolution, from the earliest pioneers to the global superstars of today. Across the series, he’ll uncover the musical detective-work which went on in universities and rehearsal rooms, reliving the incredible vitality of the times through landmark recordings which took the musical world by storm.

In the last episode in this series, Nicholas Kenyon has a look at new discoveries, recent trends. Where can classical music’s authentic revolution take us now?

J. S. Bach: Sinfonia - Cantata 29
Wendy Carlos, Moog

Anon: Sanctus
Hilliard Ensemble
Jan Garbarek, saxophone

Vivaldi: The Four Seasons - Spring 0-1, Recomposed By Max Richter
Daniel Hope, violin
Konzerthaus Kammerorchester Berlin
André de Ridder, conductor

Barbara Strozzi: E pazzo il mio core
Emanuela Galli, soprano
La Risonanza
Fabio Bonizzoni, conductor

Schutz: Herr, nun lässest du deinen Diener in Friede fahen
Vox Luminis
Lionel Meunier, conductor

Schubert: Impromptu D 935 no 4 in F minor
Andras Schiff, piano

Wagner: Lohengrin - Act 3 Prelude
London Classical Players
Sir Roger Norrington, conductor

Lanner: Jorgel-Polka
Concentus Musicus
Nikolaus Harnoncourt, conductor

Debussy: Nocturnes - Fetes
Les Siecles
Francois-Xavier Roth, conductor

Knussen: Two Organa - No 1
London Sinfonietta
Oliver Knussen, conductor

J. S. Bach: Widerstehe doch der Sünde, BWV 54 (Transcr. by Víkingur Ólafsson)
Víkingur Ólafsson, piano

Produced in Cardiff by Amy Wheel

Nicholas Kenyon asks where we can take classical music's authentic revolution now.

Nicholas Kenyon tells the story of the pioneers of the period instrument revival.