The Making Of Music

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

Episodes

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20070604

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

1/30. Origins

The building blocks of classical music were formed in the churches and monasteries of the Christian world, from Constantinople to Iona.

20070605

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

2/30. Notre Dame.

Construction of Paris's great cathedral began in 1163, at a time when the city was the centre of intellectual life in Europe. As Notre Dame was being built, two composers, Perotin and Leonin, were writing the music that would fill it.

20070606

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

3/30. Troubadours

In courts and great houses across Europe, music was beginning to celebrate the human as well as the divine. Itinerant players entertained the nobility with songs of love, jealousy and betrayal.

20070607

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

4/30. Burgundy

Composers Guillaume Dufay and Gilles Binchois were funded by Philip The Good, Duke of Burgundy. They were influenced by English composer John Dunstable, whose style was imitated in the Burgundy court.

20070608

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

5/30. The Renaissance

Music and the arts were beginning to celebrate man as well as God. In Ferrara, Josquin Desprez wrote a mass that immortalised his patron, the Duke Ecole d'Este I. Missa Hercules dux Ferrarie was based on the syllables of the Duke's name.

20070611

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

6/30. The Reformation

Martin Luther changed religion and religious music. He harnessed secular songs for sacred purposes and introduced congregational singing.

Full performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series charting the relationship between a thousand years of history and the classical music that became its soundtrack.

Why should the Devil have all the best tunes? Including music by Martin Luther.

20070612

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

7/30. The Counter Reformation

Including music by Palestrina who became embroiled by accident in the politics of the high church.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

The Catholic church, needing to respond to the popularity and accessibility of Luther's hymns, issued an edict that the words of church music had to be clear and understood. The composer Palestrina became accidentally embroiled in the politics of the high church.

20070613

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

8/30.

Venice

Uncle and nephew Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli wrote music that filled St Mark's Basilica, inspiring travellers who passed through the Serene City.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

An uncle and nephew, Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli wrote music that filled St Mark's Basilica, using the space as a stage for many voices.

20070613

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

8/30. Venice

An uncle and nephew, Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli wrote music that filled St Mark's Basilica, using the space as a stage for many voices.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

Uncle and nephew Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli wrote music that filled St Mark's Basilica, inspiring travellers who passed through the Serene City.

8/30.

Venice

20070614

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

9/30. Elizabeth I

Two composers, William Byrd and Thomas Tallis, turned the end of the 16th century into a golden age for English music, despite being on the wrong side of the political and religious divide.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

Composers William Byrd and Thomas Tallis turned the end of the 16th century into a golden age for English music, despite being on the wrong side of the political and religious divide.

20070615

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

10/30. The Birth of Opera

Opera was invented by a group of Italian intellectuals called the Camerata in Florence around 1600. Including music by Peri, Caccini and Monteverdi.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

The idea of telling a story in music was the brainchild of a group of Florentine intellectuals called the Camerata around 1600. The genre proved immediately successful and soon theatres were appearing all over Italy, forty in Venice alone.

20070618

11/30.

The Sun King

Jean-Baptiste Lully, despite his reputation as a notorious libertine, became the composer to Louis XIV.

His music, used in extravagant court dances and spectacles, helped to establish the Sun King's image as a divine monarch.

Read by Laurence Fox and Benedict Cumberbatch

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series charting the relationship between a thousand years of history and the classical music that became its soundtrack.

Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer to Louis XIV, wrote music for dances and spectacles, which helped establish the Sun King's image as a divine monarch.

20070618

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series charting the relationship between a thousand years of history and the classical music that became its soundtrack.

11/30. The Sun King

Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer to Louis XIV, wrote music for dances and spectacles, which helped establish the Sun King's image as a divine monarch.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

Jean-Baptiste Lully, despite his reputation as a notorious libertine, became the composer to Louis XIV. His music, used in extravagant court dances and spectacles, helped to establish the Sun King's image as a divine monarch.

Read by Laurence Fox and Benedict Cumberbatch.

11/30.

The Sun King

Jean-Baptiste Lully, despite his reputation as a notorious libertine, became the composer to Louis XIV.

His music, used in extravagant court dances and spectacles, helped to establish the Sun King's image as a divine monarch.

20070619

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

12/30. The Violin

The perfection of design and production that happened in Cremona around 1700, and the music of Corelli and Vivaldi, put the violin on the map.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

The design and production of the violin were perfected in Cremona around 1700. The music of Antonio Vivaldi established the instrument's popularity.

Read by Laurence Fox.

Followed by News.

12/30.

The Violin.

The design and production of the violin were perfected in Cremona around 1700.

The music of Antonio Vivaldi established the instrument's popularity.

20070620

13/30.

The Puritans.

Despite destroying church organs across the land, Oliver Cromwell privately not only appreciated music but also employed composers who used to work for the king to write for him and his new regime.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Oliver Cromwell may have sent his Parliamentary visitor William Dowsing to smash up organs in churches, but privately Cromwell not only liked music, but employed composers who used to work for the King to write for him.

20070620

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

13/30. The Puritans

Oliver Cromwell may have sent his Parliamentary visitor William Dowsing to smash up organs in churches, but privately Cromwell not only liked music, but employed composers who used to work for the King to write for him.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

13/30. The Puritans. Despite destroying church organs across the land, Oliver Cromwell privately not only appreciated music but also employed composers who used to work for the king to write for him and his new regime.

13/30.

The Puritans.

Despite destroying church organs across the land, Oliver Cromwell privately not only appreciated music but also employed composers who used to work for the king to write for him and his new regime.

20070621

14/30.

The Restoration

The return of Charles II from exile heralded a revival in English music.

Among several composers to emerge was Henry Purcell, who wrote a song for the king's birthday when he was only 11.

Read by Simon Russell Beale

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

The return of Charles II from exile provoked great changes in the music world.

The emergence of composer Henry Purcell, who wrote a song for the king's birthday when he was only 11, marked a revival in English music.

20070621

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

14/30. The Restoration

The return of Charles II from exile provoked great changes in the music world. The emergence of composer Henry Purcell, who wrote a song for the king's birthday when he was only 11, marked a revival in English music.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

The return of Charles II from exile heralded a revival in English music. Among several composers to emerge was Henry Purcell, who wrote a song for the king's birthday when he was only 11.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

Followed by News.

14/30.

The Restoration

The return of Charles II from exile heralded a revival in English music.

Among several composers to emerge was Henry Purcell, who wrote a song for the king's birthday when he was only 11.

The return of Charles II from exile provoked great changes in the music world.

The emergence of composer Henry Purcell, who wrote a song for the king's birthday when he was only 11, marked a revival in English music.

20070622

15/30.

Bach in Leipzig

From a bustling town in Germany, a civic employee produced some of the most sublime church music ever written.

Despite being frequently at loggerheads with his employers, Johann Sebastian Bach continued to compose at a prolific rate.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

20070622

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

15/30. Bach in Leipzig

From a bustling town in Germany, a civic employee produced some of the most sublime church music ever written.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

From a bustling town in Germany, a civic employee produced some of the most sublime church music ever written. Despite being frequently at loggerheads with his employers, Johann Sebastian Bach continued to compose at a prolific rate.

15/30.

Bach in Leipzig

Despite being frequently at loggerheads with his employers, Johann Sebastian Bach continued to compose at a prolific rate.

20070625

Performances of the music featured in James Naughtie's Radio 4 series on how history has shaped classical music through the centuries.

16/30. Bach's St Matthew Passion

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

Johann Sebastian's recurring choral theme, inherited from his Lutheran predecessors, had a profound effect on the history of music.

20070626

17/30.

Handel

German-born composer George Frideric Handel made English music great.

He invented English oratorio and his Messiah became one of the foundation stones of the English choral tradition.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

Under a German king, a German composer made English music great.

He invented English oratorio, and wrote works such as The Messiah, which became one of the foundation stones of the English choral tradition.

20070626

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

17/30. Handel

Under a German king, a German composer made English music great. He invented English oratorio, and wrote works such as The Messiah, which became one of the foundation stones of the English choral tradition.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

German-born composer George Frideric Handel made English music great. He invented English oratorio and his Messiah became one of the foundation stones of the English choral tradition.

Followed by News.

17/30.

Handel

German-born composer George Frideric Handel made English music great.

He invented English oratorio and his Messiah became one of the foundation stones of the English choral tradition.

Under a German king, a German composer made English music great.

He invented English oratorio, and wrote works such as The Messiah, which became one of the foundation stones of the English choral tradition.

20070627

17/30.

Rameau and the Philosophes.

Paris during the 1750s was the centre of a clash of cultural ideas, with music at the forefront.

The Paris Opera House was the centre of the Battle of the Fools, where arguments raged about absolutism and enlightenment.

Performances of the music featured in James Naughtie's Radio 4 series charting the relationship between a thousand years of history and the classical music that became its soundtrack.

18/30.

In the 1750s, the Paris Opera House was the centre of the Battle of the Fools, where arguments about absolutism and enlightenment were played out.

Including music by Rameau and Pergolesi.

20070627

Performances of the music featured in James Naughtie's Radio 4 series charting the relationship between a thousand years of history and the classical music that became its soundtrack.

18/30. Rameau and the Philosophes

In the 1750s, the Paris Opera House was the centre of the Battle of the Fools, where arguments about absolutism and enlightenment were played out. Including music by Rameau and Pergolesi.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

17/30. Rameau and the Philosophes.

Paris during the 1750s was the centre of a clash of cultural ideas, with music at the forefront. The Paris Opera House was the centre of the Battle of the Fools, where arguments raged about absolutism and enlightenment.

Followed by News.

17/30.

Rameau and the Philosophes.

Paris during the 1750s was the centre of a clash of cultural ideas, with music at the forefront.

The Paris Opera House was the centre of the Battle of the Fools, where arguments raged about absolutism and enlightenment.

18/30.

In the 1750s, the Paris Opera House was the centre of the Battle of the Fools, where arguments about absolutism and enlightenment were played out.

Including music by Rameau and Pergolesi.

20070628

19/30.

Music and Society

By the late 1700s, music was becoming part of the social fabric.

Concerts and dances were regularly held in cities such as Bath and Oxford, and playing the piano was the accomplishment of every young lady.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Music and Society in late 18th century England

In the late 1700s, music was becoming part of the social fabric all over the country.

Including music by Linley and Arne.

20070628

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

19/30. Music and Society in late 18th century England

In the late 1700s, music was becoming part of the social fabric all over the country. Including music by Linley and Arne.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

19/30. Music and Society

By the late 1700s, music was becoming part of the social fabric. Concerts and dances were regularly held in cities such as Bath and Oxford, and playing the piano was the accomplishment of every young lady.

19/30.

Music and Society

By the late 1700s, music was becoming part of the social fabric.

Concerts and dances were regularly held in cities such as Bath and Oxford, and playing the piano was the accomplishment of every young lady.

Music and Society in late 18th century England

In the late 1700s, music was becoming part of the social fabric all over the country.

Including music by Linley and Arne.

20070629

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

20/30.

Haydn and the Esterhazys

Employed by the hugely wealthy Esterhazy family, Joseph Haydn lived mainly in their isolated palace and produced music on demand.

Of his prolific output, Haydn himself admitted that he was cut off from the outside world and forced to become original.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Employed by the hugely wealthy Esterhazy family, Haydn lived mainly in their isolated palace and produced music on demand.

20070629

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

20/30. Haydn and the Esterhazys

Employed by the hugely wealthy Esterhazy family, Haydn lived mainly in their isolated palace and produced music on demand.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

Employed by the hugely wealthy Esterhazy family, Joseph Haydn lived mainly in their isolated palace and produced music on demand. Of his prolific output, Haydn himself admitted that he was cut off from the outside world and forced to become original.

20/30.

Haydn and the Esterhazys

Employed by the hugely wealthy Esterhazy family, Joseph Haydn lived mainly in their isolated palace and produced music on demand.

Of his prolific output, Haydn himself admitted that he was cut off from the outside world and forced to become original.

20070702

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

21/30. Mozart

When Mozart was born composers needed patrons, but by the end of his life the world had changed. The age where the composer was a musical servant was beginning to fade away, and Mozart both benefited and suffered because of this.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

In the middle of the 18th century composers needed patrons, but by the end of Mozart's life the world had changed. The composer as servant was becoming a thing of the past, and Mozart both benefited and suffered because of it.

20070703

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

22/30.

Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro

As France teetered towards revolution, the play on which Mozart's masterpiece was based was banned in its original form by Louis XVI.

The story of a count being exposed and humiliated by his servant was described by Napoleon as the revolution in action.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

As France was on the brink of a revolution, the story of a count being exposed and humiliated by his servant was, in Napoleon's words, 'the revolution in action'.

20070703

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

22/30. Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro

As France was on the brink of a revolution, the story of a count being exposed and humiliated by his servant was, in Napoleon's words, 'the revolution in action'.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

As France teetered towards revolution, the play on which Mozart's masterpiece was based was banned in its original form by Louis XVI. The story of a count being exposed and humiliated by his servant was described by Napoleon as the revolution in action.

Followed by News.

22/30.

Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro

As France teetered towards revolution, the play on which Mozart's masterpiece was based was banned in its original form by Louis XVI.

The story of a count being exposed and humiliated by his servant was described by Napoleon as the revolution in action.

20070704

23/30.

The French Revolution

One night in April 1792, a young French captain spent the night writing a marching tune.

La Marseillaise became a national anthem, and music inspired by the revolution was everywhere.

Read by Laurence Fox.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Including music by Mehul, Gossec and others.

20070704

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

23/30. The French Revolution

Including music by Mehul, Gossec and others.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

One night in April 1792, a young French captain spent the night writing a marching tune. La Marseillaise became a national anthem, and music inspired by the revolution was everywhere.

Read by Laurence Fox.

Followed by News.

23/30.

The French Revolution

One night in April 1792, a young French captain spent the night writing a marching tune.

La Marseillaise became a national anthem, and music inspired by the revolution was everywhere.

20070705

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

24/30.

Beethoven

The great German composer worked at a time of seismic change in Europe.

He was 19 at the start of the French Revolution and at his peak when Napoleon's empire was at its zenith.

His music matches the ferment of the times.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Beethoven worked at a time of seismic change in Europe.

He was 19 at the start of the French Revolution, and at his peak when Napoleon invaded Vienna.

Including the Piano Sonata No 21 (Waldstein) and the Op 95 Quartet.

20070705

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

24/30. Beethoven

Beethoven worked at a time of seismic change in Europe. He was 19 at the start of the French Revolution, and at his peak when Napoleon invaded Vienna. His music matches the ferment of the times. Including the Piano Sonata No 21 (Waldstein) and the Op 95 Quartet.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

The great German composer worked at a time of seismic change in Europe. He was 19 at the start of the French Revolution and at his peak when Napoleon's empire was at its zenith. His music matches the ferment of the times.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

Followed by News.

24/30.

Beethoven

The great German composer worked at a time of seismic change in Europe.

He was 19 at the start of the French Revolution and at his peak when Napoleon's empire was at its zenith.

His music matches the ferment of the times.

Beethoven worked at a time of seismic change in Europe.

He was 19 at the start of the French Revolution, and at his peak when Napoleon invaded Vienna.

Including the Piano Sonata No 21 (Waldstein) and the Op 95 Quartet.

20070706

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

25/30.

Beethoven's Eroica

The original dedication to Napoleon was removed from the manuscript of Beethoven's Symphony No 3, allegedly by the composer's own hand, when Napoleon declared himself Emperor in 1804.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

The manuscript of the symphony originally bore a dedication to Napoleon, but this was scratched off, presumably by Beethoven's own hand, when Napoleon declared himself Emperor in 1804.

20070706

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

25/30. Beethoven's Eroica

The manuscript of the symphony originally bore a dedication to Napoleon, but this was scratched off, presumably by Beethoven's own hand, when Napoleon declared himself Emperor in 1804.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

The original dedication to Napoleon was removed from the manuscript of Beethoven's Symphony No 3, allegedly by the composer's own hand, when Napoleon declared himself Emperor in 1804.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

25/30.

Beethoven's Eroica

20070709

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

26/30.

Schubert and the Piano

Vienna in the 1820s.

The piano became mass manufactured and improved in quality.

Schubert gave the piano personality, and his pieces were the lifeblood of a new kind of music making.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Including Schubert's Fantasies and Impromptus.

20070709

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

26/30. Schubert and the Piano

Including Schubert's Fantasies and Impromptus.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

Vienna in the 1820s. The piano became mass manufactured and improved in quality. Schubert gave the piano personality, and his pieces were the lifeblood of a new kind of music making.

Followed by News.

26/30.

Schubert and the Piano

Vienna in the 1820s.

The piano became mass manufactured and improved in quality.

Schubert gave the piano personality, and his pieces were the lifeblood of a new kind of music making.

20070710

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

27/30.

Weber and German Romanticism

Carl Maria Von Weber gave audiences what they wanted - storms and disasters, wild beasts and blood.

Although German unification was a generation away, by drawing on folk tales, Weber wanted to create a German sensibility.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Benedict Cumberbatch.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Including extracts from Der Freischutz.

20070710

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

27/30. Weber and German Romanticism

Carl Maria Von Weber gave audiences what they wanted: storms and disasters, wild beasts and blood. Including extracts from Der Freischutz.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

Carl Maria Von Weber gave audiences what they wanted - storms and disasters, wild beasts and blood. Although German unification was a generation away, by drawing on folk tales, Weber wanted to create a German sensibility.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Benedict Cumberbatch.

Followed by News.

27/30.

Weber and German Romanticism

Carl Maria Von Weber gave audiences what they wanted - storms and disasters, wild beasts and blood.

Although German unification was a generation away, by drawing on folk tales, Weber wanted to create a German sensibility.

Including extracts from Der Freischutz.

20070711

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

28/30.

Virtuosi

In the 1820s and 30s, audiences craved virtuosi performances.

Lizst, Paganini and Chopin thrilled on stage - the performer as magician had arrived.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Lizst, Paganini and Chopin thrilled on stage, and the performer as magician had arrived.

20070711

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

28/30. Virtuosi

In the 1820s and 30s audiences craved virtuosi performances. Lizst, Paganini and Chopin thrilled on stage, and the performer as magician had arrived.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

In the 1820s and 30s, audiences craved virtuosi performances. Lizst, Paganini and Chopin thrilled on stage - the performer as magician had arrived.

Followed by News.

28/30.

Virtuosi

In the 1820s and 30s, audiences craved virtuosi performances.

Lizst, Paganini and Chopin thrilled on stage - the performer as magician had arrived.

Lizst, Paganini and Chopin thrilled on stage, and the performer as magician had arrived.

20070712

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

29/30.

Grand Opera

In the first half of the 19th Century, Italy consummated its love affair with opera.

Donizetti, Rossini and Bellini's new operas were greeted with frenzy on the streets.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

With excerpts from Rossini's William Tell and The Barber of Seville.

20070712

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

29/30. Grand Opera

In the first half of the 19th century, Italy consummated its love affair with opera. Donizetti, Rossini and Bellini's new operas were greeted with frenzy on the streets. With excerpts from Rossini's William Tell and The Barber of Seville.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

In the first half of the 19th Century, Italy consummated its love affair with opera. Donizetti, Rossini and Bellini's new operas were greeted with frenzy on the streets.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

Followed by News.

29/30.

Grand Opera

In the first half of the 19th Century, Italy consummated its love affair with opera.

Donizetti, Rossini and Bellini's new operas were greeted with frenzy on the streets.

With excerpts from Rossini's William Tell and The Barber of Seville.

20070713

30/30.

Albertopolis

The Royal Albert Hall opened in 1871 and celebrated a Prince Consort who championed both music and culture.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

Including Sullivan's Te Deum.

20070713

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

30/30. Albertopolis

The Royal Albert Hall opened in 1871 and celebrated a Prince Consort who championed both music and culture. Including Sullivan's Te Deum.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

The Royal Albert Hall opened in 1871 and celebrated a Prince Consort who championed both music and culture.

30/30.

Albertopolis

Including Sullivan's Te Deum.

20070910

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

1/30.

The Shock of The Future

As nationalism swept across Europe, composers such as Brahms looked to the past for inspiration.

Others, such as Liszt and Wagner, wanted their music to embrace the future.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

31/60.

As Nationalism swept across Europe, composers were divided between those who looked to the past for inspiration, like Brahms, and those, like Liszt and Wagner, who wanted their music to embrace the future.

Including piano music by Schumann, and Liszt's Tasso.

20070910

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

31/60. The Shock of the Future

As Nationalism swept across Europe, composers were divided between those who looked to the past for inspiration, like Brahms, and those, like Liszt and Wagner, who wanted their music to embrace the future. Including piano music by Schumann, and Liszt's Tasso.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

1/30. The Shock of The Future

As nationalism swept across Europe, composers such as Brahms looked to the past for inspiration. Others, such as Liszt and Wagner, wanted their music to embrace the future.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

1/30.

The Shock of The Future

As nationalism swept across Europe, composers such as Brahms looked to the past for inspiration.

Others, such as Liszt and Wagner, wanted their music to embrace the future.

31/60.

As Nationalism swept across Europe, composers were divided between those who looked to the past for inspiration, like Brahms, and those, like Liszt and Wagner, who wanted their music to embrace the future.

Including piano music by Schumann, and Liszt's Tasso.

20070911

2/30.

Mother Russia

Glinka wanted Russian music to reflect the distinctiveness of his own country.

He inspired a new generation of composers to look for a Russian identity in their music.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Tom Hollander.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

32/60.

Glinka inspired a generation of composers to look for a Russian identity in their music.

Including works by Borodin, Mussorgsky and Tchaikovsky.

20070911

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

32/60. Mother Russia

Glinka inspired a generation of composers to look for a Russian identity in their music. Including works by Borodin, Mussorgsky and Tchaikovsky.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

2/30. Mother Russia

Glinka wanted Russian music to reflect the distinctiveness of his own country. He inspired a new generation of composers to look for a Russian identity in their music.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Tom Hollander.

2/30.

Mother Russia

Glinka wanted Russian music to reflect the distinctiveness of his own country.

He inspired a new generation of composers to look for a Russian identity in their music.

32/60.

Glinka inspired a generation of composers to look for a Russian identity in their music.

Including works by Borodin, Mussorgsky and Tchaikovsky.

20070912

3/30.

Viva Verdi.

Giuseppe Verdi's work is inseparable from politics.

The famous slave chorus from Nabucco, one of his earliest operas, was sung in the streets by Italian nationalists and became their unofficial anthem.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

33/60.

Nabucco, one of his earliest works, was sung in the streets by Italian nationalists and became their anthem.

20070912

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

33/60. Viva Verdi

Giuseppe Verdi's work is inseparable from politics. Nabucco, one of his earliest works, was sung in the streets by Italian nationalists and became their anthem.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

3/30. Viva Verdi.

Giuseppe Verdi's work is inseparable from politics. The famous slave chorus from Nabucco, one of his earliest operas, was sung in the streets by Italian nationalists and became their unofficial anthem.

3/30.

Viva Verdi.

Giuseppe Verdi's work is inseparable from politics.

The famous slave chorus from Nabucco, one of his earliest operas, was sung in the streets by Italian nationalists and became their unofficial anthem.

33/60.

Nabucco, one of his earliest works, was sung in the streets by Italian nationalists and became their anthem.

20070913

4/30.

My Country.

In the late 19th century, European music began to express the desire for nation states.

Composers such as Smetana and Sibelius expressed their dream of a nation in their music.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

34/60.

In the late 19th century, European composers began to express their dream of a nation in their music.

Music includes Ma vlast by Smetana and Finlandia by Sibelius.

20070913

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

34/60. My Country

In the late 19th century, European composers began to express their dream of a nation in their music. Music includes Ma vlast by Smetana and Finlandia by Sibelius.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

4/30. My Country.

In the late 19th century, European music began to express the desire for nation states. Composers such as Smetana and Sibelius expressed their dream of a nation in their music.

Followed by News.

4/30.

My Country.

In the late 19th century, European music began to express the desire for nation states.

Composers such as Smetana and Sibelius expressed their dream of a nation in their music.

34/60.

In the late 19th century, European composers began to express their dream of a nation in their music.

Music includes Ma vlast by Smetana and Finlandia by Sibelius.

20070914

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

5/30.

Wagner.

The theatre established by Wagner at Bayreuth came to be a magnet for philosophers, artists and musicians.

But what has his influence been on the subsequent development of classical music?

Read by Tom Hollander and Simon Russell Beale.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

35/60.

Wagner's theatre at Bayreuth came to be a magnet for many of the 19th century's most notable philosophers, artists and musicians.

Including excerpts from The Ring.

20070914

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

35/60. Wagner

Wagner's theatre at Bayreuth came to be a magnet for many of the 19th century's most notable philosophers, artists and musicians. Including excerpts from The Ring.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

5/30. Wagner.

The theatre established by Wagner at Bayreuth came to be a magnet for philosophers, artists and musicians. But what has his influence been on the subsequent development of classical music?

Read by Tom Hollander and Simon Russell Beale.

Followed by News.

5/30.

Wagner.

The theatre established by Wagner at Bayreuth came to be a magnet for philosophers, artists and musicians.

But what has his influence been on the subsequent development of classical music?

35/60.

Wagner's theatre at Bayreuth came to be a magnet for many of the 19th century's most notable philosophers, artists and musicians.

Including excerpts from The Ring.

20070917

6/30.

Exotic Paris

In the 1890s, Claude Debussy was looking for a sound that would move music into a new century.

He produced music that was original and daring but immediately accepted by audiences.

Read by Simon Russell Beale

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

36/60.

In 1890s France, Claude Debussy was looking for a sound that would move music into the new century.

He produced music that was original, daring but immediately accepted by audiences.

Including L'apres midi d'un faune, Pelleas et Melisande and Pagodes.

20070917

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

36/60. Exotic Paris

In 1890s France, Claude Debussy was looking for a sound that would move music into the new century. He produced music that was original, daring but immediately accepted by audiences. Including L'apres midi d'un faune, Pelleas et Melisande and Pagodes.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

6/30. Exotic Paris

In the 1890s, Claude Debussy was looking for a sound that would move music into a new century. He produced music that was original and daring but immediately accepted by audiences.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

Followed by News.

6/30.

Exotic Paris

In the 1890s, Claude Debussy was looking for a sound that would move music into a new century.

He produced music that was original and daring but immediately accepted by audiences.

36/60.

In 1890s France, Claude Debussy was looking for a sound that would move music into the new century.

He produced music that was original, daring but immediately accepted by audiences.

Including L'apres midi d'un faune, Pelleas et Melisande and Pagodes.

20070918

7/30.

Fakes and Mystics

Mysticism was in fashion at the beginning of the 20th century.

Russian composer Alexander Scriabin spent his musical life trying to depict the mystical in his work.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

37/60.

The fashion for mysticism at the beginning of the 20th century played a part in musical history.

Scriabin, a Russian composer, spent his career trying to depict the mystical in his work, such as in Prometheus, the Poem of Fire.

20070918

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

37/60. Fakes and Mystics

The fashion for mysticism at the beginning of the 20th century played a part in musical history. Scriabin, a Russian composer, spent his career trying to depict the mystical in his work, such as in Prometheus, the Poem of Fire.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

7/30. Fakes and Mystics

Mysticism was in fashion at the beginning of the 20th century. Russian composer Alexander Scriabin spent his musical life trying to depict the mystical in his work.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

Followed by News.

7/30.

Fakes and Mystics

Mysticism was in fashion at the beginning of the 20th century.

Russian composer Alexander Scriabin spent his musical life trying to depict the mystical in his work.

37/60.

The fashion for mysticism at the beginning of the 20th century played a part in musical history.

Scriabin, a Russian composer, spent his career trying to depict the mystical in his work, such as in Prometheus, the Poem of Fire.

20070919

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

38/60. Pre-War Vienna

At the turn of the century, Vienna was one of the most exciting cities in the world. Alongside the ideas of Freud and the paintings of Klimt, composer Schoenberg was exploring new musical forms that he would eventually make his own. Music includes his Transfigured Night.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

8/30. Pre-War Vienna

The Austrian capital was one of the most culturally important cities in the world. Alongside the ideas of Freud and the paintings of Klimt, composer Schoenberg was exploring new sounds that he would eventually make his own.

Read by Tom Hollander.

20070920

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

39/60. Elgar

Elgar's music has become emblematic of England. But does his music merely express jingoistic nationalism, or is there a deeper understanding of English values? Music includes Falstaff.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

9/30. Elgar

Does the music of the quintessentially English composer merely express jingoistic nationalism, or is there a deeper understanding of English values?

20070921

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

40/60. A Riot

In May 1913, the first night of Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring caused a riot in Paris. Why did it create such an uproar and how did it become an iconic piece of the age?

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

10/30. A Riot

Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring caused a riot in Paris on its premiere in May 1913. Why did it create such an uproar and how did it become an iconic piece?

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

20070924

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

41/60. The End of the Hapsburgs

As the Austro-Hungarian Empire was disintegrating, the Czech composer Janacek became a poet of his times and his people by drawing on the culture of the new Czech lands that were forming. Including music by Janacek and Bartok.

41/60.

The End of the Hapsburgs

As the Austro-Hungarian Empire was disintegrating, the Czech composer Janacek became a poet of his times and his people by drawing on the culture of the new Czech lands that were forming.

Including music by Janacek and Bartok.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

11/30. The End of the Hapsburgs

With the Austro-Hungarian empire in its last years, the Czech composer Janacek became a poet of his times and his people.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

20070925

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

42/60. The Path to War

Many composers' lives were shaped by the horrors of World War I. Some, like Ralph Vaughan Williams and Arnold Schoenberg, were drafted themselves. Including music by Gurney, Debussy and Berg.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

12/30. The Path to War

Many composers were shaped by the horrors of the First World War. Some, like Ralph Vaughan Williams and Arnold Schoenberg, were drafted themselves, and their experiences were reflected in their music.

Read by Tom Hollander.

20070926

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

43/60. Out of Fashion

After World War I, some composers were looking for a radical shift in classical music, while others, such as Strauss and Rachmaninov, carried on writing in old 19th century styles and went out of fashion. Music includes excerpts from Strauss's Elektra, songs by Rachmaninov, and The Tempest by Sibelius.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

13/30. Out of Fashion

After the First World War, some composers were looking for a radical shift in classical music. Others, such as Richard Strauss and Sergei Rachmaninov, carried on writing in traditional styles.

20070927

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

44/60. Revolution in Russia

The Russian Revolution had a huge impact on music. For some composers, it symbolised freedom, but for many others it meant being under suspicion. Including music by Roslavets, Miaskovsky and Prokofiev.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

14/30. Revolution in Russia

The Russian Revolution had a huge impact on music. For some composers it symbolised freedom, but for many others it meant the opposite.

20070928

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

15/30.

Jazz

A new musical form emerged, drawing on the singing of spirituals and the early blues.

But how did it influence classical composers such as Stravinsky, Debussy and Satie?

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

44/60.

It bubbled up from the streets, drawing on the singing of spirituals and the early blues.

But how did jazz influence classical composers like Stravinsky, Debussy and Satie? Music includes Stravinsky's Ragtime, Ravel's Concerto for the Left Hand and Lambert's The Rio Grande.

20070928

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

44/60. Jazz

It bubbled up from the streets, drawing on the singing of spirituals and the early blues. But how did jazz influence classical composers like Stravinsky, Debussy and Satie? Music includes Stravinsky's Ragtime, Ravel's Concerto for the Left Hand and Lambert's The Rio Grande.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

15/30. Jazz

A new musical form emerged, drawing on the singing of spirituals and the early blues. But how did it influence classical composers such as Stravinsky, Debussy and Satie?

Followed by News.

15/30.

Jazz

A new musical form emerged, drawing on the singing of spirituals and the early blues.

But how did it influence classical composers such as Stravinsky, Debussy and Satie?

44/60.

It bubbled up from the streets, drawing on the singing of spirituals and the early blues.

But how did jazz influence classical composers like Stravinsky, Debussy and Satie? Music includes Stravinsky's Ragtime, Ravel's Concerto for the Left Hand and Lambert's The Rio Grande.

20071001

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

46/60. Into the Past

In the 1920s, Stravinsky, Poulenc and Prokofiev looked to the past to give a new dimension to their music, and neo-classicism became the vogue. Music includes Stravinsky's Pulcinella and Prokofiev's Classical Symphony.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

16/30. Into the Past

In the 1920s, French composers such as Poulenc and Ravel looked back to yesteryear to give a new dimension to modern composers.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

20071002

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

17/30.

Music for the Masses

Composers such as Ralph Vaughan Williams and Carl Orff were encouraging participation from their audiences, who were able to buy vinyl discs for the first time.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

47/60.

A new democracy started to rise in music as composers like Vaughan Williams and Carl Orff encouraged participation from their audiences, who were able to buy vinyl discs for the first time.

Plus music by Weill and Hindemith.

20071002

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

47/60. Music for the Masses

A new democracy started to rise in music as composers like Vaughan Williams and Carl Orff encouraged participation from their audiences, who were able to buy vinyl discs for the first time. Plus music by Weill and Hindemith.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

17/30. Music for the Masses

Composers such as Ralph Vaughan Williams and Carl Orff were encouraging participation from their audiences, who were able to buy vinyl discs for the first time.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

Followed by News.

17/30.

Music for the Masses

47/60.

A new democracy started to rise in music as composers like Vaughan Williams and Carl Orff encouraged participation from their audiences, who were able to buy vinyl discs for the first time.

Plus music by Weill and Hindemith.

20071003

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

18/30.

Cinema

The film industry became the great patron of music in the 20th century.

Max Steiner, whose composing credits included Casablanca and Gone with the Wind, said that film music should be felt and not heard.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

48/60.

Including music by Max Steiner, who wrote scores for Casablanca and Gone with the Wind, and said film music 'should be felt and not heard'.

20071003

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

48/60. Cinema

The film industry became the great patron of music in the 20th century. Including music by Max Steiner, who wrote scores for Casablanca and Gone with the Wind, and said film music 'should be felt and not heard'.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

18/30. Cinema

The film industry became the great patron of music in the 20th century. Max Steiner, whose composing credits included Casablanca and Gone with the Wind, said that film music should be felt and not heard.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

Followed by News.

18/30.

Cinema

The film industry became the great patron of music in the 20th century.

Max Steiner, whose composing credits included Casablanca and Gone with the Wind, said that film music should be felt and not heard.

48/60.

Including music by Max Steiner, who wrote scores for Casablanca and Gone with the Wind, and said film music 'should be felt and not heard'.

20071004

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

49/60. Stalin

When Stalin came to power, he wanted music that expressed socialist realism. How did composers like Shostakovich and Prokofiev fare under the Stalinist regime?

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

19/30. Stalin

When the Russian dictator came to power he wanted music that expressed 'socialist realism'. How did composers like Shostakovich and Prokofiev fare under the Stalinist regime?

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

20071005

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

50/60. The Depression

Despite the Wall Street Crash and falling record sales, music was booming. Radio was reaching millions, swing bands entertained at speakeasies and Porgy and Bess had its premiere.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

20/30. The Depression

20071008

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

51/60. Second World War: Those Who Stayed Put

Focusing on Messiaen's Quartet for the End of Time, Tippett's A Child of Our Time and Shostakovich's Leningrad Symphony, which was largely written during the 900-day siege of the city.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

21/30. Second World War, Those Who Stayed Put

The war inspired many masterpieces, including Messiaen's Quartet for the End of Time, Tippet's A Child of Our Time and Dmitiri Shostakovich's Leningrad Symphony, which was largely written during the 900-day siege of the city.

20071009

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

52/60. Those Who Got Away

The story of what happened to the musicians who were exiles from Hitler's Europe. Bartok and Schoenberg fled to America, while others, like Goldschmidt, came to England.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

22/30. Those Who Got Away

Many musicians escaped the jackbooted shadow of Hitler's Europe. Bela Bartok and Arnold Schoenberg fled to America, while others such as Berthold Goldschmidt came to England.

Read by Tom Hollander and Simon Russell Beale.

20071010

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

53/60. Britain Victorious

British composers responded to the war and its aftermath. Britten's Peter Grimes, first performed in June 1945, spoke to an audience that had been shaped by the experience of war.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

23/30. Britain Victorious

British composers responded to the war and its aftermath. Benjamin Britten's Peter Grimes, first performed in June 1945, spoke to an audience that had been shaped by the experience of war.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Tom Hollander.

20071011

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

54/60. The Modernists

A new generation of post-war composers, John Cage, Olivier Messiaen and Pierre Boulez, wanted to sweep away the past and make music speak for a new world.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

24/30. The Modernists

John Cage, Olivier Messiaen and Pierre Boulez were in the forefront of a new generation of postwar composers. They wanted to sweep away the past and make music speak for a new world.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

20071012

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

55/60. Leonard Bernstein

Bernstein embraced the classical and the popular and pulled them together. His West Side Story in 1957 filled concert halls and theatres the world over.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

25/30. Leonard Bernstein

The great American composer's music embraced the classical and the popular. His 1957 musical West Side Story filled concert halls and theatres all over the world.

20071015

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, connecting historical events and their effect on classical music.

56/60. The Sixties

Modern composers were trying to make their voices heard above the noise of pop culture. What were Stockhausen, John Tavener and Peter Maxwell Davies writing in the 1960s?

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

26/30. The Sixties

Modern composers such as Stockhausen, John Tavener and Peter Maxwell Davies tried to make their voices heard above the noise of pop culture.

20071016

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, connecting historical events and their effect on classical music.

57/60. Dissent

How did music in the 1960s and 70s express political dissent? Hans Werner Henze used his music to communicate his loathing of Fascism and Henryk Gorecki found a musical voice to fire up a spiritual renewal in Eastern Europe.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

27/30. Dissent

Composers in the 1960s and 70s expressed their rage against the system. Hans Werner Henze used his music to communicate his loathing of Fascism and Henryk Gorecki found a musical voice to inspire a spiritual renewal in Eastern Europe.

20071017

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, connecting historical events and their effect on classical music.

58/60. The Impact of Technology

How have composers experimented with electronic technology to push the boundaries of what sounds are possible? And how have they used music to create the sounds of machines?

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

28/30. The Impact of Technology

Composers experimented with electronics to extend the boundaries of possible sounds. Music was used to create the sounds of machines.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

20071018

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, connecting historical events and their effect on classical music.

59/60. A Time of Plenty

John Tavener's Song for Athene was played at Princess Diana's funeral. But what is the importance and impact of modern British composers?

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

29/30. A Time of Plenty

British composers play a significant part in contemporary music. John Tavener's Song for Athene was played at Princess Diana's funeral.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

20071019

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, connecting historical events and their effect on classical music.

60/60. The Making of Music

Looking back at a journey from the early monasteries through the Renaissance, to the present day. Where have we come to and what is the current state of classical music?

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

30/30. The Making of Music

The final programme in the series looks back at a journey which began in the early monasteries and continued through the Renaissance to the present day. Where have we come to and what is the current state of classical music?

0620070611

Full performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series charting the relationship between a thousand years of history and the classical music that became its soundtrack.

6/30.

The Reformation

Why should the Devil have all the best tunes? Including music by Martin Luther.

Martin Luther changed religion and religious music.

He harnessed secular songs for sacred purposes and introduced congregational singing.

0620070611

Full performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series charting the relationship between a thousand years of history and the classical music that became its soundtrack.

6/30.

The Reformation

Why should the Devil have all the best tunes? Including music by Martin Luther.

Martin Luther changed religion and religious music.

He harnessed secular songs for sacred purposes and introduced congregational singing.

20The Depression20071005

Despite the Wall Street crash and falling record sales, music was booming.

Radio was reaching millions, swing bands entertained at speakeasies and Porgy and Bess had its premiere.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

50/60.

20The Depression20071005

Despite the Wall Street crash and falling record sales, music was booming.

Radio was reaching millions, swing bands entertained at speakeasies and Porgy and Bess had its premiere.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

50/60.

22Those Who Got Away20071009

Many musicians escaped the jackbooted shadow of Hitler's Europe.

Bela Bartok and Arnold Schoenberg fled to America, while others such as Berthold Goldschmidt came to England.

Read by Tom Hollander and Simon Russell Beale.

22Those Who Got Away20071009

Many musicians escaped the jackbooted shadow of Hitler's Europe.

Bela Bartok and Arnold Schoenberg fled to America, while others such as Berthold Goldschmidt came to England.

Read by Tom Hollander and Simon Russell Beale.

23Britain Victorious|20071010

British composers responded to the war and its aftermath.

Benjamin Britten's Peter Grimes, first performed in June 1945, spoke to an audience that had been shaped by the experience of war.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Tom Hollander.

23Britain Victorious|20071010

British composers responded to the war and its aftermath.

Benjamin Britten's Peter Grimes, first performed in June 1945, spoke to an audience that had been shaped by the experience of war.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Tom Hollander.

24The Modernists20071011

John Cage, Olivier Messiaen and Pierre Boulez were in the forefront of a new generation of postwar composers.

They wanted to sweep away the past and make music speak for a new world.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

24The Modernists20071011

John Cage, Olivier Messiaen and Pierre Boulez were in the forefront of a new generation of postwar composers.

They wanted to sweep away the past and make music speak for a new world.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

25Leonard Bernstein20071012

The great American composer's music embraced the classical and the popular.

His 1957 musical West Side Story filled concert halls and theatres all over the world.

25Leonard Bernstein20071012

The great American composer's music embraced the classical and the popular.

His 1957 musical West Side Story filled concert halls and theatres all over the world.

0101Origins2007060420110627
20150504 (BBC7)
20150505 (BBC7)

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped classical music. The origins of this music begin in the churches and monasteries of the Christian world, from Constantinople in the East to Iona in Scotland. The building blocks of classical music were formed.

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey, Lucy Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped classical music.

The origins of this music begin in the churches and monasteries of the Christian world, from Constantinople in the East to Iona in Scotland.

The building blocks of classical music were formed.

James Naughtie looks at how history has shaped classical musical.

The building blocks of classical music were formed in the churches and monasteries of the Christian world, from Constantinople to Iona.

James Naughtie looks at classical music origins in churches and monasteries.

0101Origins2007060420110627

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped classical music.

The origins of this music begin in the churches and monasteries of the Christian world, from Constantinople in the East to Iona in Scotland.

The building blocks of classical music were formed.

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey, Lucy Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

James Naughtie looks at how history has shaped classical musical.

The building blocks of classical music were formed in the churches and monasteries of the Christian world, from Constantinople to Iona.

0102Notre Dame2007060520110628
20150505 (BBC7)
20150506 (BBC7)

As Notre Dame was built, composers Perotin and Leonin wrote music to fill it.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music. Notre Dame in Paris was consecrated in 1163. Paris was the centre of intellecual life in Europe. As Notre Dame was being built, two men were writing the music that would fill it. Perotin and Leonin are the first named composers that come down to us through history.

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey , Lucy Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

Notre Dame in Paris was consecrated in 1163.

Paris was the centre of intellecual life in Europe.

As Notre Dame was being built, two men were writing the music that would fill it.

Perotin and Leonin are the first named composers that come down to us through history.

Construction of Paris's great cathedral began in 1163, at a time when the city was the centre of intellectual life in Europe.

As Notre Dame was being built, two composers, Perotin and Leonin, were writing the music that would fill it.

0102Notre Dame2007060520110628

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

Notre Dame in Paris was consecrated in 1163.

Paris was the centre of intellecual life in Europe.

As Notre Dame was being built, two men were writing the music that would fill it.

Perotin and Leonin are the first named composers that come down to us through history.

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey , Lucy Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

Construction of Paris's great cathedral began in 1163, at a time when the city was the centre of intellectual life in Europe.

As Notre Dame was being built, two composers, Perotin and Leonin, were writing the music that would fill it.

0103Troubadours2007060620110629
20150506 (BBC7)
20150507 (BBC7)

In courts and great houses, the troubadours wrote secular songs of love and jealousy.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music. Across Europe in courts and great houses, music was beginning to celebrate the human as well as the divine. The Troubadours wrote songs of love, jealousy and betrayal.

Reader: Benedict Cumberbatch

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey, Lunt Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

Across Europe in courts and great houses, music was beginning to celebrate the human as well as the divine.

The Troubadours wrote songs of love, jealously and betrayal.

In courts and great houses across Europe, music was beginning to celebrate the human as well as the divine.

Itinerant players entertained the nobility with songs of love, jealousy and betrayal.

0103Troubadours2007060620110629

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

Across Europe in courts and great houses, music was beginning to celebrate the human as well as the divine.

The Troubadours wrote songs of love, jealously and betrayal.

Reader: Benedict Cumberbatch

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey, Lunt Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

In courts and great houses across Europe, music was beginning to celebrate the human as well as the divine.

Itinerant players entertained the nobility with songs of love, jealousy and betrayal.

0104Burgundy2007060720110630
20150507 (BBC7)

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music. Philip The Good, the Duke of Burgundy funded great musicians Dufay and Binchois. They in turn were influenced by an English composer, John Dunstable. His style was imitated in the Burgundy court and gave music there ' an English countenance.'

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey and Lucy Lunt.

BBC Birmingham.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.Philip The Good, the Duke of Burgundy funded great musicians Dufay and Binchois.

They in turn were influenced by an English composer, John Dunstable.

His style was imitated in the Burgundy court and gave music there ' an English countenance.'

English composer John Dunstable's style was a strong influence in the Burgundy court.

Composers Guillaume Dufay and Gilles Binchois were funded by Philip The Good, Duke of Burgundy.

They were influenced by English composer John Dunstable, whose style was imitated in the Burgundy court.

0104Burgundy2007060720110630

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.Philip The Good, the Duke of Burgundy funded great musicians Dufay and Binchois.

They in turn were influenced by an English composer, John Dunstable.

His style was imitated in the Burgundy court and gave music there ' an English countenance.'

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey and Lucy Lunt.

BBC Birmingham.

English composer John Dunstable's style was a strong influence in the Burgundy court.

Composers Guillaume Dufay and Gilles Binchois were funded by Philip The Good, Duke of Burgundy.

They were influenced by English composer John Dunstable, whose style was imitated in the Burgundy court.

0105The Renaissance2007060820110701

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.The world was changing: in the Renaissance, man was well as God was celebrated in music and the arts.

In Ferrara, Italy, Josquin Desprez wrote as mass that immortalised his patron, the Duke Ecole d'Este I.

Missa Hercules dux Ferrariae was based on the syllables of the Dukes name.

Reader: Simon Russell Beale

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey, Lucy Lunt.

BBC Birmingham.

Music and the arts were beginning to celebrate man as well as God.

In Ferrara, Josquin Desprez wrote a mass that immortalised his patron, the Duke Ecole d'Este I.

Missa Hercules dux Ferrarie was based on the syllables of the Duke's name.

0105The Renaissance2007060820110701
20150508 (BBC7)
20150509 (BBC7)

Music and the arts were beginning to celebrate man as well as God.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.The world was changing: in the Renaissance, man was well as God was celebrated in music and the arts. In Ferrara, Italy, Josquin Desprez wrote as mass that immortalised his patron, the Duke Ecole d'Este I. Missa Hercules dux Ferrariae was based on the syllables of the Dukes name.

Reader: Simon Russell Beale

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey, Lucy Lunt.

BBC Birmingham.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.The world was changing: in the Renaissance, man was well as God was celebrated in music and the arts.

In Ferrara, Italy, Josquin Desprez wrote as mass that immortalised his patron, the Duke Ecole d'Este I.

Missa Hercules dux Ferrariae was based on the syllables of the Dukes name.

In Ferrara, Josquin Desprez wrote a mass that immortalised his patron, the Duke Ecole d'Este I.

Missa Hercules dux Ferrarie was based on the syllables of the Duke's name.

0106The Reformation2007061520110704
20070611 (BBC7)
20150511 (BBC7)
20150512 (BBC7)

During the Reformation, Martin Luther harnessed secular songs for religious music.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music. Why should the Devil have all the best tunes? Luther changed religion and religious music forever. He harnessed secular songs for sacred purposes and introduced congregational singing.

Reader: Benedict Cumberbatch

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey, Lucy Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

Why should the Devil have all the best tunes? Luther changed religion and religious music forever.

He harnessed secular songs for sacred purposes and introduced congregational singing.

Exploring how Martin Luther changed religion and religious music.

0106The Reformation2007061520110704

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

Why should the Devil have all the best tunes? Luther changed religion and religious music forever.

He harnessed secular songs for sacred purposes and introduced congregational singing.

Reader: Benedict Cumberbatch

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey, Lucy Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

Exploring how Martin Luther changed religion and religious music.

0107The Counter Reformation2007061220110705
20150512 (BBC7)
20150513 (BBC7)

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music. Luther's hymns were accessible - and popular. The Counter Reformation responded to Luther's musical revolution by giving an edict that the words of church music had to be clear and understood. This is the story of the composer Palestrina who became embroiled in the politics of the high church.

Reader : Simon Russell Beale

Produced by Rosie Boutlon, Sara Conkey, Lucy Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

The composer Palestrina became accidentally embroiled in the politics of the high church.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

Luther's hymns were accessible - and popular.

The Counter Reformation responded to Luther's musical revolution by giving an edict that the words of church music had to be clear and understood.

This is the story of the composer Palestrina who became embroiled in the politics of the high church.

0107The Counter Reformation2007061220110705

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

Luther's hymns were accessible - and popular.

The Counter Reformation responded to Luther's musical revolution by giving an edict that the words of church music had to be clear and understood.

This is the story of the composer Palestrina who became embroiled in the politics of the high church.

Reader : Simon Russell Beale

Produced by Rosie Boutlon, Sara Conkey, Lucy Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

The composer Palestrina became accidentally embroiled in the politics of the high church.

0108Venice2007061920110706

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

An uncle and nephew, Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli wrote music that filled St Marks Basilica, using the space as a stage for many voices.

The music inspired travellers who passed through the Serene City, then the crossroads of the known world.

Reader: Laurence Fox.

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey, Lucy Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

Uncle and nephew Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli wrote music that filled St Mark's Basilica.

0108Venice2007061920110706
20070613 (BBC7)
20150513 (BBC7)
20150514 (BBC7)

Uncle and nephew Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli wrote music that filled St Mark's Basilica.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music. An uncle and nephew, Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli wrote music that filled St Marks Basilica, using the space as a stage for many voices. The music inspired travellers who passed through the Serene City, then the crossroads of the known world.

Reader: Laurence Fox.

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey, Lucy Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

An uncle and nephew, Andrea and Giovanni Gabrieli wrote music that filled St Marks Basilica, using the space as a stage for many voices.

The music inspired travellers who passed through the Serene City, then the crossroads of the known world.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

12/30.

The Violin.

The design and production of the violin were perfected in Cremona around 1700.

The music of Antonio Vivaldi established the instrument's popularity.

Read by Laurence Fox.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series connecting historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

The perfection of design and production that happened in Cremona around 1700, and the music of Corelli and Vivaldi, put the violin on the map.

0109Elizabeth I2007061420110707
20150514 (BBC7)
20150515 (BBC7)

In the Elizabethan age, composers Byrd and Tallis revealed the religious divide.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music. Two composers, William Byrd and Thomas Tallis, turned the end of the sixteenth century into a golden age for English music, despite being on the wrong side of the political and religious divide.

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey and Lucy Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

Two composers, William Byrd and Thomas Tallis, turned the end of the sixteenth century into a golden age for English music, despite being on the wrong side of the political and religious divide.

The end of the 16th century was a golden age for English music.

Composers William Byrd and Thomas Tallis turned the end of the 16th century into a golden age for English music, despite being on the wrong side of the political and religious divide.

0109Elizabeth I2007061420110707

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

Two composers, William Byrd and Thomas Tallis, turned the end of the sixteenth century into a golden age for English music, despite being on the wrong side of the political and religious divide.

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey and Lucy Lunt

BBC Birmingham.

The end of the 16th century was a golden age for English music.

Composers William Byrd and Thomas Tallis turned the end of the 16th century into a golden age for English music, despite being on the wrong side of the political and religious divide.

0110The Birth Of Opera2007061520110708

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

Opera was invented by a group of Italian intellectuals called the Camerata in Florence around 1600.

They stumbled across something extraordinary - why not tell a story in music? It took off and soon theatres were springing up all over Italy - forty in Venice alone.

Reader Benedict Cumberbatch

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey and Lucy Lunt.

BBC Birmingham.

The idea of telling a story in music proved immediately successful across Italy.

0110The Birth Of Opera2007061520110708
20150515 (BBC7)
20150516 (BBC7)

The idea of telling a story in music proved immediately successful across Italy.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music. Opera was invented by a group of Italian intellectuals called the Camerata in Florence around 1600. They stumbled across something extraordinary - why not tell a story in music? It took off and soon theatres were springing up all over Italy - forty in Venice alone.

Reader Benedict Cumberbatch

Produced by Rosie Boulton, Sara Conkey and Lucy Lunt.

BBC Birmingham.

James Naughtie discovers how history has shaped the development of classical music.

Opera was invented by a group of Italian intellectuals called the Camerata in Florence around 1600.

They stumbled across something extraordinary - why not tell a story in music? It took off and soon theatres were springing up all over Italy - forty in Venice alone.

0111The Sun King20070618 (BBC7)
20150518 (BBC7)
20150519 (BBC7)

How English composer John Dunstable's music travelled to the Burgundy court.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

11/30. The Sun King

Jean-Baptiste Lully, despite his reputation as a notorious libertine, became the composer to Louis XIV. His music, used in extravagant court dances and spectacles, helped to establish the Sun King's image as a divine monarch.

Read by Laurence Fox and Benedict Cumberbatch.

0112The Violin20070619 (BBC7)
20150519 (BBC7)
20150520 (BBC7)

The design and production of the violin were perfected in Cremona around 1700.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

12/30. The Violin.

The design and production of the violin were perfected in Cremona around 1700. The music of Antonio Vivaldi established the instrument's popularity.

Read by Laurence Fox.

0113The Puritans20070620 (BBC7)
20150520 (BBC7)
20150521 (BBC7)

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

13/30. The Puritans. Despite destroying church organs across the land, Oliver Cromwell privately not only appreciated music but also employed composers who used to work for the king to write for him and his new regime.

Oliver Cromwell not only appreciated music but also employed former royal composers.

0114The Restoration20070621 (BBC7)
20150521 (BBC7)
20150522 (BBC7)

The return of Charles II from exile heralded a revival in English music.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

14/30. The Restoration

The return of Charles II from exile heralded a revival in English music. Among several composers to emerge was Henry Purcell, who wrote a song for the king's birthday when he was only 11.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

0115Bach In Leipzig20070622 (BBC7)
20150522 (BBC7)
20150523 (BBC7)

Johann Sebastian Bach produced some of the most sublime church music ever written.

15/30. Bach in Leipzig

From a bustling town in Germany, a civic employee produced some of the most sublime church music ever written. Despite being frequently at loggerheads with his employers, Johann Sebastian Bach continued to compose at a prolific rate.

0116Bach's St Matthew Passion20070625 (BBC7)
20150525 (BBC7)
20150526 (BBC7)

Johann Sebastian's recurring choral theme had a profound effect on the history of music.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

16/30. Bach's St Matthew Passion

Johann Sebastian's recurring choral theme, inherited from his Lutheran predecessors, had a profound effect on the history of music.

0117Handel20070626 (BBC7)
20150526 (BBC7)
20150527 (BBC7)

German-born composer George Frideric made English music great.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

17/30. Handel

German-born composer George Frideric Handel made English music great. He invented English oratorio and his Messiah became one of the foundation stones of the English choral tradition.

0118Rameau And The Philosophes20070627 (BBC7)
20150527 (BBC7)
20150528 (BBC7)

Paris during the 1750s was the centre of a clash of cultural ideas.

17/30. Rameau and the Philosophes.

Paris during the 1750s was the centre of a clash of cultural ideas, with music at the forefront. The Paris Opera House was the centre of the Battle of the Fools, where arguments raged about absolutism and enlightenment.

0119Music And Society20070628 (BBC7)
20150528 (BBC7)
20150529 (BBC7)

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

19/30. Music and Society

By the late 1700s, music was becoming part of the social fabric. Concerts and dances were regularly held in cities such as Bath and Oxford, and playing the piano was the accomplishment of every young lady.

By the late 1700s, music was becoming part of the social fabric.

0120Haydn And The Esterhazys
0120Haydn And The Esterhazys20070629 (BBC7)
20150529 (BBC7)

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

20/30. Haydn and the Esterhazys

Employed by the hugely wealthy Esterhazy family, Joseph Haydn lived mainly in their isolated palace and produced music on demand. Of his prolific output, Haydn himself admitted that he was cut off from the outside world and forced to become original.

0120Haydn And The Esterhazys20070629 (BBC7)
20150530 (BBC7)

Joseph Haydn lived mainly in his patrons' isolated palace and produced music on demand.

0121Mozart
0121Mozart20070702 (BBC7)
20150601 (BBC7)
20150602 (BBC7)

In the middle of the 18th century composers needed patrons, but this was soon to change.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

21/30. Mozart

In the middle of the 18th century composers needed patrons, but by the end of Mozart's life the world had changed. The composer as servant was becoming a thing of the past, and Mozart both benefited and suffered because of it.

0122Mozart's The Marriage Of Figaro
0122Mozart's The Marriage Of Figaro20070703 (BBC7)
20150602 (BBC7)
20150603 (BBC7)

The play on which Mozart's opera was based was banned in its original form by Louis XVI.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

22/30. Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro

As France teetered towards revolution, the play on which Mozart's masterpiece was based was banned in its original form by Louis XVI. The story of a count being exposed and humiliated by his servant was described by Napoleon as the revolution in action.

0123The French Revolution
0123The French Revolution20070704 (BBC7)
20150603 (BBC7)
20150604 (BBC7)

La Marseillaise became a national anthem, and music inspired by revolution was everywhere.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

23/30. The French Revolution

One night in April 1792, a young French captain spent the night writing a marching tune. La Marseillaise became a national anthem, and music inspired by the revolution was everywhere.

Read by Laurence Fox.

0124Beethoven
0124Beethoven20070705 (BBC7)
20150604 (BBC7)
20150605 (BBC7)

The great German composer worked at a time of seismic change in Europe.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

24/30. Beethoven

The great German composer worked at a time of seismic change in Europe. He was 19 at the start of the French Revolution and at his peak when Napoleon's empire was at its zenith. His music matches the ferment of the times.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

0125Beethoven's Eroica20070706 (BBC7)
20150606 (BBC7)

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

25/30. Beethoven's Eroica

The original dedication to Napoleon was removed from the manuscript of Beethoven's Symphony No 3, allegedly by the composer's own hand, when Napoleon declared himself Emperor in 1804.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

0126Schubert And The Piano20070709 (BBC7)
20150608 (BBC7)
20150609 (BBC7)

Schubert used improving piano quality to make it an instrument for the voice.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

26/30. Schubert and the Piano

Vienna in the 1820s. The piano became mass manufactured and improved in quality. Schubert gave the piano personality, and his pieces were the lifeblood of a new kind of music making.

0127Weber And German Romanticism
0127Weber And German Romanticism20070710 (BBC7)
20150609 (BBC7)

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

27/30. Weber and German Romanticism

Carl Maria Von Weber gave audiences what they wanted - storms and disasters, wild beasts and blood. Although German unification was a generation away, by drawing on folk tales, Weber wanted to create a German sensibility.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Benedict Cumberbatch.

0127Weber And German Romanticism20070710 (BBC7)
20150610 (BBC7)

Weber gave German audiences what they wanted - storms and disasters.

0128Virtuosi
0128Virtuosi20070711 (BBC7)
20150611 (BBC7)

In the 1820s and 30s, audiences craved virtuosi performances.

0128Virtuosi20070711 (BBC7)
20150610 (BBC7)

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

28/30. Virtuosi

In the 1820s and 30s, audiences craved virtuosi performances. Lizst, Paganini and Chopin thrilled on stage - the performer as magician had arrived.

0129Grand Opera
0129Grand Opera20070712 (BBC7)
20150612 (BBC7)

In the first half of the 19th century, Italy consummated its love affair with opera.

0129Grand Opera20070712 (BBC7)
20150611 (BBC7)

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

29/30. Grand Opera

In the first half of the 19th Century, Italy consummated its love affair with opera. Donizetti, Rossini and Bellini's new operas were greeted with frenzy on the streets.

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

0130Albertopolis20070713 (BBC7)
20150612 (BBC7)
20150613 (BBC7)

The Royal Albert Hall opened in 1871 with a prince championing culture.

James Naughtie presents a series chronicling the historical influences that affected the course of classical music.

30/30. Albertopolis

The Royal Albert Hall opened in 1871 and celebrated a Prince Consort who championed both music and culture.

0208Pre-war Vienna20070919

The Austrian capital was one of the most culturally important cities in the world.

Alongside the ideas of Freud and the paintings of Klimt, composer Schoenberg was exploring new sounds that he would eventually make his own.

Read by Tom Hollander.

0208Pre-war Vienna20070919

The Austrian capital was one of the most culturally important cities in the world.

Alongside the ideas of Freud and the paintings of Klimt, composer Schoenberg was exploring new sounds that he would eventually make his own.

Read by Tom Hollander.

0209Elgar20070920

Does the music of the quintessentially English composer merely express jingoistic nationalism, or is there a deeper understanding of English values?

0209Elgar20070920

Does the music of the quintessentially English composer merely express jingoistic nationalism, or is there a deeper understanding of English values?

0210A Riot20070921

Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring caused a riot in Paris on its premiere in May 1913.

Why did it create such an uproar and how did it become an iconic piece?

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

0210A Riot20070921

Igor Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring caused a riot in Paris on its premiere in May 1913.

Why did it create such an uproar and how did it become an iconic piece?

Read by Simon Russell Beale.

0211The End Of The Hapsburgs20070924

With the Austro-Hungarian empire in its last years, the Czech composer Janacek became a poet of his times and his people.

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

Performances of the music James Naughtie mentions in his Radio 4 series, which connects historical events and their effect on the course of classical music.

41/60.

The End of the Hapsburgs

As the Austro-Hungarian Empire was disintegrating, the Czech composer Janacek became a poet of his times and his people by drawing on the culture of the new Czech lands that were forming.

Including music by Janacek and Bartok.

0212The Path To War20070925

Many composers were shaped by the horrors of the First World War.

Some, like Ralph Vaughan Williams and Arnold Schoenberg, were drafted themselves, and their experiences were reflected in their music.

Read by Tom Hollander.

0212The Path To War20070925

Many composers were shaped by the horrors of the First World War.

Some, like Ralph Vaughan Williams and Arnold Schoenberg, were drafted themselves, and their experiences were reflected in their music.

Read by Tom Hollander.

0213Out Of Fashion20070926

After the First World War, some composers were looking for a radical shift in classical music.

Others, such as Richard Strauss and Sergei Rachmaninov, carried on writing in traditional styles.

0213Out Of Fashion20070926

After the First World War, some composers were looking for a radical shift in classical music.

Others, such as Richard Strauss and Sergei Rachmaninov, carried on writing in traditional styles.

0214Revolution In Russia20070927

The Russian Revolution had a huge impact on music.

For some composers it symbolised freedom, but for many others it meant the opposite.

0214Revolution In Russia20070927

The Russian Revolution had a huge impact on music.

For some composers it symbolised freedom, but for many others it meant the opposite.

0216Into The Past20071001

In the 1920s, French composers such as Poulenc and Ravel looked back to yesteryear to give a new dimension to modern composers.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

0216Into The Past20071001

In the 1920s, French composers such as Poulenc and Ravel looked back to yesteryear to give a new dimension to modern composers.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

0219Stalin20071004

When the Russian dictator came to power he wanted music that expressed 'socialist realism'.

How did composers like Shostakovich and Prokofiev fare under the Stalinist regime?

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

0219Stalin20071004

When the Russian dictator came to power he wanted music that expressed 'socialist realism'.

How did composers like Shostakovich and Prokofiev fare under the Stalinist regime?

Read by Simon Russell Beale and Matthew Macfadyen.

0221Second World War, Those Who Stayed Put20071008

The war inspired many masterpieces, including Messiaen's Quartet for the End of Time, Tippet's A Child of Our Time and Dmitiri Shostakovich's Leningrad Symphony, which was largely written during the 900-day siege of the city.

0221Second World War, Those Who Stayed Put20071008

The war inspired many masterpieces, including Messiaen's Quartet for the End of Time, Tippet's A Child of Our Time and Dmitiri Shostakovich's Leningrad Symphony, which was largely written during the 900-day siege of the city.

0226The Sixties20071015

Modern composers such as Stockhausen, John Tavener and Peter Maxwell Davies tried to make their voices heard above the noise of pop culture.

0226The Sixties20071015

Modern composers such as Stockhausen, John Tavener and Peter Maxwell Davies tried to make their voices heard above the noise of pop culture.

0228The Impact Of Technology20071017

Composers experimented with electronics to extend the boundaries of possible sounds.

Music was used to create the sounds of machines.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

0230A Time Of Plenty20071018

British composers play a significant part in contemporary music.

John Tavener's Song for Athene was played at Princess Diana's funeral.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

0230A Time Of Plenty20071018

British composers play a significant part in contemporary music.

John Tavener's Song for Athene was played at Princess Diana's funeral.

Read by Matthew Macfadyen.

0230Dissent20071016

Composers in the 1960s and 70s expressed their rage against the system.

Hans Werner Henze used his music to communicate his loathing of Fascism and Henryk Gorecki found a musical voice to inspire a spiritual renewal in Eastern Europe.

0230Dissent20071016

Composers in the 1960s and 70s expressed their rage against the system.

Hans Werner Henze used his music to communicate his loathing of Fascism and Henryk Gorecki found a musical voice to inspire a spiritual renewal in Eastern Europe.

0230 LASTThe Making Of Music20071019

The final programme in the series looks back at a journey which began in the early monasteries and continued through the Renaissance to the present day.

Where have we come to and what is the current state of classical music?

0230 LASTThe Making Of Music20071019

The final programme in the series looks back at a journey which began in the early monasteries and continued through the Renaissance to the present day.

Where have we come to and what is the current state of classical music?

R307The Counter Reformation20070612

Including music by Palestrina who became embroiled by accident in the politics of the high church.

R307The Counter Reformation20070612

Including music by Palestrina who became embroiled by accident in the politics of the high church.

R310The Birth Of Opera20070615

Opera was invented by a group of Italian intellectuals called the Camerata in Florence around 1600.

Including music by Peri, Caccini and Monteverdi.

R310The Birth Of Opera20070615

Opera was invented by a group of Italian intellectuals called the Camerata in Florence around 1600.

Including music by Peri, Caccini and Monteverdi.

R31620070625

Performances of the music featured in James Naughtie's Radio 4 series on how history has shaped classical music through the centuries.

16/30.

Bach's St Matthew Passion.

Johann Sebastian's recurring choral theme, inherited from his Lutheran predecessors, had a profound effect on the history of music.

R31620070625

Performances of the music featured in James Naughtie's Radio 4 series on how history has shaped classical music through the centuries.

16/30.

Bach's St Matthew Passion.

Johann Sebastian's recurring choral theme, inherited from his Lutheran predecessors, had a profound effect on the history of music.

R321Mozart20070702

When Mozart was born composers needed patrons, but by the end of his life the world had changed.

The age where the composer was a musical servant was beginning to fade away, and Mozart both benefited and suffered because of this.

R321Mozart20070702

When Mozart was born composers needed patrons, but by the end of his life the world had changed.

The age where the composer was a musical servant was beginning to fade away, and Mozart both benefited and suffered because of this.

R340A Riot20070921

In May 1913, the first night of Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring caused a riot in Paris.

Why did it create such an uproar and how did it become an iconic piece of the age?

R340A Riot20070921

In May 1913, the first night of Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring caused a riot in Paris.

Why did it create such an uproar and how did it become an iconic piece of the age?

R421Mozart20070702

In the middle of the 18th century composers needed patrons, but by the end of Mozart's life the world had changed.

The composer as servant was becoming a thing of the past, and Mozart both benefited and suffered because of it.

R421Mozart20070702

In the middle of the 18th century composers needed patrons, but by the end of Mozart's life the world had changed.

The composer as servant was becoming a thing of the past, and Mozart both benefited and suffered because of it.