The Meeting Of Minds

A series looking at the dynamics of deliberation at three moments in history.

Frances Stonor Saunders explores meetings which had huge significance beyond their four walls.

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0101The Berlin Conference Of 188420050719A series looking at the dynamics of deliberation at three moments in history.

Frances Stonor Saunders explores meetings which had huge significance beyond their four walls.

The relationship between Europe and Africa today has never been more talked about, but how many people know where and how it began? At the Berlin Conference of 1884 the European Powers formalised the Scramble for Africa.

Not a single African was among the 14 delegations and only one of the delegates had even been to the continent.

The interior was partitioned between them and formed into many of the countries we recognise today, along commercially useful lines, covering huge areas: many now argue these territories were ungovernable from the beginning.

Frances Stonor Saunders examines the dynamics of the diplomatic meeting that changed the history of the continent and how it had devastating consequences for Africa, many of which are still felt today.

A series looking at the dynamics of deliberation at three moments in history.

Frances Stonor Saunders explores meetings which had huge significance beyond their four walls.

The relationship between Europe and Africa today has never been more talked about, but how many people know where and how it began? At the Berlin Conference of 1884 the European Powers formalised the Scramble for Africa.

Not a single African was among the 14 delegations and only one of the delegates had even been to the continent.

The interior was partitioned between them and formed into many of the countries we recognise today, along commercially useful lines, covering huge areas: many now argue these territories were ungovernable from the beginning.

Frances Stonor Saunders examines the dynamics of the diplomatic meeting that changed the history of the continent and how it had devastating consequences for Africa, many of which are still felt today.

1/3. The Berlin Conference of 1884

A series looking at the dynamics of deliberation at three moments in history. Frances Stonor Saunders explores meetings which had huge significance beyond their four walls.

The relationship between Europe and Africa today has never been more talked about, but how many people know where and how it began? At the Berlin Conference of 1884 the European Powers formalised the Scramble for Africa. Not a single African was among the 14 delegations and only one of the delegates had even been to the continent. The interior was partitioned between them and formed into many of the countries we recognise today, along commercially useful lines, covering huge areas: many now argue these territories were ungovernable from the beginning.

1/3. The Berlin Conference of 1884

A series looking at the dynamics of deliberation at three moments in history. Frances Stonor Saunders explores meetings which had huge significance beyond their four walls.

The relationship between Europe and Africa today has never been more talked about, but how many people know where and how it began? At the Berlin Conference of 1884 the European Powers formalised the Scramble for Africa. Not a single African was among the 14 delegations and only one of the delegates had even been to the continent. The interior was partitioned between them and formed into many of the countries we recognise today, along commercially useful lines, covering huge areas: many now argue these territories were ungovernable from the beginning.

Frances Stonor Saunders examines the dynamics of the diplomatic meeting that changed the history of the continent and how it had devastating consequences for Africa, many of which are still felt today.

0102The Philadelphia Convention, 178720050831In 1787 a meeting that was to last three months was called in Philadelphia.

Its president had one tooth, its elder statesman arrived each day in a sedan chair carried by prisoners and its opening had to be delayed by a week when only two of the 13 delegations turned up.

From such inauspicious beginnings the American Constitution was born.

Frances Stonor Saunders examines the Philadelphia Convention which drew up this unique and contested document and how the decisions made there have had consequences for both America and the world today.

The Philadelphia Convention, 1787

Meetings of Minds is a series looking at meetings during three moments in history which have had enormous impact beyond their four walls.

In 1787 a meeting that was to last three months was called in Philadelphia. Its president had one tooth, its elder statesman arrived each day in a sedan chair carried by prisoners and its opening had to be delayed by a week when only two of the 13 delegations turned up. From such inauspicious beginnings the American Constitution was born.

0103 LASTIn Defence Of Culture20050901Frances Stonor Saunders concludes her series about great intellectual gatherings, exploring how they brought together for just a brief moment in history, competing personalities with conflicting ideas in politics, diplomacy, art, economics and literature.

Paris 1935.

A huge conference was convened: the First International Congress of Writers for the Defence of Culture.

It was attended by some of Europe's greatest literary figures: Boris Pasternak, Andre Malraux, EM Forster, Andre Gide, Aldous Huxley and Bertolt Brecht were amongst the 220 delegates from 40 countries.

The whole affair was a thinly veiled communist front, but it turned into the last great showcase of European literary culture before it was swept away by war.

The writers were plagued by the question of how to respond to the spectre of the new dictatorships and social chaos that was growing around them.

How should the world's great artists, apparently so important and so revered, confront the book burnings and propaganda? Frances Stonor Saunders brings back to life their speeches, arguments and protests.

Frances Stonor Saunders concludes her series about great intellectual gatherings, exploring how they brought together for just a brief moment in history, competing personalities with conflicting ideas in politics, diplomacy, art, economics and literature.

Paris 1935.

A huge conference was convened: the First International Congress of Writers for the Defence of Culture.

It was attended by some of Europe's greatest literary figures: Boris Pasternak, Andre Malraux, EM Forster, Andre Gide, Aldous Huxley and Bertolt Brecht were amongst the 220 delegates from 40 countries.

The whole affair was a thinly veiled communist front, but it turned into the last great showcase of European literary culture before it was swept away by war.

The writers were plagued by the question of how to respond to the spectre of the new dictatorships and social chaos that was growing around them.

How should the world's great artists, apparently so important and so revered, confront the book burnings and propaganda? Frances Stonor Saunders brings back to life their speeches, arguments and protests.

Frances Stonor Saunders concludes her series about great intellectual gatherings, exploring how they brought together for just a brief moment in history, competing personalities with conflicting ideas in politics, diplomacy, art, economics and literature.

Paris 1935.

A huge conference was convened: the First International Congress of Writers for the Defence of Culture.

It was attended by some of Europe's greatest literary figures: Boris Pasternak, Andre Malraux, EM Forster, Andre Gide, Aldous Huxley and Bertolt Brecht were amongst the 220 delegates from 40 countries.

The whole affair was a thinly veiled communist front, but it turned into the last great showcase of European literary culture before it was swept away by war.

The writers were plagued by the question of how to respond to the spectre of the new dictatorships and social chaos that was growing around them.

How should the world's great artists, apparently so important and so revered, confront the book burnings and propaganda? Frances Stonor Saunders brings back to life their speeches, arguments and protests.

It was attended by some of Europe's greatest literary figures: Boris Pasternak, Andre Malraux, EM Forster, Andre Gide, Aldous Huxley and Bertolt Brecht were amongst the 220 delegates from 40 countries.

3/3. In Defence of Culture

Paris 1935. A huge conference was convened: the First International Congress of Writers for the Defence of Culture. It was attended by some of Europe's greatest literary figures: Boris Pasternak, Andre Malraux, EM Forster, Andre Gide, Aldous Huxley and Bertolt Brecht were amongst the 220 delegates from 40 countries. The whole affair was a thinly veiled communist front, but it turned into the last great showcase of European literary culture before it was swept away by war.

The writers were plagued by the question of how to respond to the spectre of the new dictatorships and social chaos that was growing around them. How should the world's great artists, apparently so important and so revered, confront the book burnings and propaganda? Frances Stonor Saunders brings back to life their speeches, arguments and protests.

3/3. In Defence of Culture

Frances Stonor Saunders concludes her series about great intellectual gatherings, exploring how they brought together for just a brief moment in history, competing personalities with conflicting ideas in politics, diplomacy, art, economics and literature.

Paris 1935. A huge conference was convened: the First International Congress of Writers for the Defence of Culture. It was attended by some of Europe's greatest literary figures: Boris Pasternak, Andre Malraux, EM Forster, Andre Gide, Aldous Huxley and Bertolt Brecht were amongst the 220 delegates from 40 countries. The whole affair was a thinly veiled communist front, but it turned into the last great showcase of European literary culture before it was swept away by war.

The writers were plagued by the question of how to respond to the spectre of the new dictatorships and social chaos that was growing around them. How should the world's great artists, apparently so important and so revered, confront the book burnings and propaganda? Frances Stonor Saunders brings back to life their speeches, arguments and protests.