Music Of Time, The [world Service]

Episodes

EpisodeTitleFirst
Broadcast
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The Music of Time \u2013 Cuba - Music Extra2017080520170806 (WS)

Why Cubans love and identify with their music style \u201cson\u201d

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

Why Cubans love their famous and irresistible music called “son”, and consider it a part of their identity and “the DNA of Cuban culture. This style of music, which spawned the likes of salsa, has been very popular in Cuba for a hundred years.
Musicologist Dr Lucy Duran, a specialist in Cuban music, returns to the island to ask why, and what the Cubans’ enduring passion for ‘son’ tell us about them.
She focuses on one particular song: Lagrimas Negras, “black tears”. Composed in the 1920s by Miguel Matamoros, it’s universally known. Musicians can sing or play it on the spot. Some of them perform for Lucy’s microphone: from Buena Vista Social Club legends Eliades Ochoa and Omara Portuondo, to singer Anais Abreu and tres guitar virtuoso Pancho Amat.
They and many others from the pinnacle of Cuban music explain why son is a key part of Cuban identity. They describe how son evolved from the same mix as Cuban society: Africa (rhythm) and Europe (melody and harmony). Songs like Lagrimas Negras, constructed as a “smiling tragedy”, embody the Cuban philosophy of life: to face hardship with a sense of humour. The lyrics are about being left by your lover. But the insistence of the danceable chorus that “you want to leave me but I don’t want to suffer”, shows that son, like Cubans, turns difficult circumstances into something light-hearted. The song typifies how Cubans always find a way of smiling through their own misfortune.
This is the first of a series of 6 programmes to be transmitted over the coming year, which examine the interactions between music, identity and social change at key points in history.
Producer: Arlene Gregorius

(Photo: Eliades Ochoa. Credit: BBC)

The Music of Time \u2013 Cuba - Music Extra20170805

Why Cubans love and identify with their music style \u201cson\u201d

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

Why Cubans love their famous and irresistible music called “son”, and consider it a part of their identity and “the DNA of Cuban culture. This style of music, which spawned the likes of salsa, has been very popular in Cuba for a hundred years.
Musicologist Dr Lucy Duran, a specialist in Cuban music, returns to the island to ask why, and what the Cubans’ enduring passion for ‘son’ tell us about them.
She focuses on one particular song: Lagrimas Negras, “black tears”. Composed in the 1920s by Miguel Matamoros, it’s universally known. Musicians can sing or play it on the spot. Some of them perform for Lucy’s microphone: from Buena Vista Social Club legends Eliades Ochoa and Omara Portuondo, to singer Anais Abreu and tres guitar virtuoso Pancho Amat.
They and many others from the pinnacle of Cuban music explain why son is a key part of Cuban identity. They describe how son evolved from the same mix as Cuban society: Africa (rhythm) and Europe (melody and harmony). Songs like Lagrimas Negras, constructed as a “smiling tragedy”, embody the Cuban philosophy of life: to face hardship with a sense of humour. The lyrics are about being left by your lover. But the insistence of the danceable chorus that “you want to leave me but I don’t want to suffer”, shows that son, like Cubans, turns difficult circumstances into something light-hearted. The song typifies how Cubans always find a way of smiling through their own misfortune.
This is the first of a series of 6 programmes to be transmitted over the coming year, which examine the interactions between music, identity and social change at key points in history.
Producer: Arlene Gregorius

(Photo: Eliades Ochoa. Credit: BBC)

02The Music of Time - Chile - Music Extra2017112520171126 (WS)

How Nueva Canci\u00f3n, a folk genre born out of Chile's social struggles, helped end Pinochet

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

The Chileans call it Nueva Canción, a folk genre that was born out of the country’s social struggles. Its stars helped Salvador Allende become Latin America’s first democratically elected leader. But on September 11th, 1973, General Pinochet seized power in a violent military coup, and a whole generation of musicians found themselves enemies of a totalitarian state. Some were exiled, some were imprisoned, and others were even murdered by the General’s men.

Wyre Davies speaks to the artists who survived the brutality of Chile’s history, and went on to play their role in toppling the dictatorship.

02The Music of Time - Chile - Music Extra2017112520171129 (WS)

How Nueva Canci\u00f3n, a folk genre born out of Chile's social struggles, helped end Pinochet

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

The Chileans call it Nueva Canción, a folk genre that was born out of the country’s social struggles. Its stars helped Salvador Allende become Latin America’s first democratically elected leader. But on September 11th, 1973, General Pinochet seized power in a violent military coup, and a whole generation of musicians found themselves enemies of a totalitarian state. Some were exiled, some were imprisoned, and others were even murdered by the General’s men.

Wyre Davies speaks to the artists who survived the brutality of Chile’s history, and went on to play their role in toppling the dictatorship.

03America\u2019s Ottoman Diaspora - Music Extra2017122320171224 (WS)

How the music of the dying Ottoman Empire was reborn and reinvented in the United States.

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

Between 1895 and 1923, as the empire was unravelling, several hundred thousand Greeks, Armenians, Arabs, Jews and Turks emigrated to America, bringing their music with them. When war, expulsions and massacres tore their world apart, music helped them preserve their culture and their memories—and, in some cases, to make a living. The Ottoman migration to America coincided with the birth of the phonograph industry and its discovery of a lucrative “ethnic” market. That in turn helped to nurture a lively nightclub scene on Manhattan’s Eight Avenue, where skilful Ottoman musicians and sinuous belly dancers pulled in the late-night crowds into the 1980s.

As European-style national states took the place of the old multi-ethnic empire, the old “oriental” music was often frowned upon or even suppressed back home. But it continued to thrive in the diaspora, which preserved songs and styles that would otherwise have been lost.What happened to the music once it was transplanted? What did it mean to the emigrants, and to the generations that followed? How has it helped to hold their communities together?

Maria Margaronis traces the story of those Ottoman musicians, and explores the mysterious power of their makam-based music, which binds together joy and sorrow, spiritual longing and sensual desire. This is one of a series of 6 programmes which examine the interactions between music, identity and social change at key points in history.

Audio of George Katsaros speaking to journalist Steve Frangos used courtesy of the State Archives of Florida

Photo: Armenian father and son Onnik and Ara Dinkjian
Credit: BBC

03America\u2019s Ottoman Diaspora - Music Extra2017122320171227 (WS)

How the music of the dying Ottoman Empire was reborn and reinvented in the United States.

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

Between 1895 and 1923, as the empire was unravelling, several hundred thousand Greeks, Armenians, Arabs, Jews and Turks emigrated to America, bringing their music with them. When war, expulsions and massacres tore their world apart, music helped them preserve their culture and their memories—and, in some cases, to make a living. The Ottoman migration to America coincided with the birth of the phonograph industry and its discovery of a lucrative “ethnic” market. That in turn helped to nurture a lively nightclub scene on Manhattan’s Eight Avenue, where skilful Ottoman musicians and sinuous belly dancers pulled in the late-night crowds into the 1980s.

As European-style national states took the place of the old multi-ethnic empire, the old “oriental” music was often frowned upon or even suppressed back home. But it continued to thrive in the diaspora, which preserved songs and styles that would otherwise have been lost.What happened to the music once it was transplanted? What did it mean to the emigrants, and to the generations that followed? How has it helped to hold their communities together?

Maria Margaronis traces the story of those Ottoman musicians, and explores the mysterious power of their makam-based music, which binds together joy and sorrow, spiritual longing and sensual desire. This is one of a series of 6 programmes which examine the interactions between music, identity and social change at key points in history.

Audio of George Katsaros speaking to journalist Steve Frangos used courtesy of the State Archives of Florida

Photo: Armenian father and son Onnik and Ara Dinkjian
Credit: BBC

03Music Extra2017122320171227 (WS)

How the music of the dying Ottoman Empire was reborn and reinvented in the United States.

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

Between 1895 and 1923, as the empire was unravelling, several hundred thousand Greeks, Armenians, Arabs, Jews and Turks emigrated to America, bringing their music with them. When war, expulsions and massacres tore their world apart, music helped them preserve their culture and their memories—and, in some cases, to make a living. The Ottoman migration to America coincided with the birth of the phonograph industry and its discovery of a lucrative “ethnic? market. That in turn helped to nurture a lively nightclub scene on Manhattan’s Eight Avenue, where skilful Ottoman musicians and sinuous belly dancers pulled in the late-night crowds into the 1980s.

As European-style national states took the place of the old multi-ethnic empire, the old “oriental? music was often frowned upon or even suppressed back home. But it continued to thrive in the diaspora, which preserved songs and styles that would otherwise have been lost.What happened to the music once it was transplanted? What did it mean to the emigrants, and to the generations that followed? How has it helped to hold their communities together?

Maria Margaronis traces the story of those Ottoman musicians, and explores the mysterious power of their makam-based music, which binds together joy and sorrow, spiritual longing and sensual desire. This is one of a series of 6 programmes which examine the interactions between music, identity and social change at key points in history.

Audio of George Katsaros speaking to journalist Steve Frangos used courtesy of the State Archives of Florida

Photo: Armenian father and son Onnik and Ara Dinkjian
Credit: BBC

03Music Extra2017122320171224 (WS)

How the music of the dying Ottoman Empire was reborn and reinvented in the United States.

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

Between 1895 and 1923, as the empire was unravelling, several hundred thousand Greeks, Armenians, Arabs, Jews and Turks emigrated to America, bringing their music with them. When war, expulsions and massacres tore their world apart, music helped them preserve their culture and their memories—and, in some cases, to make a living. The Ottoman migration to America coincided with the birth of the phonograph industry and its discovery of a lucrative “ethnic? market. That in turn helped to nurture a lively nightclub scene on Manhattan’s Eight Avenue, where skilful Ottoman musicians and sinuous belly dancers pulled in the late-night crowds into the 1980s.

As European-style national states took the place of the old multi-ethnic empire, the old “oriental? music was often frowned upon or even suppressed back home. But it continued to thrive in the diaspora, which preserved songs and styles that would otherwise have been lost.What happened to the music once it was transplanted? What did it mean to the emigrants, and to the generations that followed? How has it helped to hold their communities together?

Maria Margaronis traces the story of those Ottoman musicians, and explores the mysterious power of their makam-based music, which binds together joy and sorrow, spiritual longing and sensual desire. This is one of a series of 6 programmes which examine the interactions between music, identity and social change at key points in history.

Audio of George Katsaros speaking to journalist Steve Frangos used courtesy of the State Archives of Florida

Photo: Armenian father and son Onnik and Ara Dinkjian
Credit: BBC

04India - Music Extra2018010620180107 (WS)

Jasdeep Singh explores the impact of Indian independence and partition on music.

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

Jasdeep Singh explores the profound effects of Indian independence and partition on the music of north India.

On the 15 of August 1947, India gained its independence and was simultaneously divided by lines drawn through Punjab in the north-west and Bengal in the east, creating the brand new, Muslim-majority country of Pakistan.

As millions fled across these new borders - Muslims going from India to Pakistan, and Hindus and Sikhs coming the other way, this violent, destructive and traumatic partition also affected centuries of musical tradition.

Muslim musicians had played and sung in the heart of the Golden Temple, the holiest of Sikh shrines, since the founding of the religion centuries earlier. Many now fled to Pakistan where they encountered a profound lack of interest in their skills or repertoire and could no longer earn a living. Slowly, their musical knowledge and compositions, which had been passed down through generations in an oral tradition, were abandoned, and much disappeared for ever.

On the Indian side of the border, classical music also suffered. The Gharana system, the traditional way that people learned music, by living with and training under a specific musician for years, fell apart, because many of these ‘guru’ musicians were Muslims and had gone to Pakistan.

However, female singers in the new India were unexpected beneficiaries of this great exodus. Before partition, courtesans, most of whom were Muslim, were the only women who sang in public. When the great majority left for Pakistan, they created a gap, a vacancy and so respectable women gradually began to perform in public.

Jasdeep Singh explores the impact of Indian independence and partition on music.

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

Jasdeep Singh explores the profound effects of Indian independence and partition on the music of north India.

On the 15 of August 1947, India gained its independence and was simultaneously divided by lines drawn through Punjab in the north-west and Bengal in the east, creating the brand new, Muslim-majority country of Pakistan.

As millions fled across these new borders - Muslims going from India to Pakistan, and Hindus and Sikhs coming the other way, this violent, destructive and traumatic partition also affected centuries of musical tradition.

Muslim musicians had played and sung in the heart of the Golden Temple, the holiest of Sikh shrines, since the founding of the religion centuries earlier. Many now fled to Pakistan where they encountered a profound lack of interest in their skills or repertoire and could no longer earn a living. Slowly, their musical knowledge and compositions, which had been passed down through generations in an oral tradition, were abandoned, and much disappeared for ever.

On the Indian side of the border, classical music also suffered. The Gharana system, the traditional way that people learned music, by living with and training under a specific musician for years, fell apart, because many of these ‘guru’ musicians were Muslims and had gone to Pakistan.

However, female singers in the new India were unexpected beneficiaries of this great exodus. Before partition, courtesans, most of whom were Muslim, were the only women who sang in public. When the great majority left for Pakistan, they created a gap, a vacancy and so respectable women gradually began to perform in public.

05Jamaica - Music Extra2018020320180204 (WS)

From Nyabinghi drumming to reggae and dancehall, Jamaican music is a voice of resistance

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

Dr Carolyn Cooper from the University of West Indies explores how Jamaican music has given a voice to resistance against oppression. She tells a story starting with the drumming of the years of slavery, through 1970s reggae, the dancehall sound of the ‘80s and ‘90s, right up to a modern day reggae revival. She hears how the sounds of this Caribbean island have shaped its people and politics, providing a rich commentary on the lives of Jamaicans. As ethnomusicologist Dennis Howard says, in Jamaica, “Music is more than for enjoyment. It is as part of our existence.”

Dr Cooper talks to major stars like Beenie Man and King Jammy plus we hear a remarkable recording of the controversial dancehall king Vybz Kartel, who is now in jail. There are contributions from Peter Tosh’s former manager Herbie Miller, reggae writer David Katz, former Miss World Lisa Hanna, now an MP, who reveals how musicians help keep Jamaican politicians accountable. Dr Cooper initiated the Reggae Studies Unit at the University of the West Indies and is the author of two influential books on Jamaican popular culture.

(Photo: Jah T, Rastafari drummer)

05Jamaica - Music Extra20180203

From Nyabinghi drumming to reggae and dancehall, Jamaican music is a voice of resistance

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

Dr Carolyn Cooper from the University of West Indies explores how Jamaican music has given a voice to resistance against oppression. She tells a story starting with the drumming of the years of slavery, through 1970s reggae, the dancehall sound of the ‘80s and ‘90s, right up to a modern day reggae revival. She hears how the sounds of this Caribbean island have shaped its people and politics, providing a rich commentary on the lives of Jamaicans. As ethnomusicologist Dennis Howard says, in Jamaica, “Music is more than for enjoyment. It is as part of our existence.”

Dr Cooper talks to major stars like Beenie Man and King Jammy plus we hear a remarkable recording of the controversial dancehall king Vybz Kartel, who is now in jail. There are contributions from Peter Tosh’s former manager Herbie Miller, reggae writer David Katz, former Miss World Lisa Hanna, now an MP, who reveals how musicians help keep Jamaican politicians accountable. Dr Cooper initiated the Reggae Studies Unit at the University of the West Indies and is the author of two influential books on Jamaican popular culture.

(Photo: Jah T, Rastafari drummer)

06Jazzing up Japan - Music Extra2018022420180225 (WS)

How Japanese popular music was formed by creative clashes with the US

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

As Japan emerged from World War Two, American occupation forces set out to remake Japanese society in their own image. They decided that popular music would play its part - especially jazz: democratic Americana in its purest form. Join Dr Chris Harding as he goes in search of the results of America’s grand plan for Japan. From boogie woogie and Bebop through to rock, underground, idol music and J pop, he explores the forming of new musical identities - and the surprisingly subversive uses to which music was put. He interviews jazz legend Toshiko Akiyoshi, Masahiko Sato, a 93-year-old “Mobo” (modern boy) in the pre-war era plus two girl bands rocking Okinawa.

(Photo: Toshiko Akiyoshi speaks at the 2014 International Jazz Day Educational Programs at Osaka School of Music. Credit: Keith Tsuji/Getty Images)

06Jazzing up Japan - Music Extra20180224

How Japanese popular music was formed by creative clashes with the US

Selected BBC music documentaries drawn from across the world.

As Japan emerged from World War Two, American occupation forces set out to remake Japanese society in their own image. They decided that popular music would play its part - especially jazz: democratic Americana in its purest form. Join Dr Chris Harding as he goes in search of the results of America’s grand plan for Japan. From boogie woogie and Bebop through to rock, underground, idol music and J pop, he explores the forming of new musical identities - and the surprisingly subversive uses to which music was put. He interviews jazz legend Toshiko Akiyoshi, Masahiko Sato, a 93-year-old “Mobo” (modern boy) in the pre-war era plus two girl bands rocking Okinawa.

(Photo: Toshiko Akiyoshi speaks at the 2014 International Jazz Day Educational Programs at Osaka School of Music. Credit: Keith Tsuji/Getty Images)