Episodes

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Blood Banks2016061520200922 (R4)Blood and Fire: the segregation and racialisation of blood

The development of plasma transfusion for masses of people was born of urgent necessity during WW2. In 1940, Britain struggled to treat thousands of civilians injured in the Blitz and many more soldiers at Dunkirk. Into that desperate maelstrom Charles Drew, an African American doctor, came to the rescue. Dr Drew was the key driving force behind a project called Plasma for Britain which saved many lives.

But when a similar project was rolled out in the USA the authorities insisted that the blood be segregated. Charles Drew resigned and returned to work at a black establishment.

A few years later Dr Drew was involved a catastrophic car accident; he was taken to a segregated (whites only) hospital but died of his injuries. For decades afterwards, the myth persisted, especially amongst African Americans, that the man credited with saving the lives of so many through transfusion was denied blood (because of his colour) that would have spared him. Naomi Alderman explores the pivotal moment in the history of blood transfusion and its legacy in the controversy over race-based medicine.

Producer: Colin Grant

How blood donation became segregated and associated with racial identity.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0101The Bone Wars2015061020200309 (R4)

The Bone Wars

In the first of a new series looking at amazing events and characters from science history, Tracey Logan takes us back to the wild west of America, and looks at the extraordinary feud that came to be known as the Bone Wars. This is a tale of corruption, bribery and sabotage - not by cowboys, but by two palaeontologists, Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh, who would stop at nothing in their race to find new dinosaur fossils. This was the golden age of dinosaur discovery, and their bitter war led to the discovery of some of our most iconic dinosaur species: Stegosaurus, Triceratops, Diplodocus and Camarasuarus to name a few. What led these two seemingly respectable men of science to behave in such an unseemly way, and what was the legacy of this now infamous feud? Tracey Logan investigates.

Producer: Alexandra Feachem.

Producer: Alexandra Feachem

The extraordinary tale of feuding dinosaur hunters in America's Wild West.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0102The Engine That Nearly Ran Out Of Steam2015061720200403 (R4)
20200410 (R4)
The engine that nearly ran out of steam.

Naomi Alderman tells the story of James Watt and the steam engine that nearly never got made. A breath of steam hits cold metal. It cools suddenly and becomes a drop of water. There's an idea. But the designs for Watt’s radically more efficient steam engine lay on the shelf in his workshop for years. Watt, a depressive, cautious perfectionist, had no interest in actually making engines. Had it not been for his friend the businessmen Matthew Boulton driving him on, his engine might never have left the drawing board. Naomi talks to historian Jenny Uglow about the five friends who kickstarted the Industrial Revolution, and, in this era of patent trolls, to digital guru Bill Thompson about the scientific legacy of Watt’s obsession with getting a patent - an obsession which led to an Act of Parliament.

Producer: Anna Buckley

How the engine that powered the industrial revolution nearly ran out of steam.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Continuing this new series of Science Stories, Naomi Alderman tells the story of James Watt and the steam engine that nearly never got made. A breath of steam hits cold metal. It cools suddenly and becomes a drop of water. There an idea. But the designs for Watt's radically more efficient steam engine laid on the shelf in his workshop for years. Watt, a depressive, cautious perfectionist had no interest in actually making engines. Had it not been for his friend, the businessmen Matthew Boulton driving him on, his engine might never have left the drawing board. Naomi talks to historian, Jenny Uglow about the five friends who kick started the industrial revolution. And, in this era of patent trolls, to digital guru, Bill Thompson about the scientific legacy of Watt's obsession with getting a patent: an obsession which led to an Act of Parliament.

Producer: Anna Buckley.

The engine that nearly ran out of steam.

Continuing this new series of Science Stories, Naomi Alderman tells the story of James Watt and the steam engine that nearly never got made. A breath of steam hits cold metal. It cools suddenly and becomes a drop of water. There an idea. But the designs for Watt's radically more efficient steam engine laid on the shelf in his workshop for years. Watt, a depressive, cautious perfectionist had no interest in actually making engines. Had it not been for his friend, the businessmen Matthew Boulton driving him on, his engine might never have left the drawing board. Naomi talks to historian, Jenny Uglow about the five friends who kick started the industrial revolution. And, in this era of patent trolls, to digital guru, Bill Thompson about the scientific legacy of Watt's obsession with getting a patent: an obsession which led to an Act of Parliament.

0103Dna's Third Man2015062420200623 (R4)
20200629 (R4)

What does it take to be remembered well? The discovery of the structure of DNA is often attributed to James Watson and Francis Crick. But a third man shared the stage with them for the 1962 Nobel Prize for medicine - Maurice Wilkins. He was a brilliant physicist who after work on the Manhattan Project was determined to move from ""the science of death to the science of life"". He made his mark in the fast progressing world of x-ray crystallography and in the late 1940's was the first to propose that biological material that passed on genetic information from one generation to the next might have an order and structure that scientists could elucidate and control. He was to play an integral role one of the most important discoveries of the 20th century. But why did he fail to capture the public imagination?

Kevin Fong examines Maurice Wilkins achievements offering a new slant on the familiar story of the race to unravel DNA

Producer: Adrian Washbourne.

What does it take to be remembered well? The discovery of the structure of DNA is often attributed to James Watson and Francis Crick. But a third man shared the stage with them for the 1962 Nobel Prize for medicine - Maurice Wilkins. He was a brilliant physicist who after work on the Manhattan Project was determined to move from "the science of death to the science of life". He made his mark in the fast progressing world of x-ray crystallography and in the late 1940's was the first to propose that biological material that passed on genetic information from one generation to the next might have an order and structure that scientists could elucidate and control. He was to play an integral role one of the most important discoveries of the 20th century. But why did he fail to capture the public imagination?

The third man behind the unravelling of DNA's double helix, Maurice Wilkins.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

What does it take to be remembered well? The discovery of the structure of DNA is often attributed to James Watson and Francis Crick. But a third man shared the stage with them for the 1962 Nobel Prize for Medicine - Maurice Wilkins. He was a brilliant physicist who after work on the Manhattan Project was determined to move from "the science of death to the science of life". He made his mark in the fast progressing world of x-ray crystallography and in the late 1940's was the first to propose that biological material that passed on genetic information from one generation to the next might have an order and structure that scientists could elucidate and control. He was to play an integral role in one of the most important discoveries of the 20th century. But why did he fail to capture the public imagination?

Kevin Fong examines Maurice Wilkins achievements and brings a new slant on the familiar story of the race to unravel DNA

Producer: Adrian Washbourne

0104How Perkin Brought Purple To The People2015070120200818 (R4)
20200819 (R4)

In 1856, a teenager experimenting at home accidentally made a colour that was more gaudy and garish than anything that had gone before. William Perkin was messing about at home, trying to make the anti-malarial, quinine; but his experiment went wrong. Instead he made a purple dye that took Victorian London by storm. Philip Ball tells the story of this famous stroke of serendipity. Laurence Llewelyn- Bowen describes the fashion sensation that ensued and chemist, Andrea Sella tells how Perkin's purple prompted the creation of much more than colourful crinolines.

Producer: Anna Buckley.

In 1856, a teenager experimenting at home accidentally made a colour that was more gaudy and garish than anything that had gone before. William Perkin was messing about at home, trying to make the anti-malarial, quinine; but his experiment went wrong. Instead he made a purple dye that took Victorian London by storm. Philip Ball tells the story of this famous stroke of serendipity. Laurence Llewelyn- Bowen describes the fashion sensation that ensued and chemist, Andrea Sella tells how Perkin's purple prompted the creation of much more than colourful crinolines.

Producer: Anna Buckley

How William Perkin brought purple to the people in Victorian London.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

In 1856, a teenager experimenting at home accidentally made a colour that was more gaudy and garish than anything that had gone before. William Perkin was messing about at home, trying to make the anti-malarial, quinine; but his experiment went wrong. Instead he made a purple dye that took Victorian London by storm. Philip Ball tells the story of this famous stroke of serendipity. Laurence Llewelyn- Bowen describes the fashion sensation that ensued and chemist, Andrea Sella tells how Perkin's purple prompted the creation of much more than colourful crinolines.

Producer: Anna Buckley

How William Perkin brought purple to the people in Victorian London.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

In 1856, a teenager experimenting at home accidentally made a colour that was more gaudy and garish than anything that had gone before. William Perkin was messing about at home, trying to make the anti-malarial, quinine; but his experiment went wrong. Instead he made a purple dye that took Victorian London by storm. Philip Ball tells the story of this famous stroke of serendipity. Laurence Llewelyn- Bowen describes the fashion sensation that ensued and chemist, Andrea Sella tells how Perkin's purple prompted the creation of much more than colourful crinolines.

Producer: Anna Buckley

How William Perkin brought purple to the people in Victorian London.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0105 LASTSeeing Is Believing - The Leviathan Of Parsonstown2015070820200825 (R4)
20200826 (R4)

Today, astronomers believe the universe is a violent, constantly changing place. But it was not always the case.

At the beginning of the 19th century, many believed fervently that the celestial sky was a constant, divinely perfected, completed creation.

But as telescopes got larger, the mystery of the number, origin and role of the ""nebulae"" - those colourful, cloud-like smudges on the sky - grew and grew. Were they really vast clouds of gas and dust as they sometimes appeared? Or were they merely closely packed, very distant clusters of stars, as some of them allegedly appeared when magnified through the great reflecting telescopes?

When some astronomers and writers suggested they were in fact a vision of creation in action, matter condensing to form stars and planets like our own, some establishment religious figures cried foul, fearing the social implications.

Could bigger telescopes resolve the crisis?

For most of the 19th century, the biggest telescope in the world was in Birr, Ireland, then known as Parsonstown. It was built by an Anglo-Irish nobleman, William Parsons, Earl of Rosse, in the midst of the Irish famine. 50 feet long, 6 feet in diameter, the monster instrument was dubbed ""The Leviathan"".

But even thus equipped, in the days before photography and spectroscopy, observers could only describe and sketch what they saw, and it was hard to be objective.

As Simon Schaffer, James Bennet, and Chris Lintott narrate, the debate as to the truth of the ""Nebular Hypothesis"", and the concern as to whether the Irish astronomers really saw what they claimed to see, paved the way for the Darwinian debates in the coming decades.

Producer: Alex Mansfield.

But as telescopes got larger, the mystery of the number, origin and role of the "nebulae" - those colourful, cloud-like smudges on the sky - grew and grew. Were they really vast clouds of gas and dust as they sometimes appeared? Or were they merely closely packed, very distant clusters of stars, as some of them allegedly appeared when magnified through the great reflecting telescopes?

For most of the 19th century, the biggest telescope in the world was in Birr, Ireland, then known as Parsonstown. It was built by an Anglo-Irish nobleman, William Parsons, Earl of Rosse, in the midst of the Irish famine. 50 feet long, 6 feet in diameter, the monster instrument was dubbed "The Leviathan".

As Simon Schaffer, James Bennet, and Chris Lintott narrate, the debate as to the truth of the "Nebular Hypothesis", and the concern as to whether the Irish astronomers really saw what they claimed to see, paved the way for the Darwinian debates in the coming decades.

But as telescopes got larger, the mystery of the number, origin and role of the "nebulae" - those colourful, cloud-like smudges on the sky – grew and grew. Were they really vast clouds of gas and dust as they sometimes appeared? Or were they merely closely packed, very distant clusters of stars, as some of them allegedly appeared when magnified through the great reflecting telescopes?

For most of the 19th century, the biggest telescope in the world was in Birr, Ireland, then known as Parsonstown. It was built by an Anglo-Irish nobleman, Willam Parsons, Earl of Rosse, in the midst of the Irish famine. 50 feet long, 6 feet in diameter, the monster instrument was dubbed "The Leviathan".

As Simon Schaffer, James Bennet, and Chris Lintott narrate, the debate as to the truth of the "Nebular Hypothesis", and the concern as to whether the Irish astronomers really saw what they claimed to see, paved the way for the Darwinian debates in the coming decades.

Producer: Alex Mansfield

Simon Schaffer tells of the astronomers who grappled with evolution long before Darwin.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Today, astronomers believe the universe is a violent, constantly changing place. But it was not always the case.

At the beginning of the 19th century, many believed fervently that the celestial sky was a constant, divinely perfected, completed creation.

But as telescopes got larger, the mystery of the number, origin and role of the "nebulae" - those colourful, cloud-like smudges on the sky – grew and grew. Were they really vast clouds of gas and dust as they sometimes appeared? Or were they merely closely packed, very distant clusters of stars, as some of them allegedly appeared when magnified through the great reflecting telescopes?

When some astronomers and writers suggested they were in fact a vision of creation in action, matter condensing to form stars and planets like our own, some establishment religious figures cried foul, fearing the social implications.

Could bigger telescopes resolve the crisis?

For most of the 19th century, the biggest telescope in the world was in Birr, Ireland, then known as Parsonstown. It was built by an Anglo-Irish nobleman, Willam Parsons, Earl of Rosse, in the midst of the Irish famine. 50 feet long, 6 feet in diameter, the monster instrument was dubbed "The Leviathan".

But even thus equipped, in the days before photography and spectroscopy, observers could only describe and sketch what they saw, and it was hard to be objective.

As Simon Schaffer, James Bennet, and Chris Lintott narrate, the debate as to the truth of the "Nebular Hypothesis", and the concern as to whether the Irish astronomers really saw what they claimed to see, paved the way for the Darwinian debates in the coming decades.

Producer: Alex Mansfield

Simon Schaffer tells of the astronomers who grappled with evolution long before Darwin.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Today, astronomers believe the universe is a violent, constantly changing place. But it was not always the case.

At the beginning of the 19th century, many believed fervently that the celestial sky was a constant, divinely perfected, completed creation.

But as telescopes got larger, the mystery of the number, origin and role of the "nebulae" - those colourful, cloud-like smudges on the sky – grew and grew. Were they really vast clouds of gas and dust as they sometimes appeared? Or were they merely closely packed, very distant clusters of stars, as some of them allegedly appeared when magnified through the great reflecting telescopes?

When some astronomers and writers suggested they were in fact a vision of creation in action, matter condensing to form stars and planets like our own, some establishment religious figures cried foul, fearing the social implications.

Could bigger telescopes resolve the crisis?

For most of the 19th century, the biggest telescope in the world was in Birr, Ireland, then known as Parsonstown. It was built by an Anglo-Irish nobleman, Willam Parsons, Earl of Rosse, in the midst of the Irish famine. 50 feet long, 6 feet in diameter, the monster instrument was dubbed "The Leviathan".

But even thus equipped, in the days before photography and spectroscopy, observers could only describe and sketch what they saw, and it was hard to be objective.

As Simon Schaffer, James Bennet, and Chris Lintott narrate, the debate as to the truth of the "Nebular Hypothesis", and the concern as to whether the Irish astronomers really saw what they claimed to see, paved the way for the Darwinian debates in the coming decades.

Producer: Alex Mansfield

Simon Schaffer tells of the astronomers who grappled with evolution long before Darwin.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

02The Meteorite And The Hidden Hoax2016012020200902 (R4)In 1864 a strange type of rock fell from the sky above Orgueil in rural France. Shocked and frightened locals collected pieces of the peculiar, peaty blob from the surrounding fields, and passed them on to museums and scientists.

At that time, a debate had been raging over the origin of life; Could life possibly form from mere chemicals? Or did it need some strange unidentified vital substance?

Into this debate fell the Orgueil meteorite, and because it seemed remarkably similar to loamy soil, some wondered whether it may hint at the existence of extra-terrestrial life.

The great Pasteur allegedly investigated, but disappointingly found no such thing. Nevertheless, the mere possibility prompted later ideas that the origin of life on earth indeed lay elsewhere in the universe, ideas that were greeted with varying degrees of skepticism over ensuing decades.

As Phil Ball narrates, given how much was at stake, and how bitterly scientists argued on either side, the most remarkable thing about the story is the extraordinary secret the meteorite kept to itself until exactly 100 years later.

Producer: Alex Mansfield

The riddle of the 19th century French meteorite that carried a secret for 100 years.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0201Submarine For A Stuart King2016010620160817 (R4)

Philip Ball dives into the magical world of Cornelis Drebbel , inventor of the world's first submarine in 1621.

How did the crew of this remarkable vessel manage to breathe underwater, completely cut off from the surface, 150 years before oxygen was officially discovered?

King James I of England and thousands of his subjects lined the banks of the River Thames in London to watch the first demonstration. The strangest boat they had ever seen sank beneath the waves and stayed there for three hours.

Did Drebbel know how to make oxygen? Historian Andrew Szydlow reveals that Drebbel did have secret knowledge of how to keep the air fresh.

In his day, Drebbel was a pioneer of exploring uninhabitable places. Today's equivalent is to make oxygen on the Moon and as scientists grapple with this ultimate challenge, Monica Grady explains their work is being used under the waves where Drebbel began.

Producer: Erika Wright.

In his day, Drebbel was a pioneer of exploring uninhabitable places. Today's equivalent is to make oxygen on the Moon and as scientists grapple with this ultimate challenge, their work is being used under the waves where Drebbel began.

The magical world of Conelis Drebbel, inventor of the first submarine in 1621.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0202How An Eel Sparked Our Interest In Electricity2016011320200114 (R4)
20200120 (R4)

Naomi Alderman presents an alternate history of electricity. This is not a story of power stations, motors and wires. It's a story of how the electric eel and its cousin the torpedo fish, led to the invention of the first battery; and how, in time, the shocking properties of these slippery creatures gave birth to modern neuroscience.Our fascination with electric fish and their ability to deliver an almighty shock - enough to kill a horse - goes back to ancient times. And when Alessandro Volta invented the first battery in 1800, the electric eel was a vital source of inspiration. In inventing the battery, Volta claimed to have disproved the idea of 'animal electricity' but 200 years later, scientists studying our brains revealed that it's thanks to the electricity in our nerve cells that we are able to move, think and feel. So, it seems, an idea that was pushed out of science and into fiction, when Mary Shelley invented Frankenstein, is now alive and well and delivering insight once again into what it means to be alive.

Producer: Anna Buckley.

Naomi Alderman presents an alternate history of electricity. This is not a story of power stations, motors and wires. It's a story of how the electric eel and its cousin the torpedo fish, led to the invention of the first battery; and how, in time, the shocking properties of these slippery creatures gave birth to modern neuroscience.Our fascination with electric fish and their ability to deliver an almighty shock - enough to kill a horse - goes back to ancient times. And when Alessandro Volta invented the first battery in 1800, the electric eel was a vital source of inspiration. In inventing the battery, Volta claimed to have disproved the idea of 'animal electricity' but 200 years later, scientists studying our brains revealed that it's thanks to the electricity in our nerve cells that we are able to move, think and feel. So, it seems, an idea that was pushed out of science and into fiction, when Mary Shelley invented Frankenstein, is now alive and well and delivering insight once again into what it means to be alive.

Naomi Alderman presents an alternate history of electricity. This is not a story of power stations, motors and wires. It’s a story of how the electric eel and its cousin the torpedo fish, led to the invention of the first battery; and how, in time, the shocking properties of these slippery creatures gave birth to modern neuroscience. Our fascination with electric fish and their ability to deliver an almighty shock - enough to kill a horse – goes back to ancient times. And when Alessandro Volta invented the first battery in 1800, the electric eel was a vital source of inspiration. In inventing the battery, Volta claimed to have disproved the idea of ‘animal electricity’ but 200 years later, scientists studying our brains revealed that it’s thanks to the electricity in our nerve cells that we are able to move, think and feel. So, it seems, an idea that was pushed out of science and into fiction, when Mary Shelley invented Frankenstein, is now alive and well and delivering insight once again into what it means to be alive.

Producer: Anna Buckley

How an eel sparked our interest in electricity

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Naomi Alderman presents an alternate history of electricity. This is not a story of power stations, motors and wires. It’s a story of how the electric eel and its cousin the torpedo fish, led to the invention of the first battery; and how, in time, the shocking properties of these slippery creatures gave birth to modern neuroscience. Our fascination with electric fish and their ability to deliver an almighty shock - enough to kill a horse - goes back to ancient times. And when Alessandro Volta invented the first battery in 1800, the electric eel was a vital source of inspiration. In inventing the battery, Volta claimed to have disproved the idea of ‘animal electricity’, but 200 years later, scientists studying our brains revealed that it’s thanks to the electricity in our nerve cells that we are able to move, think and feel. So, it seems, an idea that was pushed out of science and into fiction, when Mary Shelley invented Frankenstein, is now alive and well and delivering insight once again into what it means to be alive.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0203The Meteorite And The Hidden Hoax2016012020200901 (R4)
20200902 (R4)

In 1864 a strange type of rock fell from the sky above Orgueil in rural France. Shocked and frightened locals collected pieces of the peculiar, peaty blob from the surrounding fields, and passed them on to museums and scientists.

At that time, a debate had been raging over the origin of life; Could life possibly form from mere chemicals? Or did it need some strange unidentified vital substance?

Into this debate fell the Orgueil meteorite, and because it seemed remarkably similar to loamy soil, some wondered whether it may hint at the existence of extra-terrestrial life.

The great Pasteur allegedly investigated, but disappointingly found no such thing. Nevertheless, the mere possibility prompted later ideas that the origin of life on earth indeed lay elsewhere in the universe, ideas that were greeted with varying degrees of scepticism over ensuing decades.

As Phil Ball narrates, given how much was at stake, and how bitterly scientists argued on either side, the most remarkable thing about the story is the extraordinary secret the meteorite kept to itself until exactly 100 years later.

In 1864 a strange type of rock fell from the sky above Orgueil in rural France. Shocked and frightened locals collected pieces of the peculiar, peaty blob from the surrounding fields, and passed them on to museums and scientists.

The riddle of the 19th-century French meteorite that carried a secret for 100 years.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

The great Pasteur allegedly investigated, but disappointingly found no such thing. Nevertheless, the mere possibility prompted later ideas that the origin of life on earth indeed lay elsewhere in the universe, ideas that were greeted with varying degrees of skepticism over ensuing decades.

As Phil Ball narrates, given how much was at stake, and how bitterly scientists argued on either side, the most remarkable thing about the story is the extraordinary secret the meteorite kept to itself until exactly 100 years later.

Producer: Alex Mansfield

The riddle of the 19th century French meteorite that carried a secret for 100 years.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0204The Duchess Who Gatecrashed Science2016012720200908 (R4)
20200909 (R4)

In the spring of 1667 Samuel Pepys queued repeatedly with crowds of Londoners and waited for hours just to catch a glimpse of aristocrat writer and thinker Margaret Cavendish.

Twice he was frustrated and couldn't spot her, but eventually she made a grand visit to meet the Fellows of the newly formed Royal Society. She was the first woman ever to visit.

Pepys watched as they received her with gritted teeth and fake smiles.

They politely showed her air pumps, magnets and microscopes, and she politely professed her amazement, then left in her grand carriage.

Naomi Alderman asks what it was it about this celebrity poet, playwright, author, and thinker that so fascinated and yet also infuriated these men of the Restoration elite?

Part of the answer strikes right at the core of what we now call the scientific method.

Producer: Alex Mansfield.

In the spring of 1667 Samuel Pepys queued repeatedly with crowds of Londoners and waited for hours just to catch a glimpse of aristocrat writer and thinker Margaret Cavendish.

Pepys watched as they received her with gritted teeth and fake smiles.

They politely showed her air pumps, magnets and microscopes, and she politely professed her amazement, then left in her grand carriage.

Naomi Alderman asks what it was it about this celebrity poet, playwright, author, and thinker that so fascinated and yet also infuriated these men of the Restoration elite?

Part of the answer strikes right at the core of what we now call the scientific method.

Margaret Cavendish and the birth of the scientific method.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Naomi Alderman asks what it was it about this celebrity poet, playwright, author, and thinker that so fascinated and yet also infuriated these men of the Restoration elite?

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0205 LASTEinstein's Fridge20160203

What do you do when you've described the nature of the universe?

In the late 1920s Einstein was working on a grand unified theory of the universe, having given us E=mc2, space-time and the fourth dimension. He was also working on a fridge.

Perhaps motivated by a story in the Berlin newspapers about a family who died when toxic fumes leaked from their state-of the-art refrigerator, Einstein teamed up with another physicist Leo Szilard and designed a new, safer refrigerating technology. And so it was that in 1930, the man who had once famously worked in the patent office in Bern was granted a patent of his own. Number: 1, 781, 541. Title: refrigeration.

Phillip Ball explores this little known period of Einstein's life to try and find out why he turned his extraordinary mind to making fridges safer.

Despite considerable commercial interest in the patent, Einstein's fridge didn't get built in his lifetime.The Great Depression forced AEG and others to close down their refrigeration research. But in 2008 a team of British scientists decided to give it a go.Their verdict : Einstein's fridge doesn't work.

Producer: Anna Buckley.

What do you do when you've described the nature of the universe?

In the late 1920s Einstein was working on a grand unified theory of the universe, having given us E=mc2, space-time and the fourth dimension. He was also working on a fridge.

Phillip Ball explores this little known period of Einstein's life to try and find out why he turned his extraordinary mind to making fridges safer.

Despite considerable commercial interest in the patent, Einstein's fridge didn't get built in his lifetime.The Great Depression forced AEG and others to close down their refrigeration research. But in 2008 a team of British scientists decided to give it a go.Their verdict : Einstein's fridge doesn't work.

Phillip Ball finds out what happened when Einstein decided to fix the fridge.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0301Florence Nightingale: Statistician2016051820160824 (R4)Naomi Alderman tells a little-known story about a rather well-known nurse. Florence Nightingale is famous for mopping the brows of sick and wounded soldiers during the Crimean war. Generations of Nightingale Nurses are named after her. But according to her sister Parthenope: 'she was a shocking nurse'. She was the lady of the lamp but the light she cast wasn't the light of the nurse's lantern; it was the light of statistics. This is the story of Florence Nightingale, the intellectual pioneer and revered statistician.

Naomi Alderman tells how Florence Nightingale saved lives with statistics.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0302Chaucer's Astrolabe - The Medieval Gps2016052520160831 (R4)Philip Ball tells the story of Chaucer's Astrolabe, the medieval equivalent of GPS, and how England's most renowned poet came to write the world's first scientific manual.

Philip Ball tells the story of Chaucer's Astrolabe and why the famed poet came to write the world's first scientific instruction manual. In the Middle Ages, no self respecting astronomer would be without an Astrolabe, a pocket sized device for working out the movements of the planets and stars. So how did a poet come to write the first user booklet? This story shows Chaucer in a new light: as a pre-eminent astronomer, and offers a new key to unlocking his most famous literary works.

Chaucer's Astrolabe and how a renowned poet wrote the world's first scientific manual.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0303Paul Ehrlich's 'magic Bullet' And The Cure For Syphilis2016060120160907 (R4)Naomi Alderman tells the story of Paul Ehrlich's 'magic bullet' cure for syphilis. If you take a drug today to cure an illness, you have this man to thank for inventing the concept of targeted treatments that aim to hit the disease and not the patient. This revolutionary idea opened the door to modern pharmaceutical therapies and initiated debates about the role of medical research that echo through the 20th Century.

Naomi Alderman tells the story of Paul Ehrlich's 'magic bullet' and the cure for syphilis.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0304Maxwell's Demon2016060820200915 (R4)Philip Ball explains the thought experiment, motivated by religion, that niggled physicists for a hundred years. To rescue free will from the clutches of deterministic science, James Clark Maxwell picked a hole in the second law of thermodynamics, aided by a demon. Maxwell's Demon would give us a whole new insight into the very nature of information, and what we do with it, and maybe even what the universe is made of.

Matthew Stanley, author of Huxley's Church and Maxwell's Demon, describes how Maxwell's deeply religious personality flavoured much of his thinking.

In the present day, Vlatko Vedral of Oxford University explains how the experiment Maxwell never thought physically possible is now being done in labs, and shows us how to turn information into energy.

Philip Ball explains the thought experiment that niggled at physics for a century.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Philip Ball explains the thought experiment, motivated by religion, that niggled physicists for a hundred years. To rescue free will from the clutches of deterministic science, James Clark Maxwell picked a hole in the second law of thermodynamics, aided by a demon. Maxwell's Demon would give us a whole new insight into the very nature of information, and what we do with it, and maybe even what the universe is made of.

Philip Ball explains the thought experiment that niggled at physics for a century.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0305 LASTBlood And Fire: The Segregation And Racialisation Of Blood20160615

Blood and Fire: the segregation and racialization of blood

The development of plasma transfusion for masses of people was born of urgent necessity during WW2. In 1940, Britain struggled to treat thousands of civilians injured in the Blitz and many more soldiers in Dunkirk. Into that desperate maelstrom Charles Drew, an African American doctor, came to the rescue. Dr Drew was the key driving force behind a project called Plasma for Britain which saved many lives.

But when a similar project was rolled out in the USA the authorities insisted that the blood be segregated; Charles Drew resigned and returned to work at a black establishment.

A few years later Dr Drew was involved a catastrophic car accident; he was taken to a segregated (whites only) hospital but died of his injuries. For decades afterwards, the myth persisted, especially amongst African Americans, that the man credited with saving the lives of so many through transfusion was denied blood (because of his colour) that would have spared him. In Blood and Fire, Naomi Alderman explores the pivotal moment in the history of blood transfusion and its legacy in the controversy over race-based medicine.

Producer: Colin Grant.

The development of plasma transfusion for masses of people was born of urgent necessity during WW2. In 1940, Britain struggled to treat thousands of civilians injured in the Blitz and many more soldiers in Dunkirk. Into that desperate maelstrom Charles Drew, an African American doctor, came to the rescue. Dr Drew was the key driving force behind a project called Plasma for Britain which saved many lives.

How blood donation became segregated and associated with racial identity.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0401The Day The Earth Stopped Standing Still20161130

Prior to 1543 it was generally believed that the earth lay static in the centre of the universe, while the Sun, moon, planets and stars revolved around it in various complex paths, some even looping back and forth, as described by the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy over a millennium before. This Ptolemaic system sat comfortably reconciled with philosophy and biblical scripture, not to mention immediate experience and observations.

In the 16th century astronomy and astrology were closely intertwined, as the art of predicting where the small dots of light on the night sky would appear had consequences if you were the sort of person who based your actions on horoscopes. But astronomers didn't have the right to start telling philosophers and theologians how the universe was actually constructed - what its mechanisms were - they merely observed the moving dots of light and used mathematics to predict where they would be the next night, week or month. This was an essential function for the Catholic church too - as the all-important date of Easter is based around a complicated lunar pattern.

But also at that time in northern Europe, Martin Luther and others had begun a protestant revolution, fundamentally questioning the authority of the Pope and Vatican.

It was an auspicious time for a fairly middle ranking Catholic cleric, Nicolaus Copernicus, working in a remote corner of northern Poland to drop a note around telling other astronomers that he'd worked out a new system that made for better astronomical calculations by making the moon travel round a spinning earth, and the earth and all the planets travel around the Sun.

If that were the true shape of the universe, the bible could no longer be literally true.

It took 30 years, but eventually a keen young Austrian mathematician convinced him to publish his book.

So a German radical protestant published a book by a mild-mannered Polish Catholic cleric, a book that allegedly simplified the cosmos, rightfully placing the Sun at the centre of our local universe, kicking off the scientific revolution and leading to the European enlightenment.

But as Phil Ball explains, the real story of 'De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium' - 'On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres' - is not quite as straight forward as all that.

It was an auspicious time for a fairly middle ranking Catholic cleric, Nicolaus Copernicus, working in a remote corner of northern Poland to drop a note around telling other astronomers that he'd worked out a new system that made for better astronomical calculations by making the moon travel round a spinning earth, and the earth and all the planets travel around the Sun.

It took 30 years, but eventually a keen young Austrian mathematician convinced him to publish his book.

How a dying man's book demoted the earth and reconstructed the universe.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0402How Much Testosterone Makes You A Man?20161207Testosterone has been claimed as one of the most important drivers of human life - through the agency of sex and aggression. In the 19th century, Charles-Eduoard Brown-Séquard injected himself with extracts from ground-up animal testicles, and made startling claims for its rejuvenating properties and its ability to enhance virility. But the amount of testosterone derived from the injection was actually so small that it could only have been a placebo effect. Today synthesised testosterone is increasingly prescribed for the so-called 'male menopause'; it's also regularly used for trans men as they transition, as well as for some women with low libido. In 'How Much Testosterone Makes You a Man', Naomi Alderman explores how testosterone had been used and abused in the past. She considers the credits and deficits of its story, and asks what it can tell us about identity and masculinity.

How testosterone has been used and abused in history.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0403The Man Who Predicted Deforestation And Climate Change 200 Years Ago2016121420171109
20171109 (R4)
The man who predicted deforestation and harmful human-induced climate change 200 years ago

The man who predicted deforestation and harmful human induced climate change 200 years ago. When Alexander von Humboldt explored the South American rain forests he realised that nature was a 'web of life' and witnessed how human activities were catastrophically damaging the landscape. Historian Andrea Wulf argues that climbing Chimborazo, then believed to be the highest peak in the world, was Humboldt's equivalent to modern day satellite pictures showing the devastation of deforestation. Looking down he recognised the significance of what he saw, so why did it take so long for science to take such concerns seriously? Philip Ball discusses this question with Kathy Willis, Director of Science at Kew Gardens.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0404The Woman Who Tamed Lightning20161221

Naomi Alderman tells the story of engineer Hertha Ayrton, who refined street lights.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0405Mesmerism20161228Anton Mesmer's magnetic cures for nervous conditions were famous in Vienna and Paris in the 1780s. He figured that the currents of an invisible fluid in the patient's body were like movements of the fluid thought to cause the force of magnetism. And so he decided that he should use magnets to affect it.

Mesmer set up a clinic in his house in which patients came to dip their hands or feet, or even their whole bodies, into baths filled with what he called magnetized water, given healing powers by magnetized iron rods or plates immersed in them. His treatment was a performance as it involved music, gestures, and props, and his own forceful personality.

But in 1784 the suspicious French medical profession persuaded the King, Louis 16th, to launch an official investigation into Mesmer's methods. The inquiry found that his treatment was useless and possibly dangerous and should be stopped. Mesmer retreated to Austria and died in 1815.

This was one of the first occasions on which what we might now call parapsychology was put under scientific scrutiny.

Philip Ball tells the story of Mesmer and the rise and fall of animal magnetism. He talks to Simon Shaffer, Professor of the History of Science at Cambridge University, about the role of spectacle in science and medicine in the late 18th century and to Richard Wiseman, Professor of Psychology at Hertfordshire University, about the legacy of scientific scrutiny of the claims of parapsychology.

Anton Mesmer's magnetic cures for nervous conditions were famous in Vienna and Paris in the 1780s. He figured that the currents of an invisible fluid in the patient's body were like movements of the fluid thought to cause the force of magnetism. And so he decided that he should use magnets to affect it.

Mesmer set up a clinic in his house in which patients came to dip their hands or feet, or even their whole bodies, into baths filled with what he called magnetized water, given healing powers by magnetized iron rods or plates immersed in them. His treatment was a performance as it involved music, gestures, and props, and his own forceful personality.

But in 1784 the suspicious French medical profession persuaded the King, Louis 16th, to launch an official investigation into Mesmer's methods. The inquiry found that his treatment was useless and possibly dangerous and should be stopped. Mesmer retreated to Austria and died in 1815.

This was one of the first occasions on which what we might now call parapsychology was put under scientific scrutiny.

Philip Ball tells the story of Anton Mesmer and the rise and fall of animal magnetism.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0406Jumping Genes20170104

Geneticist Barbara McLintock won the Nobel prize in 1983 for work on jumping genes. Philip Ball asks if it is really true that her work was initially ignored by other scientists.

Philip Ball tells the story of US geneticist and 1983 Nobel prize-winner Barbara McLintock

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0407 LASTThe Birth Of Photography2017011120171108
20171108 (R4)
How William Fox Talbot captured a moment in time.

Naomi Alderman tells the story of how William Fox Talbot preserved a moment of the past forever, when he invented the photographic negative. He wasn't the only person experimenting with photography in the 1830s. In Europe and America, the hunt was on to find the right chemical mixture that would react with light to capture an image on paper or glass. Everyone knew that light had an effect on certain dyes and chemicals - think of the wallpaper which fades over time in the sunlight but the bit behind the sofa stays as bright as the day it was put up. The questions that needed answers were: how do you make a dye which reacts very precisely to sunlight? And then how do you stop your dye reacting to sunlight when you don't want it to, how do you fix the image? Fox Talbot found a way to make permanent images. In 1835 he made what is now the oldest surviving photographic negative in the world. It is a picture of the oriel latticed window at Lacock Abbey, a summer's day at his ancestral home, captured forever in the photographic pane.

Naomi Alderman discusses the speed at which Fox Talbot's invention caught on with Lynda Nead, a Professor of the History of Art at Birkbeck College, and the future of the mass reproduction of images in the digital age with technologist Bill Thompson.

Naomi Alderman tells the story of how William Fox Talbot preserved a moment of the past forever, when he invented the photographic negative. He wasn't the only person experimenting with photography in the 1830s. In Europe and America, the hunt was on to find the right chemical mixture that would react with light to capture an image on paper or glass. Everyone knew that light had an effect on certain dyes and chemicals - think of the wallpaper which fades over time in the sunlight but the bit behind the sofa stays as bright as the day it was put up. The questions that needed answers were: how do you make a dye which reacts very precisely to sunlight? And then how do you stop your dye reacting to sunlight when you don't want it to, how do you fix the image? Fox Talbot found a way to make permanent images. In 1835 he made what is now the oldest surviving photographic negative in the world. It is a picture of the oriel latticed window at Lacock Abbey, a summer's day at his ancestral home, captured forever in the photographic pane.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0501Pavlov And His Dogs2017060720170821
20170821 (R4)
Naomi Alderman tells the story of Pavlov and his selectively drooling dogs.

Say Pavlov and most people think of bells ringing and dogs salivating. Ivan Pavlov is firmly associated in many people's minds with the idea that animals and, to some extent humans, automatically respond to certain stimuli. Internal thought processes are over-rated. But, as Naomi Alderman's story of selectively drooling dogs reveals, our Pavlovian response to Pavlov himself,is often wrong. For starters, he never used bells. Using metronomes and harmoniums, he noticed that dogs could distinguish between beats played at different speeds and identify individual notes from an A minor chord. He trained dogs to recognize precise time intervals: to expect food in precisely half an hour, for example. He wanted to understand how dogs learn and treated the brain as a black box because he had no way of getting inside it. He analysed what he could, principally the arrival of saliva; but he never thought free will was an illusion. In fact, he said "it would be stupid to reject the subjective world".

Producer: Anna Buckley.

Producer: Anna Buckley.

"

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0502The Medieval Bishop's Big Bang Theory2017061420170822
20170822 (R4)
Philip Ball on a very modern medieval Big Bang Theory forged by a 13th-century bishop.

Philip Ball tells the tale of Robert Grosseteste and his medieval Big Bang Theory. This is the story of how a 13th Century Bishop, obsessed with rainbows, colour and light streaming through Cathedral windows, describes the birth of the cosmos in his treatise 'On Light'. It's a tale of daring invention and imagination, of how an early faith in scientific and mathematical principles, coupled to a belief in a universe ordered by God, gave rise to an uncannily prescient idea. It was nothing less than a medieval Big Bang.

Producer: Erika Wright.

Philip Ball on a very modern medieval Big Bang Theory forged by a 12th-century bishop.

Producer: Erika Wright.

"

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0503The Anglo-saxon Remedy That Kills Mrsa2017062120170823
20170823 (R4)
Naomi Alderman opens the pages of medieval recipe books to find antimicrobial salves.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0504The Man Who Found Physics In Shells, Seeds And Bees2017062820170824
20170824 (R4)
The man who put maths into biology and saw physics in shells, seeds and bees 100 years ago

100 years ago D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson published On Growth and Form, a book with a mission to put maths into biology. He showed how the shapes, forms and growth processes we see in the living world aren't some arbitrary result of evolution's blind searching, but are dictated by mathematical rules. A flower, a honeycomb, a dragonfly's wing: it's not sheer chance that these look the way they do. But can these processes be explained by physics? D'Arcy Thompson loved nature's shapes and influenced a whole new field of systems biology, architects, designers and artists, including Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth.

Producer: Erika Wright.

Producer: Erika Wright.

"

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0505 LASTCaroline Herschel And The Comets2017070520171110
20171110 (R4)
Naomi Alderman tells the story of 18th-century comet spotter and singer Caroline Herschel.

As the youngest daughter in her family, Caroline Herschel was destined for a life of drudgery helping her mother in the home in Hanover. But when she was twenty one her musician and astronomer brother William persuaded the family that he needed her to perform in concerts he was running in Bath. Caroline became a well respected singer, but when William's passion became astronomy she followed.

Caroline became William's assistant. She ran the household and he taught her to look at the stars, schooling her in his techniques for long nights spent "sweeping the stars" - taking a small patch of sky and noting everything she saw there, then moving on methodically. Although she was initially reluctant to take up astronomy she began to enjoy it. William built her a telescope and on 1st August 1786, Caroline found her first comet.

William had already impressed King George the Third with his discovery of the planet Uranus five years earlier. In September 1786, the royal family summoned William "to exhibit the new comet lately discovered by his sister, Miss Herschel". Along with an enormous grant to William to continue his work, the King gave Caroline £50 a year for life. This was the first time a salary was ever paid to a female scientist in Britain.

Naomi Alderman tells Caroline Herschel's story and discusses what women could achieve in science in the eighteenth century with historian Professor Marilyn Ogilvie of the University of Oklahoma, the author of a biography of Caroline.

Alan Fitzsimmons, Professor of Astronomy at Queens University, Belfast, talks to Naomi about the Caroline's legacy, how comets are discovered today and why researchers want to study them.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0601A Wolf, A Goat And Some Cabbages2017112220180813 (R4)Philip Ball dives into the Dark Ages to reveal the author of the river crossing riddle.

The Dark Ages are often painted as an era of scholarly decline. The Western Roman Empire was on its way out, books were few and far between, and, if you believe the stereotype, mud-splattered peasants ran around in rags.

However, it was far more intellectually vibrant than you might imagine. Out of this era emerged a set of 'problems to sharpen the young,' including the famous river crossing puzzle that's still taught in maths today. The presumed author of these riddles is Alcuin of York - 'the most learned man in the world.' And it was this monk and his puzzles that laid the foundations for a branch of mathematics called combinatorics - the thinking behind today's computer coding and cryptography.

Philip Ball speaks to historian Mary Garrison from the University of York to learn of Alcuin's character and how he encouraged his students to learn for the sake of learning, as opposed to salvation. And University College London mathematician Hannah Fry shows Philip just how much of a role combinatorics plays in today's world.

Producer: Graihagh Jackson.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Producer: Graihagh Jackson.

0602The Wondrous Transformation Of Caterpillars2017112920180814 (R4)How a 13-year-old girl mapped metamorphism in the 1600s. Naomi Alderman presents.

Maria Merian was born in 1647. At the time of her birth, Shakespeare had been dead for 30 years; Galileo had only just stood trial for arguing that the Earth moved around the Sun. And yet, here in Germany, was a child who would become an important but oft-forgotten figure of science.

Aged 13, she mapped out metamorphism, catching caterpillars from her garden and painting them in exquisite detail. At that point, most believed that caterpillars spontaneously generated from cabbages and maggots materialised from rotten meat. She later voyaged to Suriname in South America to pursue pupae further, discovering not just new species but also the conditions needed for their survival.

Some call her the first field ecologist; others admire her for her eloquent brushwork. However, her studies will help today's biologists plot which insects lived where. These data are invaluable because this could help scientists predict what species will survive climate change.

Naomi Alderman discusses the life and legacy of Maria Merian with biologist and historian Kay Etheridge from Gettysburg College, Pennsylvania and biologist Kathy Willis from Kew Gardens.

Producer: Graihagh Jackson.

How a 13-year-old girl mapped metamorphosis in the 1600s. Naomi Alderman presents.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Aged 13, she mapped out metamorphosis, catching caterpillars from her garden and painting them in exquisite detail. At that point, most believed that caterpillars spontaneously generated from cabbages and maggots materialised from rotten meat. She later voyaged to Suriname in South America to pursue pupae further, discovering not just new species but also the conditions needed for their survival.

Producer: Graihagh Jackson.

0603Lise Meitner: Humanitarian Physicist Who Unlocked The Science Of The Atom Bomb2017120620180815 (R4)Lise Meitner, the humanitarian physicist who unlocked the science of the atom bomb.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Philip Ball reveals the dramatic tale of Lise Meitner, the humanitarian physicist of Jewish descent, who unlocked the science of the atom bomb after a terrifying escape from Hitler's Germany. One of the most brilliant nuclear scientists working in Germany her flight from terror cost Hitler's regime dearly. In the early twentieth century it was barely possible for women to work in science at all and yet Einstein once called Meitner Germany's own Marie Curie. It was Meitner's insight that began the nuclear age and her story remains ever relevant, as the threat of nuclear conflict lies once again over the world.

Philip Ball talks to historian Dr Patricia Fara about Lise Meitner and her research and to Patricia Lewis of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons or ICAN, based in Geneva, which this year was awarded the Nobel Peace prize for its work in trying to reverse nuclear proliferation, about Meitner's legacy today.

0604How Humphry Davy Discovered Laughing Gas2017121320180816 (R4)Naomi Alderman describes how Humphry Davy discovered laughing gas.

In Bristol in 1799, a young man started to experiment with newly discovered gases, looking for a cure for tuberculosis. Humphry Davy, aged 20, nearly killed himself inhaling carbon monoxide. Nitrous oxide was next. It was highly pleasurable, 'particularly in the chest and extremities' and he began to dance around his laboratory 'like a madman', before passing out. By day, he gave the gas to patients, carefully noting their reactions. In the evenings, he invited his friends over to have a laugh (with assistants on standby to revive them with oxygen, as needed). The Romantic poets, Robert Southey and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, could barely contain their excitement.

During one session, Davy noted that the gas numbed his toothache and suggested that it could perhaps be used during surgical operations. But it was another fifty years before nitrous oxide was used by doctors. Throughout the 20th century, it was widely used during dentistry and to numb the pain of childbirth. (Nitrous oxide is the gas in 'gas and air': the 'air' is oxygen). And it still is today, but less so. (It's a potent greenhouse gas that damages the ozone layer, it's difficult to store and there are side-effects). But, just as medical use is diminishing, recreational use is on the rise. A new generation of pleasure seekers have started experimenting, just as Davy did, despite the associated risks of injuries caused by fainting and death by suffocation.

Naomi Alderman tells how a gas that created 'ecstatic lunatics' came to be used as an anaesthetic, with help from biographer, Richard Holmes and anaesthetist, Kevin Fong.

Producer: Anna Buckley.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Producer: Anna Buckley.

0605 LASTMichael Faraday And His 'instructess' In Chemistry2017122020180817 (R4)Philip Ball tells the story of Michael Faraday and his 'first instructess' in chemistry.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Michael Faraday was the most famous scientist of the Victorian age and was the director of the Royal Institution in London from 1825 till his death in 1867. As the son of a blacksmith who, because of poor health, could barely support his family, in 1804 at the age of 13, Michael had to stop his schooling and start bringing in some money. He was apprenticed to a London bookbinder, and it was here, he later said, that he got his real education from reading the books. Two in particular made an impression: the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and Mrs Marcet's Conversations on Chemistry.

Philip Ball tells the story of Jane Marcet and how she came to write Conversations on Chemistry. She was a woman who had had no formal scientific training herself, but who grasped the principles as well as anyone in her time. She explained her subject in the form of a conversation between Mrs B and her two pupils. Her book sold well and launched the whole idea of popular science. Philip discusses how science was presented to the public in the first half of the nineteenth century with Dr Melanie Keene, historian of science at the University of Cambridge,

As well as making important discoveries in chemistry, electricity and magnetism, Faraday organised the first Christmas lectures for children at the Royal Institution. They have run ever since 1825. The 2017 lecturer is cognitive scientist Professor Sophie Scott of University College London. She talks to Philip about how science communication has changed since Faraday's time.

As well as making important discoveries in chemistry, electricity and magnetism, Faraday organised the first Christmas lectures for children at the Royal Institution. They have run ever since 1825. The 2017 lecturer is cognitive scientist Professor Sophie Scott of University College London. She talks to Philip about how science communication has changed since Faraday's time.

070117th-century Space Flight: The Real Cyrano De Bergerac2018061320180820 (R4)Philip Ball reveals the real Cyrano de Bergerac and his links to 17th-century space flight

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball

Philip Ball reveals the real Cyrano de Bergerac and his 17th-century spaceship.

Philip Ball reveals the real Cyrano de Bergerac - forget the big nosed fictional character - and his links to 17th Century space flight.
Cyrano was a soldier, gambler and duellist who retired from military exploits on account of his wounds around 1639, at the grand old age of 20. But he studied at university and, to judge from the books he went on to write, he was well versed in the philosophical and scientific debates of his day.
He wrote two books, called The States and Empires of the Moon and its sequel, The States and Empires of the Sun. And he designed spaceships to travel to the moon and to the sun. Philip discusses the life and times of Cyrano with Mary Baine Campbell of Brandeis University in Massachusetts.

Journeys to the New World in the seventeenth century were voyages of trade - and ultimately of colonisation. What those travellers wanted were minerals, spices, gold, rare and precious objects that could fetch a fortune in the Old World. Today, the profit motive has returned to space travel. Efforts to develop spacecraft and to send people into space are increasingly being conducted not just by government agencies but by private companies, in search again of land and minerals. The use of resources on the moon and the planets is in principle governed by the Outer Space Treaty. Philip discusses the control of exploitation of space with Patricia Lewis of ICAN, the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Journeys to the New World in the seventeenth century were voyages of trade - and ultimately of colonisation. What those travellers wanted were minerals, spices, gold, rare and precious objects that could fetch a fortune in the Old World. Today, the profit motive has returned to space travel. Efforts to develop spacecraft and to send people into space are increasingly being conducted not just by government agencies but by private companies, in search again of land and minerals. The use of resources on the moon and the planets is in principle governed by the Outer Space Treaty. Philip discusses the control of exploitation of space with Patricia Lewis of ICAN, the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons.

0702Urea And The Wohler Myth2018062020180821 (R4)Philip Ball tells the story of German chemist Friedrich W\u00f6hler's creation of urea.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Philip Ball tells the story of German chemist Friedrich Wöhler's creation of urea, an organic substance previously thought only to be produced by living creatures. Yet in 1928 Wöhler created urea from decidedly non-living substances. It was exciting because the accidental transformation seemed to cross a boundary: from inorganic to organic, from inert matter to a product of life. It's a key moment in the history of chemistry but like many scientific advances, this one has also been turned into something of a myth. To read some accounts, this humble act of chemical synthesis sounds almost akin to the 'vital spark of being' described by Mary Shelley in her book published ten years previously, when Victor Frankenstein brought dead flesh back to life.
Philip Ball's story is of what Friedrich Wöhler's creation of urea really meant.
Producer: Erika Wright.

Philip Ball tells the story of German chemist Friedrich Wöhler's creation of urea, an organic substance previously thought only to be produced by living creatures. Yet in 1828 Wöhler created urea from decidedly non-living substances. It was exciting because the accidental transformation seemed to cross a boundary: from inorganic to organic, from inert matter to a product of life. It's a key moment in the history of chemistry but like many scientific advances, this one has also been turned into something of a myth. To read some accounts, this humble act of chemical synthesis sounds almost akin to the 'vital spark of being' described by Mary Shelley in her book published ten years previously, when Victor Frankenstein brought dead flesh back to life.

Philip Ball sorts out fact from fiction in what Wöhler really achieved in conversation with Peter Ramberg of Truman State University in Kirksville, Missouri, and he finds out about chemical synthesis of natural products today from Professor Sarah O'Connor of the John Innes Centre in Norwich.

Philip Ball tells the story of German chemist Friedrich Wöhler's creation of urea, an organic substance previously thought only to be produced by living creatures. Yet in 1828 Wöhler created urea from decidedly non-living substances. It was exciting because the accidental transformation seemed to cross a boundary: from inorganic to organic, from inert matter to a product of life. It's a key moment in the history of chemistry but like many scientific advances, this one has also been turned into something of a myth. To read some accounts, this humble act of chemical synthesis sounds almost akin to the 'vital spark of being' described by Mary Shelley in her book published ten years previously, when Victor Frankenstein brought dead flesh back to life.

Philip Ball sorts out fact from fiction in what Wöhler really achieved in conversation with Peter Ramberg of Truman State University in Kirksville, Missouri, and he finds out about chemical synthesis of natural products today from Professor Sarah O'Connor of the John Innes Centre in Norwich.

Producer: Erika Wright.

0703Descartes' Daughter2018062720180822 (R4)Series looking at events and characters from science history.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Philip Ball goes back to the 17th century to tell the story of Descartes' 'daughter'.

There's a story told about French philosopher René Descartes and his daughter. He boards a ship for a voyage over the North Sea with a large wooden box which he insists be handled with such great care that the sea captain's curiosity is aroused. When Descartes is out of his cabin the sea captain opens the box and is horrified to find a life sized automaton inside. He's so shocked he throws the "daughter" overboard.

Descartes championed a view of nature in which everything happened because of the physical forces acting between its constituent parts: nature as a machine. It was a coolly rational vision that caught the scientific spirit of the seventeenth century. He was fascinated by automata and what they tell us about what it is to be human.

Philip Ball tells the story of Descartes and his "daughter" and his writings about humans and machines. He finds out more about the thirst for mechanical wonders and what it said about theories of the human body in Descartes' time, from historian of science Simon Schaffer of Cambridge University. And Kanta Dihar of the Centre for the Future of Intelligence also at Cambridge University talks about current research into AIs, driven purely by some mechanism of formal logic, that can mimic the capabilities of the human mind, and how contemporary culture explores our fears about them.

There's a story told about French philosopher René Descartes and his daughter. He boards a ship for a voyage over the North Sea with a large wooden box which he insists be handled with such great care that the sea captain's curiosity is aroused. When Descartes is out of his cabin the sea captain opens the box and is horrified to find a life sized automaton inside. He's so shocked he throws the "daughter" overboard.

Philip Ball tells the story of Descartes and his "daughter" and his writings about humans and machines. He finds out more about the thirst for mechanical wonders and what it said about theories of the human body in Descartes' time, from historian of science Simon Schaffer of Cambridge University. And Kanta Dihar of the Centre for the Future of Intelligence also at Cambridge University talks about current research into AIs, driven purely by some mechanism of formal logic, that can mimic the capabilities of the human mind, and how contemporary culture explores our fears about them.

0704Hypatia: The Murdered Mathematician2018070420180823 (R4)Series looking at events and characters from science history.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Naomi Alderman's story is of Hypatia - the mathematician murdered by a mob in Alexandria.

Naomi Alderman's tale is a murder mystery, the story of Hypatia, the mathematician murdered by a mob in the learned city of Alexandria, around the year 415 CE. Hypatia was a communicator of science, tackling difficult maths and teaching it to her students. This was incredibly important work. It was enough, at the time, to make her Alexandria's pre-eminent mathematician, and probably therefore the leading mathematician in the world.

And there's historical evidence that Hypatia made some discoveries and innovations of her own. She invented a new and more efficient method of long division. In a time before electronic calculators, the actual business of doing sums was an arduous part of engineering or astronomy, and any improvement in efficiency was very welcome.

All quite innocent science, so why did Hypatia end up being murdered by a mob? Natalie Haynes presenter of "Natalie Haynes Stands Up For The Classics" tells the inside story to Naomi Alderman. And Professor Edith Hall discusses Hypatia's legacy.

All quite innocent science, so why did Hypatia end up being murdered by a mob? Natalie Haynes presenter of "Natalie Haynes Stands Up For The Classics" tells the inside story to Naomi Alderman. And Professor Edith Hall discusses Hypatia's legacy.

0705 LASTMary Anning And Fossil Hunting2018071120180824 (R4)Naomi Alderman tells the story of Mary Anning, who discovered many important fossils.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball

Mary Anning lived in Lyme Regis on what is now known as the Jurassic Coast in the first half of the 19th century. Knowing the shore from childhood and with a remarkable eye for detection she was extremely successful in finding fossils. In 1812 she unearthed parts of an Icthyosaur and in 1823 she discovered the first skeleton of what became known as a Plesiosaurus - a long-necked, flippered creature with a tiny head. It looked a bit like an elongated turtle with no shell.

Naomi Alderman tells the science story of how Mary Anning, a poor and relatively uneducated young woman, became the supplier of the best fossils to the gentlemen geologists who were beginning to understand that the earth was very old and had been inhabited by strange extinct creatures. Naomi talks to Tracy Chevalier, author of Remarkable Creatures, a novel about Mary Anning, about her life and relationship with the geologists of the time, and to Dr Susannah Maidment, Curator of Dinosaurs at the Natural History Museum, about fossil hunting today.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Naomi Alderman tells the science story of how Mary Anning, a poor and relatively uneducated young woman, became the supplier of the best fossils to the gentlemen geologists who were beginning to understand that the earth was very old and had been inhabited by strange extinct creatures. Naomi talks to Tracy Chevalier, author of Remarkable Creatures, a novel about Mary Anning, about her life and relationship with the geologists of the time, and to Dr Susannah Maidment, Curator of Dinosaurs at the Natural History Museum, about fossil hunting today.

0801Eddington's Eclipse And Einstein's Celebrity20181212Eddington's Eclipse and Einstein's Celebrity

Philip Ball's tale is of a solar eclipse 100 years ago observed by Arthur Eddington, a British astronomer who travelled to the remote island of Principe off the coast of West Africa and saw the stars shift in the heavens. His observations supplied the crucial proof of a theory that transformed our notions of the cosmos and turned a German physicist named Albert Einstein into an international celebrity. But this is also a tale of how a Quaker tried to use science to unite countries. The reparations imposed on Germany after the war extended into science too as many in Great Britain and other Allied nations felt that German science should be ostracised from the international community. As a Quaker, Eddington wanted just the opposite: to see peaceful cooperation restored among nations.

Producer: Erika Wright

Philip Ball tells the story of Arthur Eddington's confirmation of general relativity.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0802Lucretius, Sheep And Atoms20181219Naomi Alderman's tale is of Lucretius, author of a 2000 year old poem that theorised about atoms and the natural world. Written in the first century BCE, during a chaotic and frightening time when the Roman Republic was collapsing, Lucretius encouraged people to feel free through contemplating the physics of the Universe. Naomi learns that many of the theories still hold water today and that the poem, De Rerum Natura, is an epic beautiful and persuasive piece of work.

Naomi Alderman's story is of Lucretius, sheep and atoms

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0803Kepler's Snowflakes20181226Philip Ball's tale is of the six cornered snowflake, a booklet written by Johannes Kepler as a New Year's gift. The C17th astronomer wished to explain the intricate and symmetrical shape of winter's tiny stars of snow. His insightful speculations about minerals and geometry was the beginning of the modern understanding of crystals.

Philip Ball's tale is of Kepler's Snowflakes, a New Year's gift and crystallography.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Philip Ball reveals the tale of a small booklet 'On The Six-Cornered Snowflake", written by Johannes Kepler as a New Year's gift. The C17th astronomer wished to explain the intricate and symmetrical shape of winter's tiny stars of snow. His insightful speculations about minerals and geometry was the beginning of the modern understanding of crystals.

Philip Ball's tale is of Kepler's Snowflakes, a New Year's gift and of crystallography.

0804Lady Mary Montagu's Smallpox Experiment20190102Naomi Alderman on how Lady Mary Montagu used her own child to prove smallpox inoculation.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball

Naomi Alderman's Science Story reveals how Lady Mary Wortley Montagu experimented on her own child in a quest to prove that smallpox inoculation works. Born in 1689 in a position of some power and influence, Lady Mary travelled to Constantinople as the wife of the ambassador to Turkey and witnessed 'variolation parties'. Here 'a nut shell' of virus on a needle is put in an opened vein to infer immunity. Having lost her own brother to smallpox and survived with terrible scaring herself, Lady Mary knew first hand the dangers of the deadly disease. She became the first person to bring smallpox inoculation to the West. Medical historian Lindsey Fiztharris tells the remarkable story of how condemned prisoners are given the opportunity to escape execution under the orders of King George I if they are given the virus and survive.

Tim Spector, Professor of Genetic Epidemiology at Kings College, London, and Naomi discuss some of today's counter intuitive treatments, such as faecal transplants.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0805 LASTIbn Al-haytham And How We See20190109Philip Ball's story is of Ibn al-Haytham, the first scientist, and how we see.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0901Galileo's Lost Letter2019081320190814 (R4)Galileo famously insisted in the early seventeenth century that the Earth goes round the Sun and not vice versa – an idea that got him into deep trouble with the Catholic Church. In 1633 Galileo was put in trial for heresy by the Inquisition, and was threatened with imprisonment, or worse, if he didn’t recant. Galileo spent the rest of his days under house arrest and is now seen by some as a near-martyr to science in the face of unyielding religious doctrine. But the discovery of a letter questions the received version of events. Philip Ball tells the story of the relationship between Galileo, the church and his fellow professors.

Philip talks to science historians Paula Findlen and Mary Jane Rubenstein about Galileo's time and about the history of the relationship between science and religion.

Galileo's lost letter questions how he challenged the Church. With Philip Ball.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Philip talks to science historians Professor Paula Findlen of Stanford University and Professor Mary Jane Rubenstein of Wesleyan University about Galileo's time and about the history of the relationship between science and religion.

Philip talks to science historians Professor Paula Findlen of Stanford University and Professor Mary Jane Rubenstein of Wesleyan University about Galileo's time and about the history of the relationship between science and religion.

0902Madame Lavoisier's Translation Of Oxygen2019082020190821 (R4)Philip Ball tells the story of Madame Lavoisier; translator of Oxygen. At a time when science was almost a closed book to women, Madame Marie Anne Lavoisier’s skills were indispensable. A translator, illustrator and critic of scientific papers, she learnt chemistry herself and helped her husband Anton Lavoisier define his Oxygen theory. As modern science was taking shape, it lacked any universal language so communication in many tongues was vital to stay ahead of the game. Even today there is debate as to who can really be considered the discoverer of Oxygen, but Madam Lavoisier’s gift for translation helped her husband compete against English rivals and banish their theories. Come the French Revolution however, Anton was branded a traitor to the state and sentenced to death. By a cruel twist of fate Marie lost both husband and father to the guillotine on the same day.

Philip Ball tells the story of Madame Lavoisier; the translator of Oxygen

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Philip Ball tells the story of Madame Lavoisier; translator of oxygen. At a time when science was almost a closed book to women, Madame Marie Anne Lavoisier’s skills were indispensable. A translator, illustrator and critic of scientific papers, she learnt chemistry herself and helped her husband Antoine Lavoisier develop his theory of the role played by oxygen in combustion. As modern science was taking shape it lacked any universal language, so communication in many tongues was vital to stay ahead of the game. Even today there is debate as to who can really be considered the discoverer of oxygen, but Madame Lavoisier’s gift for translation helped her husband compete against English rivals and banish their theories. Come the French Revolution however, Anton was branded a traitor to the state and sentenced to death. By a cruel twist of fate Marie lost both husband and father to the guillotine on the same day.

Philip Ball talks to Patricia Fara at the University of Cambridge, about the largely unrecognised contribution that women like Marie Anne Lavoisier made to the early days of modern science, and to Michael Gordon of Princeton University about the importance of scientific translation in the past and how it features today,

Philip Ball tells the story of Madame Lavoisier, the translator of oxygen.

Philip Ball talks to Patricia Fara at the University of Cambridge, about the largely unrecognised contribution that women like Marie Anne Lavoisier made to the early days of modern science, and to Michael Gordin of Princeton University about the importance of scientific translation in the past and how it features today,

Philip Ball talks to Patricia Fara at the University of Cambridge, about the largely unrecognised contribution that women like Marie Anne Lavoisier made to the early days of modern science, and to Michael Gordin of Princeton University about the importance of scientific translation in the past and how it features today,

0903Ignaz Semmelweiss: The Hand Washer2019082720190828 (R4)Lindsey Fitzharris tells the story of Ignaz Semmelweiss, the hand washer. In a world that had no understanding of germs, he tried to apply science to halt the spread of infection. Ignaz Semmelweis observed that many young medical students at his hospital in Vienna went directly from an autopsy, still covered in contaminated dead flesh, to attend pregnant women. Could this be the reason for such high maternal mortality rates from conditions like puerperal fever? Believing that the disease was caused by “infective material” from a dead body, Semmelweiss set up a basin filled with chlorinated lime solution in his hospital and began saving women’s lives with three simple words: ‘wash your hands’. He was demonised by his colleagues for his efforts, but today, he is known as the “Saviour of Mothers.”

Lindsey Fitzharris discusses some of the common myths surrounding the story of Semmelweiss with Dr Barron H. Lerner of New York University Langone School of Medicine. And she talks to Professor Val Curtis, Director of the Environmental Health Group at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, who has studied the amount of hand washing by medical staff in hospitals today.

Main Image: Lindsey Fitzharris Credit: T. K. Smith

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

0904Ramon Llull: The Medieval Prophet Of Computer Science2019090320190904 (R4)Philip Ball tells the story of Ramon Llull, the Medieval prophet of computer science. During the time of the Crusades Llull argued that truth could be automated and used logic over force to prove the existence of the Christian God.. It was a dangerous idea that got him thrown into prison and threatened with execution but today he is hailed, not as a prophet of the Christian faith, but of computer science.

Philip Ball tells the story of Ramon Llull, the medieval prophet of computer science.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Philip Ball tells the story of Ramon Llull, the medieval prophet of computer science. During the time of the Crusades Llull argued that truth could be automated and used logic over force to prove the existence of the Christian God. It was a dangerous idea that got him thrown into prison and threatened with execution but today he is hailed, not as a prophet of the Christian faith, but of computer science.

Philip Ball talks to historian Pamela Beatty of the University of Louisville in Kentucky about Ramon Llull's life and times in 13th century Catalonia, and to mathematician and Simonyi Professor for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, Marcus du Sautoy, about the legacy of Llull's ideas in combinatorics, a branch of mathematics that explores how we can arrange a set of objects.

Note: Many thanks to Carter Marsh & Co for the recording of mechanical sounds.

Philip Ball tells the story of Ramon Llull, the Medieval prophet of computer science. During the time of the Crusades Llull argued that truth could be automated and used logic over force to prove the existence of the Christian God. It was a dangerous idea that got him thrown into prison and threatened with execution but today he is hailed, not as a prophet of the Christian faith, but of computer science.

Philip Ball talks to historian Pamela Beattie of the University of Louisville in Kentucky about Ramon Llull's life and times in 13th century Catalonia, and to mathematician and Simonyi Professor for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, Marcus du Sautoy, about the legacy of Llull's ideas in combinatorics, a branch of mathematics that explores how we can arrange a set of objects.

Note: Many thanks to Carter Marsh & Co for the recording of mechanical sounds.

0905 LASTAlexis Carrel And The Immortal Chicken Heart2019091020190918 (R4)Philip Ball tells the story of Alexis Carrel, the French surgeon who worked to preserve life outside the body and create an immortal chicken heart in a dish. His quest was to renew ageing flesh, repair and rebuild our bodies and keep them healthy far beyond the usual human lifespan. In the early twentieth century his science was pioneering but his mission to achieve eternal life was underpinned by a dark and terrifying agenda. Carrel was a racist who advocated eugenics to preserve the superior civilisation of the West.

Philip Ball discusses the history and cultural impact of the tissue culture techniques developed by Carrel with social historian Professor Hannah Landecker of the University of California at Los Angeles. And he finds out about the legacy of Carrel's research from Dr Madeline Lancaster of Cambridge University, one of the pioneers of the growth of brain organoids from stem cells; small clusters of neurons and other cells, rather like mini organs no bigger than a dried pea.

Philip Ball tells the tale of Alexis Carrel's immortal chicken heart.

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Philip Ball discusses the history and cultural impact of the tissue culture techniques developed by Carrel with social historian Professor Hannah Landecker of the University of California at Los Angeles. And he finds out about the legacy of Carrel's research from Dr Madeline Lancaster of Cambridge University, one of the pioneers of the growth of brain organoids from stem cells; small clusters of neurons and other cells, rather like mini organs no bigger than a dried pea.

1001Mary Somerville, Pioneer Of Popular Science Writing20191211Naomi Alderman tells the story of Mary Somerville, pioneer of popular science writing

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Mary Somerville was a self-taught genius who wrote best-selling books translating, explaining and drawing together different scientific fields and who was named the nineteenth century’s “queen of science”. Born Mary Fairfax in 1780, she was an unlikely scientific hero. Her parents and her first husband did not support her scientific pursuits and it was only when she became a widow at 28 with two small children that she began to do novel mathematics. With her second husband, William Somerville, she entered the intellectual life of the times in Edinburgh and London and met all the great scientific thinkers.

Naomi Alderman tells the story of Mary Somerville's long life - she lived till she was 92. She discusses how Mary came to be a writer about science with her biographer, Professor Kathryn Neeley of the University of Virginia, and the state of popular science writing books with writer Jon Turney.

1002Sophia Jex-blake, First Woman Doctor In Scotland20191218Naomi Alderman tells the story of Sophia Jex-Blake, first woman doctor in Scotland

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.

Naomi Alderman tells the science story of Sophia Jex-Blake, who led a group known as the Edinburgh Seven in their bid to become the first women to graduate as doctors from a British university. Her campaign was long and ultimately personally unsuccessful as she had to go to Switzerland to gain her qualification. Although Edinburgh University allowed the Seven to attend some lectures, they had to be taught apart from the male students. There was great antipathy to the women which culminated in 1870 with a riot as they tried to take an exam.

Naomi discusses Sophia Jex-Blake's life and times with Dr Kristin Hussey who curated an exhibition at the Royal College of Physicians about women in medicine.
And Dr Fizzah Ali from the Medical Women's Federation talks about women's careers in medicine today.

1003Isaac Newton And The Story Of The Apple20191225The story of how Newton came up with his gravitational theory is one of the most familiar in the history of science. He was sitting in the orchard at Woolsthorpe, thinking deep thoughts, when an apple fell from a tree. And all at once, Newton realised that the force of gravity pulling the apple down to the ground must be the same as the force that holds the moon in orbit around the earth. But was that really how he came up with his great idea? These days, historians of science don’t fall for cosy eureka stories like this. Rather they say that new understanding comes slowly, through hard graft, false trails, and failed ideas.

Philip Ball tells the story of the life and ideas of Isaac Newton, who was born on Christmas Day in 1642. Philip discusses with historian of science Anna Marie Roos of the University of Lincoln, just 30 miles north of Woolsthorpe, how Newton developed his theory of gravity. And he talks to Tom McLeish of the University of York, the author of a book about creativity in science and art, about his observation that many scientists today do think they have had eureka moments.

Did Newton's theory of gravity really come to him after seeing an apple fall?

Surprising stories from the history of science told by Naomi Alderman and Philip Ball.